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首页 [简明劳德里奇哲学百科全书(The.Shorter.Routledge.Encyclopedi…

[简明劳德里奇哲学百科全书(The.Shorter.Routledge.Encyclopedia.of.Philosophy)].pdf

[简明劳德里奇哲学百科全书(The.Shorter.Routl…

上传者: 清子 2012-07-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[简明劳德里奇哲学百科全书(The.Shorter.Routledge.Encyclopedia.of.Philosophy)]pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含theshorterroutledgeencyclopediaofphilosophytheshorterroutledgeencyclopedia符等。

theshorterroutledgeencyclopediaofphilosophytheshorterroutledgeencyclopediaofphilosophyeditedbyedwardcraigFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,Oxon,OXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup#RoutledgeIntroduction#EdwardCraigAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBN–––TFinformaTaylorFrancisGroupistheAcademicDivisionofTFInformaplcThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ISBNMasterebookISBN(PrintEdition)ContentsIntroductionviiListofentriesandcontributorsixEntriesA–Z–IntroductionTheShorterREPhasemergedoutofourexperiencewithConciseREP,thefirstonevolumedistillationoftheoriginaltenvolumeRoutledgeEncyclopediaofPhilosophypublishedinConciseREP,appearingin,wascomposedoftheinitial,introductoryorsummarysectionsofeachofthe,entriescontainedintheparentwork,whichitthereforematchedeverywhereforbreadth,buthardlyanywherefordepthByvirtueofitssheerrangeConciseREPfulfilledaneed,butwehaveheardfromusersandreviewerswhowouldevidentlyhavepreferredmoredepth–andwouldhavebeenwilling,wemustpresume,tosacrificesomebreadthtogetitThinkingaboutthisvaluablefeedbackquicklyledtoadifferentconceptionofasinglevolumereductionoftheencyclopedia,thatnowembodiedinTheShorterREPByexcisingmuchofthemorereconditematerialwehavemadeitpossibleforaconsiderablenumberofentriesonthemorecentralandsoughtaftertopicstobeincludedintheirentirety,eventhoughinsomecasesthatmeantasmuchas,wordsormoreTheShorterREPaccordinglycontainsjustentries,butofthesearerepublishedhereintheirfulloriginallength,andmarkedoutbyboldtypefaceintheheadwordsatthetopofthepageThereaderwillfindsubstantialessaysonallthemajorfiguresoftheWesternphilosophicaltradition,likewiseonallmajortopicsandthosewejudgedtobeofmosthelptoastudentreadershipFurther,wehavereprintedinfullallthe‘Signpost’entries,inwhichmembersoftheoriginalteamofspecialistsubjecteditorssurveyedinbrief,usuallyinabout,words,theirspecialistfieldTherearetwentyfourofthese,instantlyrecognisablefromtheirlightgreybackgroundtakentogethertheyofferthereaderahighlyinformativeoutlinesketchofprettymuchthewholeofphilosophy,LatinAmerican,African,Jewish,Arabic,Russian,IndianandEastAsianthoughtallincludedTheShorterREPisunashamedly‘Western’initsemphasis,beingdesignedtosuittheneedsofundergraduatephilosophystudentsandthecoursestheyaremostlikelytoencounterButsofarasthestringenciesofasinglevolumeallowitretainsthespiritofinclusivityandcomprehensivenessthatwassuchafeatureofitstenvolumeancestorNowhereisthe‘Signpost’theonlyentryallottedtoitsarea–ineverycasethereareatleasttwoothersTheinclusionofsomanycompleteentrieshashadanotherwelcomeeffect,thatofallowingustodoalittlemorejusticetoatleastsomeoftheencyclopedia’smosteminentauthors:RichardRorty,BernardWilliams,DagfinnFøllesdal,TimScanlon,PhilipKitcher,TimothyWilliamson,OnoraO’Neill,GaryGutting,AnthonyAppiah,FrankJackson,MichaelFriedman,DanGarber,MalcolmBudd,TerryIrwinandthelistrunson,thoughIhavetostop,apologetically,somewhereEntriesbyalltheseandmanyothersappearintheiroriginalshape,unabridgedTheShorterREPisnotjustaselectiverearrangementoftheoldmaterialAdmittedlyhardlyanythinghasbeenrewrittenspecificallyforTheShorterREP,justtwoveryshortentriesinfact,butitneverthelesscontainsagooddealthatisnewwhencomparedwiththeoriginalpublicationAnyslightsuggestionofparadoxiseasilydispelled:sinceOctobertheRoutledgeEncyclopediahasbeenavailableontheInternetasREPOnline,inwhichformithasseenadditions(atpresenttowardsnewentries)andanumber(nowapproachingthirty)ofupdatesandrevisions,concentratingonentriesnearthetopofourlistofuserstatisticsSomeoftherevisedentriesembodyonlyminorchanges,perhapsthementionofarecentbookorarticle,othersdiffermuchmorefromtheirfirstversions,asforinstanceWittgenstein(byJaneHeal),whichaswellasvarioussmalleradjustmentsnowhasawholenewsectiononrecentinterpretativecontroversyaboutWittgenstein’sTractatusInoneabsolutelycentralcase,ofobviousprimeinteresttostudents,wehaveacompletelyrewrittenreplacemententry:thisisDavidHume,byDonGarrettAllthisnewmaterialforREPOnlinewasavailabletousaswemadeourselectionsforTheShorterREP,andagooddealofitisnowtobefoundhereSomefurtherexamplesofrevisionsnowinfullinTheShorterREPaswellasREPOnlinearePlato(MalcolmSchofield),Socrates(JohnviiCooper),StoicismandEpicureanism(bothDavidSedley),Hobbes(TomSorrell),Justice(BrianBarryandMattMatravers),Kant(PaulGuyer),Foucault(GaryGutting),Heidegger(ThomasSheehan),Quine(AlexOrenstein),Feminism(SusanJames),Existentialism(CharlesGuignon),Infinity(AdrianMoore),andDemocracy(RossHarrison)Inaddition,asmanyasnineteenofthenewentries,hithertoavailableonlyontheInternetinREPOnline,aretobefoundhereintheirshorterform:InnatenessinancientphilosophyProlepsisTechneTelosMagicMore,ThomasEclecticismFourier,CharlesdeMaistre,JosephNovalisApel,KarlOttoCloningNormativityGlobalizationSustainabilityBeccariaCausationinthelawJustice,correctiveandSimulationtheoryBesidesthis,twonewentriesareprintedhereinfullOneisPainting,aestheticsof(RobertHopkins)theotherisanew‘Signpost’entry:NineteenthcenturyphilosophybyRobertSternIhopethatasGeneralEditorImaybeallowedtoattach,tothesecondoftheseinparticular,mypersonalrecommendationThenineteenthcenturyseemstometoolittlestudiedandunderstoodinEnglishspeakingphilosophicalcirclesToofewofuscouldgiveacoherentsketchofitscurrentsandtensions,itsemergencefromtheeighteenthcenturyanditslegacytothetwentiethSterncan,sothisnewSignpostentry,togetherwithoursubstantialcoverageofnineteenthcenturyphilosophers,willhelp–ifreaderswantittoInaworkofthiskindbibliographicalinformationcanbeverycostlyintermsofspaceandhastobekepttoaminimumNevertheless,ourtreatmentofthebibliographies,or‘Furtherreading’,alsoallowsscopeforrevisionorupdatingWeinvitedtheauthorsofthemainentries(iethosewhichappearinfull)toprovidetitlesandauthorsofjusttwoorthreeworkslikelytobehelpfultothereader,notofcoursenecessarilydrawnfromtheiroriginallistingAnyespeciallysuitableworkspublishedsincethemiddleof–whenthetenvolumeREPfinallyhadtoraiseitsdrawbridgeagainstanyfurthertext–thushadatleastthechancetobeconsideredforinclusionTheresponsewassuperb–wearedelightedtobeabletoincludeoverrevisedFurtherreadingsectionsSomuchforinclusionwhatofthelesshappymatterofexclusionSuchanenterpriseisboundtoleavesomeregretsonthisscoreinthemindsoftheeditorialteam,somedisappointmentamongstauthorsandsomeunfulfilledexpectationsamongstreadersOnevolume,ifitistohaveareadableprintsizeandpaperthickenoughnottobetransparent,canbecrammedsofullandnofullerCompleteREPentriesareonaverageninetimesaslongastheirshortversions,soeveryonehadtobefelttojustifyitsstatusThethoughtthatbyprintingoneofthebiggestentriesinfullwewerecommittingspacesufficientforperhapsthirtyorfortyshortonesfocussedthemindtheregrettablefactthat,forexample,Schopenhauer,andPeirceappearonlyintheirshortenedformshasalottodowiththatconsiderationButthethinkingbehindsuchdecisionsoftenhadapositiveaspectaswellEntrieswereincompetitionforspacenotjustwithothertopics,butalsowiththeirownshorterversionsandwherethiswasespeciallywellwrittenandrichininformationitonseveraloccasionsprevailed,evenwhenthesubject,initself,mightwellhavesuggestedfulllengthtreatmentLeavingninetenthsofanauthor’sworkoutdoesseemabackhandedwayofshowinggratitude,butgratefulweare,andwehopethatfuturereadershavecausetobesotooviiiINTRODUCTIONListofentriesandcontributorsBelowisacompletelistofentriesandcontributorsintheorderinwhichtheyappearinTheShorterRoutledgeEncyclopediaofPhilosophyAposterioriPaulKMoserAprioriPaulKMoserAbelard,PeterMartinMTweedaleAbsolute,theTLSSpriggeAbsolutismAnthonyPagdenAbstractobjectsBobHaleActionJenniferHornsbyAdorno,TheodorWiesengrundJMBernsteinAestheticattitudeMalcolmBuddAestheticconceptsMarciaEatonAestheticsMalcolmBuddAestheticsandethicsMichaelTannerAffirmativeactionBernardBoxillAfricanphilosophyKAnthonyAppiahAfricanphilosophy,AnglophoneKwasiWireduAfricanphilosophy,FrancophoneFAbiolaIreleAgnosticismWilliamLRoweAgrippavonNettesheim,HenricusCorneliusMichaelHKeeferAkrasiaHelenStewardAlberttheGreatAlainDeLiberaAlchemyMichelaPereiraAlienationAllenWWoodAlighieri,DanteDominikPerlerAlterityandidentity,postmoderntheoriesofPeterFenvesAlthusser,LouisPierreAlexCallinicosAmbiguityKentBachAnalysis,philosophicalissuesinIGrattanGuinnessAnalyticalphilosophyThomasBaldwinAnalyticityGeorgeBealerAnaphoraNicholasAsherAnarchismGeorgeCrowderAnaximanderRichardMcKirahanAnaximenesRichardMcKirahanAncientphilosophyDavidSedleyAnimallanguageandthoughtDaleJamiesonAnimalsandethicsJamesRachelsAnomalousmonismBrianPMcLaughlinAnscombe,GertrudeElizabethMargaretMichaelThompsonAnselmofCanterburyJasperHopkinsixAnthropology,philosophyofMerrileeHSalmonAntiSemitismOliverLeamanCliveNymanApel,KarlOttoMatthiasKettnerAppliedethicsBrendaAlmondAquinas,ThomasNormanKretzmannEleonoreStumpArcheRichardMcKirahanArchitecture,aestheticsofJohnJHaldaneArendt,HannahBParekhAreteDavidSedleyAristotleTHIrwinArithmetic,philosophicalissuesinMichaelPotterArnauld,AntoineStevenNadlerArt,abstractJohnHBrownArtandmoralityMichaelTannerArtandtruthPaulTaylorArtcriticismColinLyasArt,definitionofStephenDaviesArt,understandingofColinLyasArt,valueofMalcolmBuddArtworks,ontologyofGregoryCurrieArtificialintelligenceMargaretABodenArtisticexpressionStephenDaviesArtist’sintentionPaulTaylorAsceticismPhilipLQuinnAtheismWilliamLRoweAtomism,ancientDavidSedleyAugustineGarethBMatthewsAustin,JohnRobertNMolesAustin,JohnLangshawJOUrmsonAuthorityLeslieGreenAutonomy,ethicalAndrewsReathAyer,AlfredJulesGrahamMacdonaldBachelard,GastonMaryTilesBacon,FrancisJRMiltonBacon,RogerGeorgetteSinklerBakhtin,MikhailMikhailovichGarySaulMorsonBakunin,MikhailAleksandrovichAileenKellyBarthes,RolandJamesRisserBaumgarten,AlexanderGottliebDabneyTownsendBayle,PierreCharlesLarmoreBeattie,JamesPaulWoodBeautyJohnHBrownBeauvoir,SimonedeEvaLundgrenGothlinBeccaria,CesareBonesanaRichardBellamyBehaviourism,analyticDavidBraddonMitchellBehaviourism,methodologicalandscientificCRGallistelBeingMarkOkrentBeliefDavidBraddonMitchellFrankJacksonBelinskii,VissarionGrigorievichVictorTerrasBell’stheoremArthurFineBenjamin,WalterJulianRobertsBentham,JeremyRossHarrisonBerdiaev,NikolaiAleksandrovichJamesPScanlanBergson,HenriLouisARLaceyLISTOFENTRIESANDCONTRIBUTORSxBerkeley,GeorgeIanTiptonBerlin,IsaiahBernardWilliamsBioethicsRGFreyBlackstone,WilliamNESimmondsBloch,ErnstSimonVincentGeogheganBobbio,NorbertoPatriziaBorsellinoBodin,JeanJulianHFranklinBoehme,JakobJeanLoupSebanBoethius,AniciusManliusSeverinusHenryChadwickBohr,NielsMaraBellerBolzano,BernardWolfgangKunneBonaventureBonnieKentBooleanalgebraJLBellBosanquet,BernardPeterPNicholsonBoyle,RobertRoseMarySargentBradley,FrancisHerbertStewartCandlishBrahmanStephenHPhillipsBrentano,FranzClemensRoderickMChisholmPeterSimonsBruno,GiordanoEJAshworthBuber,MartinTamraWrightBuddhistphilosophy,ChineseDanLusthausBuddhistphilosophy,IndianRichardPHayesBuddhistphilosophy,JapaneseJohnCMaraldoBuddhistphilosophy,KoreanSungtaekChoBuridan,JohnJackZupkoBurke,EdmundIainHampsherMonkBusinessethicsTomSorellButler,JosephRGFreyCalvin,JohnRonaldJFeenstraCambridgePlatonismFrederickBeiserCampanella,TommasoJohnMHeadleyCampbell,NormanRobertDHMellorCamus,AlbertDavidASprintzenCantor,GeorgUlrichMajerCantor’stheoremMaryTilesCarnap,RudolfRichardCreathCarneadesJonathanBarnesCassirer,ErnstDonaldPhillipVereneCategoriesRobertWardyCausationNancyCartwrightCausationinthelawRichardWWrightCausation,IndiantheoriesofRoyWPerrettCavell,StanleyStephenMulhallCavendish,MargaretLucasEileenO’NeillChangeRobinLePoidevinChaostheoryStephenHKellertCharity,principleofRichardFeldmanChinesephilosophyDavidLHallRogerTAmesChineseroomargumentRobertVanGulickChisholm,RoderickMiltonDavidBenfieldChomsky,NoamNorbertHornsteinChristinedePizanCharityCannonWillardChurch’stheoremandthedecisionproblemRohitParikhChurch’sthesisStewartShapiroCicero,MarcusTulliusStephenAWhiteCitizenshipWillKymlickaLISTOFENTRIESANDCONTRIBUTORSxiCivildisobedienceKentGreenawaltClarke,SamuelStephenGaukrogerCloningJohnHarrisSimonaGiordanoCoercionJoelFeinbergCohen,HermannMichaelZankCollingwood,RobinGeorgeSimonBlackburnColourandqualiaJosephLevineColour,theoriesofDavidRHilbertComedyJohnMorreallCommonSenseSchoolEdwardHMaddenCommonsensismRoderickMChisholmCommunicationandintentionSimonBlackburnCommunicativerationalityPeterDewsCommunismLymanTowerSargentCommunityandcommunitarianismAllenBuchananCompositionalityMarkRichardComputabilitytheoryDanieleMundiciWilfriedSiegComputerscienceJohnWinnieComte,IsidoreAugusteMarieFrancoisXavierAnge`leKremerMariettiConceptsGeorgesReyCondillac,EtienneBonnotdePaulFJohnsonCondorcet,MarieJeanAntoineNicolasCaritatdeDavidWilliamsConfirmationtheoryTheoAFKuipersConfucianphilosophy,ChineseASCuaConfuciusDCLauRogerTAmesConnectionismBrianPMcLaughlinConsciousnessEricLormandConsentAJohnSimmonsConsequentialismDavidMcNaughtonConservatismAnthonyO’HearConstitutionalismUlrichKPreußConstructivismStephenMDownesContent,nonconceptualTimCraneContent:wideandnarrowKentBachContextualism,epistemologicalBruceWBrowerContinuantsRobinLePoidevinContinuumhypothesisMaryTilesContractarianismSamuelFreemanConventionalismPaulHorwichConway,AnneSarahHuttonCopernicus,NicolausErnanMcMullinCosmologyErnanMcMullinCounterfactualconditionalsFrankDoringCousin,VictorDavidLeopoldCrimeandpunishmentRADuffCriteriaMarieMcginnCriticalrealismAndrewCollierCriticaltheoryRaymondGeussCroce,BenedettoRichardBellamyCrucialexperimentsPeterAchinsteinCudworth,RalphSarahHuttonCultureAnthonyO’HearDaoistphilosophyDavidLHallRogerTAmesLISTOFENTRIESANDCONTRIBUTORSxiiDarwin,CharlesRobertPeterJBowlerDavidson,DonaldErnieLeporeDerededictoAndreGalloisDeathFredFeldmanDecisionandgametheoryCristinaBicchieriDeconstructionChristopherNorrisDedekind,JuliusWilhelmRichardHowardSteinDeductiveclosureprincipleAnthonyBruecknerDefinitionGAldoAntonelliDeismWilliamLRoweDeleuze,GillesDorotheaEOlkowskiDemarcationproblemPeterAchinsteinDemocracyRossHarrisonDemocritusCCWTaylorDemonstrativesandindexicalsHarryDeutschDennett,DanielClementWilliamGLycanDeonticlogicMarvinBelzerDeontologicalethicsDavidMcNaughtonDepictionRDHopkinsDerrida,JacquesAndrewCutrofelloDescartes,ReneDanielGarberDescriptionsStephenNealeDesirePhilipPettitDeterminismandindeterminismJeremyButterfieldDewey,JohnJamesGouinlockDialecticalmaterialismAllenWWoodDiderot,DenisRobertWoklerDilthey,WilhelmRudolfAMakkreelDiogenesLaertiusDavidTRuniaDiogenesofSinopeRBrachtBranhamDiscovery,logicofThomasNicklesDiscriminationJamesWNickelDodgson,CharlesLutwidge(LewisCarroll)PeterHeathDogenThomasPKasulisDostoevskii,FedorMikhailovichGarySaulMorsonDoubleeffect,principleofSuzanneUniackeDoubtMichaelWilliamsDreamingRobertoCasatiDualismDavidMRosenthalDuhem,PierreMauriceMarieDonHowardDummett,MichaelAnthonyEardleyBarryTaylorDunsScotus,JohnStephenDDumontDutyandvirtue,IndianconceptionsofJohnATaberDworkin,RonaldEmiliosAChristodoulidisEastAsianphilosophyRogerTAmesEclecticismChrisMcClellanEcologicalphilosophyFreyaMathewsEconomicsandethicsDanielHausmanMichaelSMcPhersonEducation,philosophyofRandallRCurrenEdwards,JonathanWilliamJWainwrightEgoismandaltruismRichardKrautEinstein,AlbertArthurFineDonHowardJohnDNortonEliminativismGeorgesReyEmerson,RalphWaldoRussellBGoodmanLISTOFENTRIESANDCONTRIBUTORSxiiiEmotioninresponsetoartJerroldLevinsonEmotions,natureofRobertCSolomonEmotions,philosophyofRobertCSolomonEmotivemeaningDavidPhillipsEmotivismMichaelSmithEmpedoclesMalcolmSchofieldEmpiricismWilliamPAlstonEngels,FriedrichTerrellCarverEnlightenment,ContinentalRobertWoklerEnlightenment,ScottishChristopherJBerryEnvironmentalethicsAndrewBrennanEpicureanismDavidSedleyEpiphenomenalismKeithCampbellNicholasJJSmithEpistemologyPeterDKleinEpistemologyandethicsRichardFeldmanEpistemology,historyofGeorgeSPappasEpistemology,IndianschoolsofStephenHPhillipsEqualityAlbertWealeErasmus,DesideriusErikaRummelEriugena,JohannesScottusDermotMoranEssentialismStephenYabloEternityEleonoreStumpNormanKretzmannEthicsRogerCrispEudaimoniaCCWTaylorEventsDHMellorEvil,problemofMarilynMcCordAdamsEvolutionandethicsElliottSoberEvol

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