关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 NASA美国国家航空航天局WBS实施指南

NASA美国国家航空航天局WBS实施指南

NASA美国国家航空航天局WBS实施指南

sandylunar 2012-07-25 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《NASA美国国家航空航天局WBS实施指南doc》,可适用于IT/计算机领域,主题内容包含HBK#TBDDRAFTEFFECTIVEDATE:TBDNASAWORKBREAKDOWNSTRUCTURE(WBS)HANDBOOKDRAFTR符等。

HBK#TBDDRAFTEFFECTIVEDATE:TBDNASAWORKBREAKDOWNSTRUCTURE(WBS)HANDBOOKDRAFTResponsibleOffice:OfficeoftheChiefEngineerDOCUMENTHISTORYLOGStatus(BaselineRevisionCanceled)DocumentRevisionEffectiveDateDescriptionDRAFTAInitialconversionfromReferenceGuidetoHBKformatIncludesAgencyEVMWorkingGroupcommentsDRAFTAIncorporatesadditionalcommentsfromGSFCTABLEOFCONTENTSPURPOSE………………………………………………………………………REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………DEFINITIONS…………………………………………………………………GUIDANCE………………………………………………………………………WBSBackgroundInformation……………………………………………………Policy……………………………………………………………………………Definition…………………………………………………………………………WBSHierarchy……………………………………………………………………Guidelines………………………………………………………………………Summary…………………………………………………………………………WBSDevelopmentandMaintenance…………………………………………WBSandtheProjectLifeCycle………………………………………………WBSActivities…………………………………………………………………DevelopmentConsiderations……………………………………………………WBSDevelopmentTechniques…………………………………………………CommonDevelopmentErrors…………………………………………………WBSUses………………………………………………………………………TechnicalManagement…………………………………………………………WorkIdentificationandAssignment……………………………………………ScheduleManagement…………………………………………………………CostManagement………………………………………………………………PerformanceManagement………………………………………………………RiskManagement………………………………………………………………CANCELLATION……………………………………………………………APPENDIXA:AcronymListing…………………………………………………APPENDIXB:StandardProjectLevelTemplatesandWBSDictionaryContentDescriptions……………………………………………………………………………APPENDIXC:StandardDataRequirementsDocument……………………………APPENDIXD:ContractorCWBSExample…………………………………………PURPOSETC"PURPOSE"fCl""ThepurposeofthisdocumentistoprovideprogramprojectteamsnecessaryinstructionandguidanceinthebestpracticesforWorkBreakdownStructure(WBS)andWBSdictionarydevelopmentanduseforprojectimplementationandmanagementcontrolThishandbookcanbeusedforalltypesofNASAprojectsandworkactivitiesincludingresearch,development,construction,testandevaluation,andoperationsTheproductsoftheseworkeffortsmaybehardware,software,data,orserviceelements(aloneorincombination)TheaimofthisdocumentistoassistprojectteamsinthedevelopmentofeffectiveworkbreakdownstructuresthatprovideaframeworkofcommonreferenceforallprojectelementsTheWBSandWBSdictionaryareeffectivemanagementprocessesforplanning,organizing,andadministeringNASAprogramsandprojectsTheguidancecontainedinthisdocumentisapplicabletobothinhouse,NASAledeffortandcontractedeffortItassistsmanagementteamsfrombothentitiesinfulfillingnecessaryresponsibilitiesforsuccessfulaccomplishmentofprojectcost,schedule,andtechnicalgoalsBenefitsresultingfromtheuseofaneffectiveWBSinclude,butarenotlimitedto:providesabasisforassignedprojectresponsibilities,providesabasisforprojectscheduledevelopment,simplifiesaprojectbydividingthetotalworkscopeintomanageableunits,andprovidesacommonreferenceforallprojectcommunicationREFERENCESTC"REFERENCES"fCl""NPRD,“NASASpaceFlightProgramandProjectManagementRequirements”AppendixGNPR,“NASAInformationandTechnologyandInstitutionalInfrastructureProgramandProjectRequirements”NPR,“NASAResearchandTechnologyProgramandProjectManagementRequirements”AppendixKMPDTBD,“EarnedValueManagementPolicy”MPRTBD,“EarnedValueManagementSystemRequirements”MilHDBKA,DepartmentofDefenseHandbook,WorkBreakdownStructuresforDefenseMaterialItemsPMI,“PracticeStandardforWorkBreakdownStructures”DEFINITIONSTC"DEFINITIONS"fCl""–Acronymswithan*maybeeithersingularorpluralConfigurationItem(CI)Anaggregationofhardwarecomputerprogramsoranyofitsdiscreteportions,whichsatisfiesanendusefunctionandisdesignatedbyNASAforconfigurationContractWorkBreakdownStructure(CWBS)AworkbreakdownstructureoftheproductsorservicestobefurnishedundercontractItiscomprisedofselectedProjectWBSelementsspecifiedinthecontractualdocumentandthecontractor'slowerlevelextensionsofthoseelementsControlAccount(CA)*–Adocumentedscopeoftechnical,cost,andscheduleobjectiveswithinaprojectcorrespondingtoaWBSelementthathasaresponsibleorganizationalelementorindividualidentifiedThecontrolaccountisrepresentedinaResponsibilityAssignmentMatrix(RAM)astheintersectionoftheWBSandtheOrganizationalBreakdownStructure(OBS)EndItemAfinalcombinationofendproductscomponents,parts,ormaterialswhichisreadyforitsintendeduseanitemofsoftwareordocumentationthatisdeliverabletoauserorcustomerHighRiskItemAnitemwhichinvolvestechnological,manufacturingorotherstateoftheartadvancesorconsiderations,andprogramprojectmanagementdesignatesasrequiringspecialattentionItiscriticalfromthestandpointofachievingprogramobjectives,reliability,maintainability,safety,qualityassuranceorothersuchfactorsMetadataManager(MdM)SystemMdMisthesystemofrecordthatstartingOctoberservesasthecentraldatastoreforNASAstructuremanagementdataelementsandrelatedattributesMdMisusedtosupportthecreation,maintenanceandretirementofallAgencyWBSstructuresItencompassesbothprogrammaticandinstitutionalhierarchiesMdMistheinitiatingsystemthatpushesapprovedWBSstructurestosystemssuchasNandSAPR(NASA’ssystemsthatsupportitsCoreFinancialbusinessprocesses),PerformanceMeasurementBaseline(PMB)ThetimephasedbudgetplanagainstwhichperformanceismeasuredItisformedbythebudgetsassignedtoscheduledcontrolaccountandtheapplicableindirectbudgetsForfutureeffort,notplannedtothecontrolaccountlevel,theperformancemeasurementbaselinealsoincludesbudgetsassignedtohigherlevelWBSelementsandundistributedbudgetsItequalsthetotalallocatedbudgetlessmanagementreserveProgramArelatedseriesofundertakingswhichcontinueoveraperiodoftime(normallyyears),andwhicharedesignedtoaccomplishbroadscientificortechnicalgoalsorincreaseknowledgeinanareaofspacescienceorengineeringProgramsaretypicallyplannedandexecutedasaseriesofindividualprojectsorasagroupofprojectstoprovideamajorsystemcapabilityProgramshaveanelementofongoingsupportasopposedtoprojectsProjectAdefined,timelimitedactivitywithclearlyestablishedobjectivesandboundaryconditionsexecutedtogainknowledge,createacapability,orprovideaserviceaspartofanoveralldevelopmentprogramAprojecttypicallyencompassesdesign,development,fabrication,test,andasapplicable,operationofadvancedhardwareandsoftware,includingdatacollection,distribution,andanalysisandreportingofresultsProjectsareanundertakingwithafiniteamountoftimetocreateauniqueproduct,service,orresultProjectPlanAdetailedplanwhich,whenformallyapproved,setsforththeagreementbetweenaprogrammanagerandprojectmanagers,anddefinestheguidelinesandconstraintsunderwhichtheprojectwillbeexecutedRequestforProposal(RFP)AsolicitationusedinnegotiatedacquisitiontocommunicategovernmentrequirementstoprospectivecontractorsandsolicitproposalsStatementofWork(SOW)–AdocumentcontaininganarrativedescriptionofthetotalworkscopeforaprojectorcontractSpecificationTreeAgraphicportrayalarrangedtoillustrateinterrelationshipsofhardwareandorsoftwareperformancedesignrequirementsspecificationsnormally,thisportrayalisintheformofa"familytree"subdivisionofthespecificationswitheachlowerlevelspecificationapplicabletoahardwaresoftwareitemwhichispartofahigherlevelitemSubsystemAfunctionalentitywithinasystemThenameforthenextlevelofbreakdownunderasystemSystemOneoftheprincipalfunctioningentitiescomprisingtheprojecthardwarewithinaprojectorflightmissionOrdinarily,asystemisthefirstmajorsubdivisionofprojectworkWorkBreakdownStructure(WBS)–Adetailed,productorientedrepresentationofalltheworknecessarytoaccomplishadocumentedscopeofworkTheWBSshouldbeaccompaniedbyatextdocumentreferredtoasaWBSDictionarythatdescribeseachelementoftheWBSindetailWBSDictionaryAnarrativedescription(ordefinition)ofeachelementappearingontheworkbreakdownstructureincludingrecurringandnonrecurringworktobeperformed,hardwareorsoftwaretobedevelopedanddelivered,servicestobefurnished,productsordatarequiredforeachelement,andanyothersignificantdataWBSElementAnyblockoruniqueentryinaworkbreakdownstructureregardlessoflevelWBSLevelsThearrangementorconfigurationofaWBSwhichestablishesthehierarchyofprojectstoprograms,systemstoprojects,subsystemstosystems,etcWorkPackage(WP)*–Theunitofworkrequiredtocompleteaspecificjobsuchasareport,adesign,adrawing,apieceofhardware,oraservicewhichiswithintheresponsibilityofoneoperatingunitintheperformingorganizationAWPisusuallythelowestelementshowninaWBSNOTE:FromanEarnedValueManagement(EVM)perspective,aWPdetailsshortspantasksormaterialitemsidentifiedforaccomplishingworkrequiredtocompleteaprojectTheWPrepresentsafurtherbreakdownoftheworkdefinedinaCAAWPisclearlydistinguishablefromallotherWP(s),hasascheduledstartandfinishdate,hasabudgetthatistimephasedoverthedurationoftheWP,andcanbedividedintoaseriesofshorttasksormilestoneswhosestatuscanbeeffectivelymeasuredGUIDANCETC"GUIDANCE"fCl""WBSBackgroundInformationTC"WBSBackgroundInformation"fCl""InaccordancewithNASAdirectivesNPRD,NASASpaceFlightProgramandProjectManagementRequirements,NPR,NASAInformationTechnologyandInstitutionalInfrastructureProgramandProjectRequirements,andNPR,NASAResearchandTechnologyProgramandProjectManagementRequirements,theWBSandWBSDictionaryaremandatoryelementsofaproject’sintegratedbaselineThissectionprovidesgeneralWBSinformationincludingpolicy,definition,guidelines,anddevelopmentprocessPolicyTC"Policy"fCl""PerNPRD,NPR,andNPR,aprojectWBSisakeyelementofNASAprojectmanagementprocessesTheWBSandWBSDictionaryrequirementscontainedinthesethreedocumentsapplytoalltypesofNASAprogramsandprojectsdependingontheproductlineinvolvedTheWBSisacoreelementofaproject’sintegratedbaselinethroughoutallimplementationphasesItistheresponsibilityofeachprojectmanagerandtheirprojectteamtoensurethattheWBSrequirementsareadheredto,notonlyduringinitialWBSdevelopment,butalsoinit’songoingmaintenanceandcontrolThestandardprojectWBSstructuresandtemplatesidentifiedintheaboveNPR’swereintendedtoapplyonlytonewprojectsestablishedonorafterJune,DefinitionTC"Definition"fCl""EachNASAprogramhasasetofgoalswhicharedevelopedfromNASAmissionneedsTheseprogramgoalsareexpandedintospecificprojectobjectivesThefunctionofmanagementistoplananddirectprojectactivitiestoachievetheprogramgoalsAWBSisaproductorientedfamilytreethatidentifiesthehardware,software,services,andallotherdeliverablesrequiredtoachieveanendprojectobjectiveThepurposeofaWBSistosubdividetheproject’sworkcontentintomanageablesegmentstofacilitateplanningandcontrolofcost,schedule,andtechnicalcontentAWBSisdevelopedearlyintheprojectdevelopmentcycleItidentifiesthetotalprojectworktobeperformed,whichincludesnotonlyallNASAinhouseworkcontent,butalsoallworkcontenttobeperformedbycontractors,internationalpartners,universities,oranyotherperformingentitiesWorkscopenotcontainedintheprojectWBSshouldnotbeconsideredpartoftheprojectTheWBSdividestheworkcontentintomanageableelements,withincreasinglevelsofdetailThefollowingexampledisplaysaportionofaWBSwhichillustrateshowprojectworkmaybehierarchicallysubdividedFigure:PartialWBSIllustrationAWBSisdevelopedbyfirstidentifyingthesystemorprojectenditemtobestructured,andthensuccessivelysubdividingitintoincreasinglydetailedandmanageablesubsidiaryworkproductsorelementsMostoftheseelementsarethedirectresultofwork(eg,assemblies,subassemblies,andcomponents),whileothersaresimplytheaggregationofselectedproductsintologicalsets(eg,buildingsandutilities)formanagementcontrolpurposesIneithercase,thesubsidiaryworkproducthasitsownsetofgoalsandobjectiveswhichmustbemetinorderfortheprojectobjectivestobemetDetailedtaskswhichmustbeperformedtosatisfythesubsidiaryworkproductgoalsandobjectivesarethenidentifiedanddefinedforeachworkproductorelementonwhichworkwillbeperformedCompletionofanelementisbothmeasurableandverifiablebaseduponspecificcompletioncriteriaestablishedduringupfrontprojectplanningbytheprojectteamBecauseWBSelementproductcompletioncanbeverified,aWBSprovidesasolidbasisfortechnical,schedule,andcostplansandstatusNootherstructure(eg,codeofaccount,functionalorganization,budgetandreporting,costelement)satisfactorilyprovidesanequallysolidbasisforincrementalprojectperformanceassessmentWBSHierarchyTC"WBSHierarchy"fCl""TheprojectWBSstructureshouldencompasstheentireproject’sapprovedscopeofworkItusuallyconsistsofmultiplelevelsofproductsalongwithassociatedworkcontentdefinitionsthatarecontainedinacompaniondocumentcalledtheWBSDictionaryAllNASAprojectshavethecapabilityofsubdividingtheworkcontentdowntoamaximumofsevenlevelsLevelsoftheWBSaredefinedbelow•Levelistheentireproject•Levelelementsarethemajoroperationalproductelementsalongwithkeycommon,enablingproducts(asdefinedinNPRD,andNPRstandardWBStemplates)•Levelcontainsfurtherdefinablesubdivisionsoftheproductscontainedinthelevelelements(egsubsystems,components,documents,functionality)ThefollowinggeneralillustrationdepictshowworkscopecanbearrangedashierarchicalWBSlevelsofworkwithinaprojectAllprojecteffortmustbeincluded,includingallNASAinhouse,contracted,internationalpartner,university,andanyotherperformingentityimplementationsEnablingorganizationalcommonproductsmustalsobereflectedappropriatelywithaprojectWBS(egProjectManagement,SafetyManagementAssurance(SMA),SystemsEngineeringandIntegration(SEI))Figure:WBSLevelsIllustrationTherearenumeroustermsusedtodefinelevelthreeandsucceedinglevelsoftheWBSbelowthesystemlevelSometypicalexamplesusedforhardwareandsoftwareproductelementsaresubsystem,subassembly,component,module,functionality,equipment,andpartProjectmanagementandotherenablingorganizationalsupportproductsshouldusethesubdivisionsandtermsthatmosteffectivelyandaccuratelydepictthehierarchicalbreakdownofprojectworkintomeaningfulproductsAproperlystructuredWBSwillreadilyallowcompleteaggregationofcost,schedule,andperformancedatafromlowerelementsuptotheprojectorprogramlevelwithoutallocationofasingleelementofworkscopetotwoormoreWBSelementsWBSelementsshouldbeidentifiedbyaclear,descriptivetitleandbyanumberingschemeasdefinedbytheprojectthatperformsthefollowingfunctions:•IdentifiestheleveloftheWBSelement•Identifiesthehigher‑levelelementintowhichtheelementwillbeintegratedThefollowingportionofaprojectWBSreflectsanexampleoftheNASAauthorizedWBSnumberingsystemThisnumberingschemeiscalledtheNASAStructureManagement(NSM)systemForeachAgencyproject,theWBSestablishedbytheprojectmustusetheNSMnumberingschemeandalsomustcorrelateexactlytothecorrespondingfinancialaccountingstructureutilizedforeachprojectwithintheNASACoreFinancialSystemThisrequirementhelpstoensurethatprojectcostsareappliedtothecorrectworkscopebeingimplementedbytheprojectThisprocessisnecessaryforcarryingoutsuccessfulEVMprocessesFigure:PartialWBSwithNumberingSystemThetoptwolevelsofaprojectWBSaredictatedandcontrolledbytheAgencythroughstandard,leveltwoWBStemplatesThesetemplates,alongwiththeirassociatednarrativecontentdescriptions,arecontainedinNPRD,NPR,andNPRWBSlevelsandloweraredevelopedandshouldbecontrolledbyprojectmanagementand,asrequired,primecontractorsthatareinvolvedinprojectimplementationIncaseswhereprimecontractorsareinvolved,lowerlevelelementcodingmustbetraceabletotheappropriateupperlevelelementsthatarecontrolledbytheNASAProjectManagerWhilenotbeingarequirement,itisrecommendedthattheprimecontractorlowerlevelWBSnumberingschemebeconsistentwiththeoverallprojectWBSnumberingformatThiswillalloweasiertotalprojectintegrationofcostandEVMdataforprojectreportingNASAstandardleveltwoWBStemplatesandnarrativecontentdescriptionscanbefoundinAppendixBContractWorkBreakdownStructure(CWBS)andCWBSDictionaryForprojectsinvolvingsignificantcontractedeffort,aproject’spreliminaryWBSshouldbeincludedintheRequestforProposal(RFP)andusedasastartingpointforindividualcontractorstodeveloptheirextendedCWBSItisimportanttorememberthateachprojectwillhaveonlyoneWBSandthatthecontractor’sCWBSisjustanextensionoftheupperlevelprojectWBSelementsTheRFPwillalsocontainspecificinstructionstocontractorsthattheirproposalshallbesubmittedinaccordancewiththespecifiedpreliminaryWBSAsnotedintheprevioussection,thecontractor’sWBScodingschememustbetraceabletoupperlevelprojectcontrolledelementsAgain,whilenotarequirement,itishighlyrecommendedthattheextendedCWBSbedevelopedusinganumberingformatthatisconsistentwiththestandardNASAprojectWBSelementnumberingformatTheCWBScontainsthecompleteWBShierarchyforaspecificcontractscopeofworkItisdevelopedbythecontractorinaccordancewiththecontractstatementofwork(SOW)ItincludestheWBSelementsfortheproductswhicharetobefurnishedbythecontractorThecontractorextendstheseelementsanddefinesthelower‑levelproductsItshouldbenotedthatwithint

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +1积分

资料评分:

/55
1下载券 下载 加入VIP, 送下载券

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料