关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 History of madness.pdf

History of madness.pdf

History of madness.pdf

上传者: 春暖花开 2012-07-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《History of madnesspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含CoverPageiHistoryofMadnessPraiseforthisnewedition:‘Oneofthemajorworksofthe符等。

CoverPageiHistoryofMadnessPraiseforthisnewedition:‘OneofthemajorworksofthetwentiethcenturyisfinallyavailableinEnglishThiscomprehensivetranslationfinallyovercomesoneofthegreatdivisionswithintheworldofreasonanoccasiontorevisitMadnessandCivilizationasitwaswritten’PaulRabinow,UniversityofCalifornia,Berkeley‘Withthisbeautifulandmovingbook,MichelFoucaulttransformedourunderstandingoftheprocessesthathadmadepsychiatrypossible–theprocesswhichhadbroughtitsobject,mentalillness,intoexistence,andwhichinscribeditintoourmodernimaginationaspathology,negativity,incompetenceanddeficiencyInstudyingthehistoryofmadnessinthisway,Foucaultalsotaughtuscruciallessonsabouttheassemblingofwhatwehavecometocall‘civilization’Now,atlast,EnglishspeakingreaderscanhaveaccesstothedepthofscholarshipthatunderpinnedFoucault’sanalysis:Ihavenodoubtthatthislongawaitedtranslationwillhaveatransformativeeffectonanewgenerationofreaders’NikolasRose,LondonSchoolofEconomicsReviewsoftheoriginalFrenchedition:‘Athickmanuscriptarrived:aphilosophythesisontherelationsbetweenmadnessandunreasonintheclassicalage,byanauthorIdidnotknowIwasdazzledwhenIreadit’PhilippeAriès‘Thismagnificentbook…requiresamindthatiscapableofbeinginturnahistorian,aphilosopher,apsychologist,andasociologist…neversimplyoneofthese…ThisisnotamethodthatcouldbeofferedasanexampleitisnotwithinthereachofjustanybodySomethingmorethantalentisnecessary’FernandBraudel,AnnalesPageiiPageiiiMichelFoucaultHistoryofMadnessEditedbyJeanKhalfaTranslatedbyJonathanMurphyandJeanKhalfaLONDONANDNEWYORKPageivFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,Oxon,OXRNRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusinessThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcoukFirstpublishedinFrenchas‘FolieetDéraison:Histoiredelafolieàl’âgeclassique’LibrariePlon,Paris,Thiseditionisatranslationof‘HistoiredelaFolieàl’âgeclassique’EditionsGALLIMARD,Paris,Appendices‘Moncorps,cepapier,cefeu’and‘Lafolie,l’absenced’œuvre’EditionsGALLIMARD,Paris,Appendix‘ReplytoDerrida’fromMichelFoucault,DitsetEcritsVolIIEditionsGALLIMARD,Paris,ThisEnglishTranslationRoutledgeIntroductionandEditorialMatterJeanKhalfaForewordIanHackingOuvragepubliéavecleconcoursduMinistèrefrançaischargédelaculture–CentreNationalduLivreThiseditionispublishedwiththehelpoftheFrenchMinistryofCulture–NationalBookCentreAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNMasterebookISBNISBN:(PrintEdition)ISBN:(PrintEdition)(eBook)ISBN:(PrintEdition)ISBN:(PrintEdition)(eBook)PagevBiographyofMichelFoucaultMichelFoucaultwasborninPoitiersonJune,thesonofadoctorHefinishedhissecondaryeducationinParisattheLycéeHenryIVinandwentontostudyphilosophyattheprestigiousÉcoleNormaleSupérieure,attendinginparticularthelecturesofMauriceMerleauPontyandworkingwithJeanHyppolite,onHegel,andwithLouisAlthusserDespitesufferingfromsporadicboutsofdepressionandasuicideattemptin,FoucaultsecureddegreesinphilosophyinandinpsychologyinHepassedhisagrégationinphilosophyinHejoinedtheFrenchCommunistPartyinandquitinLecturingattheÉcoleNormaleSupérieureandworkingasapsychologistattheHôpitalSainteAnne,intheearlys,hebecamedissatisfiedwiththeconfinesofFrenchacademiclifeandhelddiplomaticandacademicpostsinSweden(wherehemetandworkedwithGeorgesDumézil),PolandandGermany,whilstworkingonhisthesisFolieetDéraison:Histoiredelafolieàl’âgeclassiqueInitiallyrejectedbyGallimard,itwaspublishedinbythegreathistorianPhilippeArièsatLibrairiePlon,thepublisherofClaudeLéviStraussItwashailedas‘magnificent’byFernandBraudelSeveralothernowfamousworksfollowed,includingTheBirthoftheClinic,TheOrderofThings,andTheArchaeologyofKnowledgeIn,Foucaultwasappointedtoachairatthenew,experimental,UniversityofVincennesand,in,waselectedtoaprestigiouschairattheCollègedeFrancewherehetaughttheHistoryofSystemsofThoughtWhileproducingaverylargeandinfluentialbodyofresearchduringthesands,FoucaultthrewhimselfintopoliticalandsocialactivismHecampaignedinparticularonbehalfofhomosexualsandforprisonreformInhepublishedoneofhismostfamousworks,DisciplineandPunish:BirthofthePrisonFoucaulttravelledtoNorthAmericainthelatesandearlys,teachingannuallyattheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyFreelyexperimentingwithLSDandtheliberalsexualenvironment,helivedwhathetermed‘limitexperiences’Duringthatperiod,inadditiontomanyarticles(publishedposthumouslyinfourvolumes),hewrotethethreevolumesofhisHistoryofSexualityFatallyillwithAIDS,MichelFoucaultdiedinParisonJuneintheSalpêtrièreHospitalattheageoffiftysevenAfterhisdeath,theFrenchprimePageviministerissuedatributeandmemorialhomagesfeaturedonthefrontpagesofallthenationalpressInhisobituary,GeorgesDumézilwrote,‘Foucault’sintelligenceliterallyknewnolimits’PageviiCONTENTSForewordbyIanHackingixIntroductionbyJeanKhalfaxiiiPrefacetotheeditionxxviiPrefacetotheeditionxxxviiPARTONEIStultiferaNavisIIThegreatconfinementIIIThecorrectionalworldIVExperiencesofmadnessVTheinsanePARTTWOIntroductionIThemadmaninthegardenofspeciesIIThetranscendenceofdeliriumIIIFiguresofmadnessIVDoctorsandpatientsPageviiiPARTTHREEIntroductionIThegreatfearIIThenewdivisionIIITheproperuseoflibertyIVBirthoftheasylumVTheanthropologicalcircleAPPENDICESIMadness,theabsenceofanœuvreAppendixIofeditionIIMybody,thispaper,thisfireAppendixIIofeditionIIIReplytoDerrida(‘MichelFoucaultDerridaenokaino’Paideia(Tokyo)February)EndnotesANNEXESIDocumentsIIFoucault’soriginalbibliographyIIIBibliographyofEnglishworksquotedinthistranslationIVCriticalbibliographyonFoucault’sHistoryofMadnessIndexPageixFOREWORDIanHackingThankgoodnessthisenormousbookisfinallyavailableinEnglishAmasterpieceneedsnoforeword,soIshallhardlygobeyondthetitleTheoriginaloneisabitlikeAlice’sCheshireCat,ofwhichnothingisleftbutthegrinItstartsoutasMadnessandUnreason:HistoryofMadnessintheClassicalAge,andfadesawaysothatweareleftwithourpresentHistoryofMadnessIshallgothroughthestepsItisagradualdisappearingact,andIshallpointyouinthedirectionofthedisappeared‘unreason’,nottoexplainit,buttoencourageyoutonoticeitInthetaleofthetitlesandofunreason,thereareallthesignsofFoucaultchanginghismindaboutmadnessTheexacttitleinwasFolieetDéraisonHistoiredelafolieàl’âgeclassiqueVeryoftenonlythefirstwordofaFrenchtitleiscapitalisedInthesecondnoun,déraison,wasalsogivenacapitalletterDanielDefert,Foucault’slongtimeintellectualcolleague,companion,andposthumouseditor,laidemphasisontheexacttitleoftheoriginalHedoessoinhisincrediblyvaluabledatelist,farricherthananyordinarychronology,atthebeginningofDitsetécrits,thecollectionofFoucault’spublishedessays,interviews,speechesandprefaces‘Unreason’wasrightuptherealongside‘Madness’Thebigbookofwasseverelyabridged,andappearedasapaperbackinHalfofthefirstprefacewassuppressedOnthecoverweseeonlyHistoiredelafolieOnthetitlepagethefulltitleappearsinblockletters,butwithFolieetDéraisoninsmallerprintthanthesubtitleFading,likethecatThisversionPagexwastranslatedintomanylanguages,whileonlyanItalianpublisherdidtheunabridgedbookFortheEnglishversion,FoucaultrestoredalittlematerialthathehadcutfromtheFrenchabridgementForamoment,aflickermoreofthecat’sfacecamebackForherearethemostvividassertionsaboutUnreasontobefoundintheentireworkTheywillhardlymakesenseoutofcontext,soIreferyoutothepagesinquestionwhichweresuppressedandthenrestored(pp–)Youwillfindsentenceslikethis:‘HowcanweavoidsummingupthisexperiencebythesinglewordUnreasonBythatwemeanallthatforwhichreasonisatoncenearestandmostdistant,fullestandmostempty’InFoucaultpublishedasecondeditionoftheentirebook,plusthreeappendices,butwithasubstituteprefaceTheFrenchtitlehadbecomewhatwasformerlythesubtitle,HistoryofMadnessintheClassicalAgeWhatisthedéraisonthatdroppedfromthetitlebutwasstillalloverthetextUnreasonisnotidenticaltomadnessbutsomethingthatcontrastswithitForexample,intheanxietyofthesecondhalfoftheeighteenthcentury,thefearofmadnessgrewatthesamerateasthedreadofunreason,andforthatreasonthetwinobsessionsconstantlylenteachothermutualsupport(p)Laterwereadthatsincetheendoftheeighteenthcentury‘thelifeofunreason’nolongermanifestsitselfexceptintheflashesoflightningfoundinworkslikethoseof‘Hölderlin,Nerval,NietzscheandArtaud’whichresisted‘throughtheirownstrengththatgiganticmoralimprisonment’StandardFrenchhistoryandiconographyofpsychiatryrepresentsPinelcastingoffthechainsofmadmensoonaftertheBastillehadfallen,sothatisastoryofliberatingthemadHerewearetoldthatthenew‘moral’treatmentofinsanitywasalsotheimprisonmentofunreasonthathadflashedsoopenlyonthecanvassesofHieronymusBoschCasualreferencebooksdiagnoseHölderlinasaschizophrenicpoet,Nietzscheasaphilosophersufferingfromdementiacausedbyterminalsyphilis,andArtaudasabipolar(manicdepressive)playwrightNervalkilledhimself:wesaysuicideiscausedbyseveredepressiveillnessItisacentralthesisofthisbookthat,farfromthesebeinginevitablewaysofconceivingoffourverystrangemen,itrequiresaspecificorganizationofPagexithoughttocategorisethem–andsomanyotherpeople–intermsofmentaldisorderFoucaultdoesnotpandertothethoughtthatgeniusandmentaldisturbanceareofapieceTheartofthesemen,asheshoutsattheendofthebook,istheexactoppositeofinsanity:‘Wherethereisanœuvre,thereisnomadness’(p)AlongsidemadnessthereisalsounreasonIthadmuchfullerplayintheRenaissance,anunreasonthatFoucaultevokesbytheshipoffoolsandthepaintingsofBosch,especiallyTheTemptationofSaintAnthony(Foucaultismarvellouswithpaintings:lookhowmuchhedrawsfromGoyaattheendofthebook,andoneknowsthetourdeforceonVelasquezthatopenTheOrderofThings)Heevensaysthatintheearlydaysofconfiningthemad,theexperienceofunreasonsmotheredsomethingelse,theconsciousnessofmadness(p)Butthentwodistinctobsessionsemerged,hetellsus,madnessandunreasonThefearofoneandthedreadoftheotherweretamedintheasylumThelifeofunreasoncouldbreakthroughtheresultingsilenceonlyinthevoicesofthosewhowereclassifiedamongthemadbutwho,throughtheirart,roseabovemadnesstoactasstandardstowhichthesaneandclassifyingworldisunabletoanswerAromanticfantasylurkshere,thepurityofthepossessed,thosewhonotonlyspeakthetruthinparadox,likethefoolsinShakespeare,butwhoarealsothemselvesthetruthThefantasyleapsoutatyoufromthepreface,inwordssuppressedin:‘amadnesswhosewildstatecanneverbereconstitutedbutintheabsenceofthatinaccessibleprimitivepurity…’(pxxxiii)Thereitis:theinaccessibleprimitivepurityThatiswhatmadethebooksoattractivetotheBritishantipsychiatricmovementSomuchisclearfromtheendofDavidCooper’sprefacetotheEnglish(asopposedtotheAmericanedition)versionof–anditwasCooperwhohadcoinedtheneologism‘antipsychiatry’inBy,halftheprefacewascut,andbyithadallgoneInanew,splendidlybrief,andseeminglytransparentpreface,MichelFoucaultspeaks,aswasthenhiswont,ofabookbeinganevent,whichifitlives,livesthroughrepeateddoublingsandsimulacraIthasitsownlife,freeoftheauthorDoublings:IsuggestthatyouholdinyourhandstwodistinctbooksThemaintextofeachisthesameItisalltooeasytocomparethesetwobookstothetwoDonQuixoteinventedbyBorges,theonewrittenbyPagexiiCervantes,theother,identicalinwords,writtenmuchlaterbyanimaginedPierreMenardDespitethewordsbeingthesame,somuchhashappenedthatthemeaningisdifferentOneofthesebooksisgovernedbyanideaofdéraison,inwhichtherelurksadreamofmadnessinthewild,assomethingprediscursive,inaccessible,pureTheotherbookiswhatthefirstbecame,strippedofromanticillusionTheprefacepromisedanarchaeologyofasilence–andnotanarchaeologyofpsychiatry,that‘monologueofreasonaboutmadness’WhatFoucaultnamed‘archaeology’shows,inpart,howadiscoursebecomespossibleHedidnotshowhowthepsychiatricmonologuebecamepossible:hemerelyrecordedthatitcameintobeingThesilencewassilenceaboutunreasonThatcausesusdifficultyUnreasonisstillaword,butitisnolongerpartofdailylanguageMuchthesamegoesforFrenchdéraison(p)FromtheveryfirstparagraphofthisforewordyouwillhavebeenwonderingwhatitmeansRightlysoMadnessisthevisiblegrin,unreasonthecatthathasfadedaway‘Archaeologyofasilence’–thatisfromthepartoftheprefacethatremainedin,butthendisappearedOnceFoucault’sideaofarchaeologyhadmatured,itappearsthatanarchaeologycanonlybeofwhatissaidIfso,thesecondbook(ofthetwoidenticaltexts)isnolongeranarchaeologyofsilenceItistheworkofanauthorwhoisnolongerobsessedbythefearofmadnessanddreadofunreasonHehasmadepeacewithboth,andhasmovedontothegreatestofhisarchaeologies,TheOrderofThings()PagexiiiINTRODUCTIONJeanKhalfaFoucault’sHistoryofMadnesshasyettobereadMadnessandCivilisation,theEnglishtranslationofHistoiredelaFolie,wasbasedonanabridgedFrencheditionfromwhichroughlypageshadbeenremoved,togetherwithmostofthescholarlyapparatus(aboutfootnotesandthebibliography)MostinterpretationsandcriticismsmadeofthebookintheEnglishspeakingworldwerethereforebasedonapartialperspectiveAdditionally,becauseofthehistoricalcircumstancesofitsappearance,thebookwaslargelyconfinedtodebatessurroundingtheantipsychiatricmovement:theIntroductiontotheEnglisheditionwaswrittenbyDavidCooper,andthereader’snoteRDLainghadwrittenforRoutledge(reproducedhere)wasusedforthebackcoverItistruethatFoucaultdidnotmarkhisdistancefromsuchreadings,perhapsbecausehisdesirewas,hesaid,thatthisobjectevent,almostimperceptibleamongsomanyothers,shouldrecopy,fragment,repeat,simulateandreplicateitself,andfinallydisappearwithoutthepersonwhohappenedtoproduceiteverbeingabletoclaimtherighttobeitsmaster,andimposewhathewishedtosay,orsaywhathewantedittobe(Preface)Rereadingittoday,andinthewayitrequeststhathistoricaleventsshouldPagexivbeunderstood,thatisbyreferringthemtotheconditionsoftheirgenesisandnottotheiraftermath,itappearsmuchmorecomplexthanthesereadingsimpliedFirst,itiswithoutdoubtananalysisofthehistoryofmadnessconsideredasacultural,legal,political,philosophicalandthenmedicalconstruct,fromtheRenaissancetothebeginningofthenineteenthcenturyButitisalsoareflectiononthenotionofhistoryandonthemethodologyofthehistorian,areflectioninfluencedbyNietzsche’scriticismofhistoricalteleologiesThebook,fromthispointofview,showshowanonteleologicalapproachtohistoricalphenomenacandenaturalisewhatistousmostfamiliarbyunearthingitslongforgottenandoftenunpalatableoriginsthroughthestudyofforgottenarchives,tracesofarealityoftenveryremovedfromwhatwastobecomethedominantnarrativeFromaphilosophicalpointofview,thisbookisthemomentwhenFoucault’sthoughtstartstolookbeyondphenomenologyandtowardsstructuralism,movingfromatheoryofformsofconsciousnesstoadescriptionofhistoricalsystemsofthoughtsMostofitsvocabularyisphenomenologicalanditsavowedobjectisaparticularexperience,thatoftheotherasmad:‘Totrytorecapture,inhistory,thisdegreezeroofthehistoryofmadness,whenitwasundifferentiatedexperience,thestillundividedexperienceofthedivisionitself’(Preface)YettheideaisthatspecificstructuresofpowerdeterminethisexperiencedifferentlyatdifferentmomentsFinallythisbookalsomarkstherejectionofaparticularconceptionofphilosophyasirreducibletothematerialcircumstancesofitsproductionThisiswhatisatstakeintheviolentdebatewithDerridaonDescartes’exclusionoftheinsane(Foucault’stextsonthistopicarereproducedintheappendicestothepresentedition)MADNESSAsahistory,thethesisofthisbookisthatwhethermadnessisdescribedasareligiousorphilosophicalphenomenon(anexperienceofinspiration,alossofmind,etc),orasanobjectivemedicalessence(asinalltheclassificationsoftypesofmadnessthathavebeendevelopedbypsychiatry),theseconceptionsarenotdiscoveriesbuthistoricalconstructionsofmeaningWhencomparingtheconceptionsofmadnessprevailingindifferentcivilisations,Foucaultrealisedthattherecouldbeahistoryofmadnessitself,inotherwordsthatitwasa‘phenomenonofcivilisation,asvariable,asPagexvfloatingasanyotherphenomenonofculture’and,asaconsequence,that‘curingthemadisnottheonlypossiblereactiontothephenomenonofmadness’Thereisamomentinhistorywhenmadness

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +2积分

资料评价:

/49
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部