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首页 Estimation and analysis of land surface

Estimation and analysis of land surface

Estimation and analysis of land…

米兰后腰
2012-07-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Estimation and analysis of land surfacepdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

EstimationandanalysisoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesinmountainplainareabasedonremotesensingandDEMHequnYangab*,YongLiua,YinmingYangc,CongZhangdaShanghaiMeteorologicalBureauShanghai,PRChina,Email:hequnyangcombInternationalInstituteforEarthSystemScience,NanjingUniversityNanjing,PRChina,cKeyLaboratoryofWesternEnvironment(MinistryofEducation),LanzhouUniversityLanzhou,PRChina,dShanghaiJiaoTongUniversityShanghai,PRChina,AbstractTheincomeandexpensesstatusofwateralongwithheatonlandsurfacedeterminetheformandevolvementofenvironmenttoagreatextentThispaperfocusonthetopicofestimationandanalysisoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesinmountainplainareabasedonremotesensingandDEM,selectingSunanMountainandZhangyePlaininChinaasacasestudyAllthebiophysicalparametersquantitativelyretrievedfromASTERdatawereastheinputsofSVATbasedmodelSEBS(SurfaceEnergyBalanceSystem),toderivethelatentheatfluxanddailyevaporation,inwhichtheparameterizationschemesforcalculatingtheinstantaneoussolarradiationanddailyintegratedradiationwereimprovedbyaccountingforthevariationsinslopeandazimuthoflandsurfaceandterrainshadowinmountainousareasAfterpreliminaryvalidationandcomparison,weconsiderthattheestimationoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesaswellasdailyevaporationshowsareliableresult,whichalsoimpliesthattheparameterizationmethodsandSEBSmodelarefeasibleThenthespatialpatternsoflandsurfaceheatfluxesaswellasdailyevaporationonthesetwolandformsystemswerecrosscomparedDifferenttypesoflanduselandcover(LULC)havetheircorrespondingthresholdconcentrations,andthehighvegetationdensitycorrespondstohighevaporation(dailyevaporationrangesfrommmtommday)Forest,prairieandgrassland,irrigatedfieldhavehigherdailyevaporation,whilecolddesert,Gobianddroughtyriversidelandhavelowdailyevaporation,someofwhichreachtommResultsshowthatlandsurfaceheterogeneityhasgreatinfluenceonthespatialpatternoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxes,andvegetationcoverageinfluencesurfacewaterandheat’scharacteristic,whichfiguresthatitisbettertointroducevegetationfractionandTstodescribelandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesratherthanthecommonlyusedNDVITs,thoughneededfurtheranalysisandvalidationBesidesthevegetationcoverage,terraincomplexitydominatesthespatialdistributionoflandsurfaceheatfluxesinmountainousarea,whicharedistinctlydifferentfromplaininquantityandspatiallawThestandarddeviationofthenetradiationfluxerrorandlatentheatfluxerrorarealmostlinearlywiththestandarddeviationofheightIncertainrange,theyhavesignificantcorrelativitywiththestandarddeviationofslopeandaspectThesecorrelationswithnetradiationfluxareevenmoreobviouslyInaddition,theutilityandlimitationsofSEBS’sapplicabilitytowatershedswithvariouslandcovertypesandcomplexterrainwereanalyzedKeywordsLandsurfacewaterandheatfluxes,Remotesensing,DEM,SEBS(SurfaceEnergyBalanceSystem),Vegetationcoverage,TerraincomplexityIINTRODUCTIONRemotesensingprovidesareliable,robustapproachtomonitorlandsurfaceenergyandwaterbalanceoverlargeareastwodimensionally,whichisveryimportantandusefulinresearchesandapplicationsinglobalclimatechange,hydrology,ecologyandagronomyEmployedtoinferbiophysicalparametersrelatedtolandatmosphereinteractionandoftheirintegrationintoalandsurfacemodel,remotesensinghasarrestedalotofinvestigationsespeciallyonwaterandheatfluxes,thatis,evapotranspiration(ET)estimatinginthepastdecadeInthispaper,methodologiesandmodelsonremotesensingbasedandDEMassistedestimationoflandsurfaceenergyandmassfluxeswereinvestigatedindetails,thenthespatialpatternsoflandsurfaceheatfluxesaswellasdailyevaporationonthesetwolandformsystemswerecrosscomparedIIDATAANDMODELUptonow,thecomparativeanalysisoftwodifferentecologicalgeographicaltopographysystemmountainandplainisscareintheETstudiesAccordingtoChina'snorthwestaridareaecologicalzoning(Nietal,),SunanMountainandZhangyePlainarespeciallyselectedasacasestudyinthispaperToachievethegoalthatestimatingsurfaceenergyfluxesmoreaccurately,acombinationofphysicallybasedsurfacefluxmodels(SVATmodelisfitting)andhighqualityremotesensingdata(mostlyfulfilledbyASTER,Fig)areneededASTER(AdvancedSpaceborneThermalEmissionandReflectionRadiometer)isanimaginginstrumentflyingonTerra,asatellitelaunchedinDecemberaspartofNASA'sEarthObservingSystem(EOS)Beingusedtoobtaindetailedmapsoflandsurfacetemperature,reflectanceandelevation,ASTERcaptureshighspatialresolutiondata(m,m,m)inbands,fromthevisibletothethermalinfraredwavelengthsInthiscasestudy,weemploytheASTERdataonAugust,,ahighqualitydataandanappropriateseasonFigureAsterremotesensingimagesofSunanMountain(a)andZhangyePlain(b)Modelisthecoreofremotesensingapplications,thebasisofwhichisbiologicalandphysicaltheory,theorientedobjectofwhichisremotesensingdata,andthemodelalgorithmaswellasthecomplexityofthestructuredeterminesthedirectionofremotesensingdataflowandefficiencySEBS(SurfaceEnergyBalanceSystem),asinglesource(singlelayer)SVATmodel,developedbySu()andimprovedbySu()andJia(),isrationalselectedasthecoremodel,whichfullyexploitedthepotentialofremotesensinginformationwithasmallamountofassistedmeteorologicalobservationdata,achievingtheturbulentfluxestimationinlimitedwetanddryconditionsComparingtoanothercommonlyusedmodelSEBAL(SurfaceEnergyBalanceAlgorithmforLand)(Bastiaanssen)SEBShasabetterphysicalbasis,sincetheformerisstilltoocrudeinthecalculationofsensibleheatflux,suchasextrapolationthepixelbasedairtemperaturebytwodry(hot),wet(cold)anchorpixelandtheoversampledprojectionsofwindspeedatmixingheight(Wangetal,)Overally,SEBSmodelneedsfourtypesofinformationinput(Fig)FigureTheinputsofSEBESTohighlightthecharacteristicsofstudyareaandmoreaccurateresults,thisstudyintroducesDEMtoassistSEBSmodelparametricofsurfaceenergyfluxes,itsprocessasfollows(Fig)FigureTheparameterizationschemesofSEBSOnmodelingsolarradiation,topographicfactors,suchasslopeandaspect,wereconsidered,whichmakeitpossibleforthepreciseestimateofsolarradiationinmountainousareaBiophysicalparameters,suchaslandsurfacetemperature,vegetationsoilcomponenttemperatures,albedo,leafareaindexandvegetationcoverageetc,areretrievedquantitativelyusingASTERdataafteranalyzingmanyalgorithmsandselectingthefeasibleones,astheinputofSVATmodel–modifiedSEBSSVATmodel,whichisdevelopedtorunathomogeneouspatchscale,shouldcontaindetailedparameterizationsofsoilhydraulics,planttranspiration,atmosphericturbulence,andradiationexchangeHowever,surfacevariabilityandlackofinformationonaerodynamicandsurfaceresistancesmakeitsomewhatquestionableToapproximatethecomplexnatureoflandatmosphereinterface,aoptimizedparameterizationoftheaerodynamicresistanceHdryHwetHNDVIRnRsSrewASTERImageRadiometriccorrectionGeometriccorrectionTaDEMElevationSlopeAspectZmTsAlbedofcLAIhcεεdKBZhττMODTRANPueεaRL↑RL↓GLEwetrΛreLEΛSEBSRadiationSurfaceVegetationMeteorologicalIncomingshortwaveIncominglongwaveAlbedoEmissivityLSTLAIVegetationheightVegetationfractionAirtemperatureWindspeedAirpressureHumidity(a)(b)forheattransfer(intermofkB)atlargespatialscaleisproposedthatintroducingleafareaindexandelevationtocomputeit,sothatthealgorithmcomputingthesensibleheatfluxcouldbeimprovedIIIRESULTSANDCOMPARATIVEANALYSISAResultsandValidationDEMaidedSEBSsimulationofnetradiationfluxdistributesextremelycomplex,especiallyinSunanmountain,reflectingtheterraincomplexitySoilheatfluxalsohasacorrespondingdistribution,notonlytheterrainfeatures,butalsovegetationcovers,correspondingtosparseanddensestateSensibleheatfluxdistributionfullycorrespondstothedistributionofvegetationcover,placeswithahighvegetationcover,sensibleheatfluxisloweventozero,wherelowvegetationcover,sensibleheatfluxishigh,highestinthebaresoilareasuchascolddesertinZhangyePlainSensibleheatfluxesalsoshowacertainconsistencywiththedistributionoflandsurfacetemperatureTheremainder,latentheatflux,forthebaresoilcanbeaslowaszero,withtheincreasedvegetationcover,increasingthelatentheatflux,especiallyshowingthesignificantdifferenceinsunnyslopeandbacklightslopeFurthercalculationsoftheevaporationrateandthedailyevapotranspirationhavethesimilardistributionwithvegetationstructureindexInaddition,throughempiricalformulalatentfluxcomparison(SEBSWithDEMwm,empiricalformulawm)andthedailyevapotranspirationpromotedverificationtomonthevapotranspiration(SEBSWithDEMmmrelativeerrorwiththewatersurfaceevapotranspirationis),weconsiderthattheestimationoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesaswellasdailyevaporationshowsareliableresult,whichalsoimpliesthattheparameterizationmethodsandSEBSmodelarefeasibleFigureThesurfaceenergyfluxesdistributionofSunanMountainTableSunanmountainsurfaceenergyfluxesandevapotranspirationparametertablesSunanmountainMinMaxMeanStedevnRGHEλΛdayEFigureThesurfaceenergyfluxesdistributionofZhangyePlainTableZhangyeplainsurfaceenergyfluxesandevapotranspirationparametertablesZhangyeplainMinMaxMeanStedevnRGHEλΛdayEBComparativeAnalysisDoingcorrelationanalysesbetweenlatentheatflux(dailyevaporation)andlandsurfaceheterogeneitysuchaslanduselandcover(LULC),NDVI,vegetationfractionandLAI,theresultsshowthatlandsurfaceheterogeneityhasgreatinfluenceonthespatialpatternoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxes,andvegetationcoverageinfluencesurfacewaterandheat’scharacteristicDifferenttypesofLULChavetheircorrespondingthresholdconcentrations,andthehighvegetationdensitycorrespondstohighevaporation(dailyevaporationrangesfrommmtommday,Table)Forest,prairieandgrassland,irrigatedfieldhavehigherdailyevaporation,whilecolddesert,Gobianddroughtyriversidelandhavelowdailyevaporation,someofwhichreachtoLandsurfacetemperature(Ts)alsohasinfluenceontheirspatialdistributionComparingtheabovementionedparameters’simulativecorrelationwithlatentheatfluxanddailyevaporation,wedeemthatitisbettertointroducevegetationfractionandTstodescribelandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesratherthanthecommonlyusedNDVITs,thoughitneedsfurtheranalysisandvalidationComparingSunanMountaintoZhangyePlain,wefindthatthedistributionoflandsurfaceheatfluxesatSunanMountainisverycomplexItisnotonlyimpactedbyvegetationcondition,butalsorelatestothetopographicalfactor,suchasaspect,slopeandelevation,byconductingcorrelationanalysisBesidesthevegetationcoverage,terraincomplexitydominatesthespatialdistributionoflandsurfaceenergybalanceinmountainousarea,whicharedistinctlydifferentfromplaininquantityandspatiallawThedifferenceTableMeandayevaporation(Eday)fordifferentlanduselandcover(LULC)typesLULCForesetPrairieGrasslandIrrigatedFieldShrubberiesUrbanLandEday(mm)LULCBareSoilColdDesertGobiDoughtyRiversideEday(mm)FigureRelationfittingbetweendayevaporationandsurfaceparametersbetweenSunanmountainandZhangyeplainmainlyduetotheeffectsofterrain,netradiationflux,soilheatflux,sensibleheatfluxandlatentheatfluxvariationofSunanmountainissignificantlylargerthanZhangyePlainTablesurfaceenergyfluxesandevapotranspirationparametercomparisonbetweenSunanmountainandZhangyeplainParametersnRGHEλΛdayESunanMountainZhangyePlianVariability()Latentheatfluxanddailyevapotranspirationshowedtheτcurverelationshipwiththeincreasingofelevation,thesinusoidcurvewithaspect(thesouthernslopeisthelargest)Payingattentiontothe"real"netradiationfluxandlatentheatflux(withDEM)andwithoutDEMsimulatednetradiationfluxandlatentheatflux,thestandarddeviationofthenetradiationfluxerrorandlatentheatfluxerrorarealmostlinearlywiththestandarddeviationofheightIncertainrange,theyhavesignificantcorrelativitywiththestandarddeviationofslopeandaspectThesecorrelationswithnetradiationfluxareevenmoreobviouslyTheresultscoincidewiththeoreticalanalysisalsodemonstratethatitisnecessarytoconsiderterraincomplexitywhenestimationoflandsurfaceenergyandmassfluxesinmountainousareasFigureRelationshipbetweenfluxesSTDerrorandterrainparameterSTDerror(left:netradiationflux,right:latentheatflux)IVSUMMARYANDCONCLUTIONSThethemesofwaterandheatfluxesresearchhavemadesomeprogressinthepastdecade,thispaperconductedanexpansionstudybasedonpreviousstudy:①couplingremotesensing,DEM,SVATmodeltoestimatelandsurfacewaterandheatfluxes②makingcorrelationanalysisbetweenwaterandheatfluxeswithlandsurfacebiophysicalparameters③analyzingterraincomplexitymechanismandeffectonsurfaceenergyfluxesResultsshowthatlandsurfaceheterogeneityhasgreatinfluenceonthespatialpatternoflandsurfacewaterandheatfluxes,andvegetationcoverageinfluencesurfacewaterandheat’scharacteristic,whichfiguresthatitisbettertointroducevegetationfractionandTstodescribelandsurfacewaterandheatfluxesratherthanthecommonlyusedNDVITs,thoughneededfurtheranalysisandvalidationBesidesthevegetationcoverage,terraincomplexitydominatesthespatialdistributionoflandsurfaceheatfluxesinmountainousarea,whicharedistinctlydifferentfromplaininquantityandspatiallawThestandarddeviationofthenetradiationfluxerrorandlatentheatfluxerrorarealmostlinearlywiththestandarddeviationofheightIncertainrange,theyhavesignificantcorrelativitywiththestandarddeviationofslopeandaspectThesecorrelationswithnetradiationfluxareevenmoreobviouslyBesides,intheSEBSparameterizationschemeinourstudy,wefoundthatalthoughtheSEBSmodelintheestimationofsensibleheatfluxonlyneedsasimpleinputofmeteorologicalparameterssuchasairtemperatureandhumidity,theinputparametersjustisameteorologicalobservationsite,whichmaybemoresuitablefortheplainsarea,notfittinginthemountainsInfact,thesemeteorologicalparametershavedrasticchangesinthesearea,suchasthetemperatureincreaseswithaltitudewilldecreasevertically,evenintheplains,therearealsospatialvariability,sothechangesneedtoperformontheinputNamely,byusingmeteorologicalmodelsorspatialinterpolationoraphysicalmechanism,themeteorologicalobservationsitedatacanestablisharastermeteorologicalelementsfieldasinput,ormorepreciseparameterizationmethodofthepixelbasedaerodynamicresistance,sensibleheatfluxparametersAsadefection,theinputmannerofmeteorologicalfactorsinSEBSmodelneedstobefurtherimproved**ThispaperissupportedbyShanghaiMeteorologicalBureauVenusPlan(QM)Ni,J,Guo,K,Liu,HJ,ZhangXSEcologicalRegionalizationofAridLandsinNorthwesternChina,JournalofPlantEcology(ChineseVertion),,():Su,ZTheSurfaceEnergyBalanceSystem(SEBS)forestimationofturbulentheatfluxesJHydrologyandEarthsystemSciences,,():Su,Z,ASurfaceEnergyBalanceSystem(SEBS)forestimationofturbulentheatfluxesfrompointtocontinentalscaleIn:Su,Z,Jacobs,J(Eds),AdvancedEarthObservation––LandSurfaceClimatePublicationsoftheNationalRemoteSensingBoard(BCRS),USP,,pp–Su,Z,TheSurfaceEnergyBalanceSystem(SEBS)forestimationofturbulenntheatfluexesHydrolEarthSystSci(),–Jia,L,Su,Z,Hurk,B,etalEstimationofsensibleheatfluxusingtheSurfaceEnergyBalanceSystemSEBS)andATSRmeasurementsJPhysicsandChemistryoftheEarth,,:Bastiaanssen,WGM,Menenti,M,Feddes,RA,etalAremotesensingsurfaceenergybalancealgrothmforland(SEBAL)FormulationJJournalofHydrology,:<<ASCIIEncodePagesfalseAllowTransparencyfalseAutoPositionEPSFilestrueAutoRotatePagesNoneBindingLeftCalGrayProfile(GrayGamma)CalRGBProfile(sRGBIEC)CalCMYKProfile(USWebCoatedSWOPv)sRGBProfile(sRGBIEC)CannotEmbedFontPolicyWarningCompatibilityLevelCompressObjectsOffCompressPagestrueConvertImagesToIndexedtruePassThroughJPEGImagestrueCreateJobTicketfalseDefaultRenderingIntentDefaultDetectBlendstrueDetectCurvesColorConversionStrategyLeaveColorUnchangedDoThumbnailstrueEmbedAllFontstrueEmbedOpenTypefalseParseICCProfilesInCommentstrueEmbedJobOptionstrueDSCReportingLevelEmitDSCWarningsfalseEndPageImageMemoryLockDistille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