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首页 NASA项目管理系列-WBS参考手册

NASA项目管理系列-WBS参考手册

NASA项目管理系列-WBS参考手册

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2012-07-25 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《NASA项目管理系列-WBS参考手册pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

ProgramProjectManagementSeriesWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideNationalAeronauticsandWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideMaySpaceAdministrationMayMayWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideTableofContentsiiiChapter:WBSBasicInformationDefinitionWBSTypesProgramProjectWBSContractWBSGuidelinesSummaryChapter:WBSDevelopmentandMaintenanceWBSandtheProjectLifeCycleWBSActivitiesDevelopmentConsiderationsCompatibilityofPWBSandCWBSCompatibilitywithInternalOrganizationStructureandManagementSystemsCorrelationwithOtherRequirementsNumberofLevelsPWBSLevelsCWBSLevelsCostAccountsAllInclusivenessPWBSCWBSChangeControlPWBSDevelopmentContractorProposedPWBSChangesCWBSDevelopmentTechniquesCodingofElementsPreparingDiagramsPreparingWBSDictionaryUsingChecklistsPWBSChecklistContractorProposedPWBSChangesChecklistCWBSChecklistCommonDevelopmentErrorsUnsuitableOldWBSErrorNonProductElementsErrorFunctionalElementsErroriiWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideMayChapter:WBSUseIntroductionTechnicalManagementSpecificationTreeConfigurationManagementIntegratedLogisticSupportTestandEvaluationWorkIdentificationandAssignmentScheduleManagementPlansRevisionsStatusCostManagementCostEstimatingBudgetingAccountingAnalysisandControlHistoricalDatabaseDevelopmentPerformanceMeasurementSummaryAppendixA:GlossaryAAppendixB:AcronymListingBAppendixC:PWBSExamplesCAppendixD:CWBSExamplesDAppendixE:WBSSectionofNHBEMayWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideiiiAboutThisReferenceGuideTheworkbreakdownstructure(WBS)isaneffectivetoolinmanagingNASAprogramsandprojectsItassistsbothNASAandcontractorsinfulfillingmanagementresponsibilitiesInaccordancewithNASAHandbook,ManagementofMajorSystemProgramsandProjects,aWBSismandatoryformajorsystemacquisitionsandmajorprojects,andwillbeusedforotherprojectswhenpracticalAWBSisrequiredwhenperformancemeasurementisappliedtoacontractThepurposeofthisWBSreferenceguideistosupportthecompletionofprogramandprojectobjectiveswithinbudgetandscheduleconstraintsThisreferenceguidecanbeusedforvariousworkeffortsincludingresearch,development,construction,testandevaluation,andoperationsTheproductsoftheseworkeffortsmaybehardware,software,data,orserviceelements(aloneorincombination)Aglossary(AppendixA)andanacronymlisting(AppendixB)havebeenincludedattheendofthisreferenceguideivWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideMayThispageleftblankMayWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideChapter:WBSBasicInformationThischapterprovidesgeneralworkbreakdownstructureinformationincludingdefinition,types,guidelinesanddevelopmentprocessDefinitionEachNASAprogramhasasetofgoalswhicharedevelopedfromNASAmissionneedsTheseprogramgoalsareexpandedintospecificprojectobjectivesThefunctionofmanagementistoplananddirectprojectactivitiestoachievetheprogramgoalsThepurposeofaworkbreakdownstructure(WBS)istodividetheprogramprojectintomanageablepiecesofworktofacilitateplanningandcontrolofcost,scheduleandtechnicalcontentAWBSiswrittenearlyinprogramprojectdevelopmentItidentifiesthetotalworktobeperformedanddividestheworkintomanageableelements,withincreasinglevelsofdetailThefollowingexampledisplaysaportionofaWBSforacommercialaircraftprojectAIRCRAFTStructuresManagementIntegrationFuselagePrimaryStructureSecondaryStructureWingsTailCrewCompartmentAircraftWBSAWBSisdevelopedbyfirstidentifyingthesystemorprojectenditemtobestructured,andthensuccessivelysubdividingitintoincreasinglydetailedandmanageablesubsidiaryworkproductsorelementsMostoftheseelementsarethedirectresultofwork(eg,assemblies,subassemblies,andcomponents),whileothersaresimplytheaggregationofselectedproductsintologicalsets(eg,buildingsandutilities)formanagementcontrolpurposesIneithercase,thesubsidiaryworkproducthasitsownsetofgoalsandobjectiveswhichmustbemetinorderfortheprojectobjectivestobemetDetailedtaskswhichmustbeperformedtosatisfythesubsidiaryworkproductgoalsandobjectivesareChapter:BasicWBSInformationWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideMaythenidentifiedanddefinedforeachworkproductorelementonwhichworkwillbeperformedCompletionofanelementisbothmeasurableandverifiablebypersons(ie,qualityassurancepersons)whoareindependentofthoseresponsiblefortheelement'scompletionBecauseWBSelementproductcompletioncanbeverified,aWBSprovidesasolidbasisfortechnical,scheduleandcostplansandstatusNootherstructure(eg,codeofaccount,functionalorganization,budgetandreporting,costelement)satisfactorilyprovidesanequallysolidbasisforincrementalprojectperformanceassessmentWBSTypesNASAusestwotypesofWBS:programprojectWBS,andcontractWBSFollowingisadescriptionofeachProgramProjectWBSTheprogramprojectWBS(PWBS)isthestructurethatencompassestheentireprogramorprojectItusuallyconsistsofthreelevelsofproductselementswithassociatedworkdefinitionsThethreeupperlevelsofthePWBSaredefinedbelow•Levelistheentireprogramproject•Levelelementsarethemajorproductsegmentsorsubsections•Levelcontainsdefinablecomponents,orsubsets,ofthelevelelementsThisPWBSbreakdownisfairlystandardthroughoutNASA(seechartbelow)Itispossible,however,forsoftwareandmanagementelementstoappearatsystemandsubsystemlevelsChapter:WBSBasicInformationMayWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuidePROGRAMProjectAProjectBProjectCLevelSystemYSystemZSystemXLevelLevelPWBSLevelsTherearenumeroustermsusedtodefinesucceedinglevelsofthePWBSbelowthesubsystemlevelSomeexamplesareequipment,assembly,subassembly,component,andpartThechoiceofwhichtouseismadebyprojectmanagementChapter:BasicWBSInformationWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideMayAproperlystructuredPWBSwillreadilyallowcompleteaggregationofcost,scheduleandperformancedatafromlowerelementsuptotheprogramlevelWBSelementsshouldbeidentifiedbytitleandbyanumberingsystemthatperformsthefollowingfunctions:•IdentifiestheleveloftheWBSelement•Identifiesthehigherlevelelementintowhichtheelementwillbeintegrated•Identifiesthecostaccountnumber(ifany)oftheelementThefollowingportionofaWBSforacommercialaircraftsystemincludesanexampleofaPWBSnumberingsystemAIRCRAFTStructuresMgmtIntegrationFuselageSecondaryStructureWingsTailCrewCompartmentAircraftWBSwithNumberingSystemPrimaryStructureNormally,NASAwillcontrolonlytothetopthreelevelsofthePWBSThelowerlevelsarecontrolledbycontractorsCompletenumberingsystemstandardizationanduniformitymaynotbepossiblesincecontractorcodingsystemsvaryfromcontractortocontractorWhenpossible,contractorsshouldfollowthePWBSnumberingsysteminuseThePWBSisusedasastartingpointforindividualcontractorstodeveloptheircontractworkbreakdownstructures(CWBS)Ifnumberingsystemconversionisnotpossiblewithoutsubstantialcost,acodinginterfaceconversionsystemwillhavetobeapplieddowntotheCWBScontrollevelsor,asaminimum,atthetopleveloftheCWBSPWBSexamplescanbefoundinAppendixCContractWBSThecontractworkbreakdownstructure(CWBS)isthecompleteWBSforaspecificcontractItisdevelopedbythecontractorinaccordancewiththecontractstatementofwork(SOW)ItincludesthePWBSelementsfortheproductswhicharetobefurnishedbythecontractorThecontractorextendstheseelementsanddefinesthelowerlevelChapter:WBSBasicInformationMayWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideproductsThecontractreportingrequirementswillindicatetheCWBSlevelsorelementsforwhichcontractstatusistobereportedtoNASAACWBSprovidesaconsistentandvisibleframeworkthatfacilitatesuniformplanning,assignmentofresponsibilities,andstatusreportingChapter:BasicWBSInformationWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideMayThefollowingchartshowstherelationshipofthePWBSandCWBSPWBSCWBSRelationship*PROGRAMProjectASystemASystemBSystemCSubsystemSubsystemSubsystemPWBSCWBSContractXFollowingisatypicalcontractclauseusedforincorporatingtheCWBSintoacontractYoushouldworkwiththecontractsorprocurementorganizationtodevelopthedesiredcontractuallanguageforsuchaclauseAContractWorkBreakdownStructurehasbeennegotiatedbetweenNASAandtheContractorThetoplevelsoftheContractWorkBreakdownStructureareformallyincorporatedintothecontractassetforthinExhibitxxattachedTheelementsshowninthisexhibitmaynotbechangedexceptbycontractualactionLowertierelementswhicharenotshowninthisexhibitmaybechangedbythecontractorasappropriate,providedthatnotificationofsuchchangesisprovidedtotheNASAContractingOfficerCWBSexamplesarefoundinAppendixDChapter:WBSBasicInformationMayWorkBreakdownStructureReferenceGuideGuidelinesAWBSispreparedforeachNASAprogramprojectandcoversinhouseandcontractoreffortsThereisnosingle"bestway"toprepareaPWBSoraCWBSFollowingaresomegeneralguidelinestohelpyouwhencreatingaWBS•ThePWBSispreparedasearlyasprojectdefinitionwillpermit•ApreliminaryPWBSisdevelopedinPhaseAtodefinethetoplevelsofaPWBSfortheentireproject(system)lifecycleNormally,thislifecyclePWBSwillbeintwoparts:onepartfortheacquisitioncycleofthesystembeingacquired(PhasesAthroughD),andonepartfortheoperationsandsupportphase(PhaseE)•ThePWBSistobecompatiblewiththeNASAAgencyWideCodingStructuredefinedinNASAFinancialManagementManual(FMM)•AfinalPWBSispreparedbycompilingtheelementsoftheCWBS(s)withthepreliminaryPWBS•Asdesignconceptschange,thePWBSisfurtherrefinedandchangedtoreflectnewsystemsandsubsystemapproaches•Whenaprojectisauthorizedbyaprogramcommitmentagreement(PCA),thePWBSbecomesformalizedastheprojectoutline,andallchangestoitshouldbeformallyapprovedbytheprogramoffice•ThepreliminaryCWBS,writtenbyNASAprojectpersonnel,isdevelopedthroughnomorethanthethreehighestlevelsoftheproposedcontract•ThepreliminaryCWBSisdevelopedfromthebasicelementsofthePWBSandexpandedforuseintherequestforproposal(RFP),preparationofproposals,andtheevaluationandselectionprocess•Normally,onlythetopthreelevelsoftheCWBSwillbespecifiedbyNASAinanRFPTheCWBSisconsideredapreliminaryCWBSuntilitisfinalizedasaresultofnegotiationandincorporatedformallyintothecontract•WhenhighriskitemsarelocatedatlowCWBSlevels,theseitemscanbeidentifiedagainstthehigherlevelPWBSorCWBSelementofwhichthehighriskitemisapartItisnotnecessaryordesirabletoextendtheCWBSbelowthetopthreelevelsinordertoidentifythehighriskitemChapter:BasicWBSI

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