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首页 【Routledge 重要社会学家】Simmel

【Routledge 重要社会学家】Simmel.pdf

【Routledge 重要社会学家】Simmel

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简介:本文档为《【Routledge 重要社会学家】Simmelpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

GEORGSIMMELUntilrecentlylittleofSimmel’sworkwasavailableintranslationandcertainkeytextswereunknownoutsideGermanyHereDavidFrisbyprovidesnotonlyanintroductiontothemajorsociologicalwritingsofthisimportantfigure,butalsoanargumentforareconsiderationofhisworkTheauthoroutlinestheculturalandhistoricalcontextinwhichSimmelworkedreviewsSimmel’smostimportantwritingsandexamineshislegacytosociologybyilluminatinghislinkswithWeber’stheoriesandhisinfluentialrelationshipwithMarxismSimmel,acentralfigureinthedevelopmentofmodernsociology,andacontemporaryofWeberandDurkheim,wasoneofthefirsttoidentifysociologyasaseparatedisciplineHisideasinfluencedWeber,theChicagoSchool,andmanylatersociologistsHisintroductionofanumberofbasicconceptstosociology,suchasexchange,interactionanddifferentiation,attesttohisintellectualstatureandthefarreachingsignificanceofhisworkDavidFrisbyisProfessorofSociologyattheUniversityofGlasgowKEYSOCIOLOGISTSEditedbyPETERHAMILTONNowreissued,thisclassicseriesprovidesstudentswithconciseandreadableintroductionstothework,lifeandinfluenceofthegreatsociologicalthinkersWithindividualvolumescoveringindividualthinkers,fromEmileDurkheimtoPierreBourdieu,eachauthortakesadistinctline,assessingtheimpactofthesemajorfiguresonthedisciplineaswellasthecontemporaryrelevanceoftheirworkThesepocketsizedintroductionswillbeidealforbothundergraduatesandpreuniversitystudentsalike,aswellasforanyonewithaninterestinthethinkerswhohaveshapedourtimeSeriestitlesinclude:EMILEDURKHEIMKenThompsonTHEFRANKFURTSCHOOLANDITSCRITICSTomBottomoreGEORGSIMMELDavidFrisbyMARXANDMARXISMPeterWorsleyMAXWEBERFrankParkinMICHELFOUCAULTBarrySmartPIERREBOURDIEURichardJenkinsSIGMUNDFREUDRobertBocockKEYSOCIOLOGISTSiiiGEORGSIMMELRevisedEditionDAVIDFRISBYLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyEllisHorwoodLimitedandTavistockPublicationsLimitedThisrevisededitionfirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,©,DavidFrisbyAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(PrintEdition)(Hbk)ISBN(PrintEdition)(Pbk)TableofContentsEditor’sForewordviiiAcknowledgementsxiiPrefacexivChapterIntroductionChapterLifeandContextChapterTheFoundationofSociologyChapterTheWorksChapterANewReceptionBibliographyofSimmel’sMajorWorksAnnotatedBibliographyofSecondarySourcesIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankEditor’sForewordGeorgSimmel’ssociologyhasalwaysbeentantalizinglyelusivefortheEnglishspeakingreaderAlthoughsomeofhisbestworkwastranslatedfairlysoonafteritsfirstpublication,aconsiderableamounthadneverbeenmadeavailableintranslationuntilveryrecentlySimmel’swork,fragmentaryinitsapparentstructurebecauseofthevagariesoftranslation,seemedalsotosufferfromthesheervarietyofthemeswithwhichhedealtClearlyathinkercapableofthemostpenetratingofinsightsinto,forexample,thesignificanceofcommonmealtimes,ortheimportanceofeyetoeyecontactininteractiontheveryrichnessofthisapparentlyephemeralmaterialhasforlongsustainedtheimpressionthatSimmelwaslittlemorethananidiosyncraticsociologistofform,whoseworkfailedtograsphistoricalprocessesormundaneempiricalrealityDespitethefactthatcontemporariesrecognizedSimmel’simportanceasthefirstacademicsociologistinGermany,andthathistheoriesofsociationwereunquestionablyinfluentialinthedevelopmentofsymbolicinteractionisminAmerica,hisreputationtodaydoesnotgenerallyrankhimalongsidehiscontemporariesDurkheimandWeberHowever,thefruitsofrecentscholarship,andaveritablerenaissanceofSimmelianstudies(ofwhichthisbookrepresentsonefacet)havebeguntosalvageSimmel’sworkfromtherelativeobscurityintowhichithadfallenDavidFrisbyhasbeenoneofthosemostresponsibleforareturntoSimmel,theunfairlyneglectedfoundingfatherofsociologyHiscontemporaries,MaxWeberandEmileDurkheim,nowappearasdominantfiguresintheriseofmodernsociology,yetitisinappropriatetorecognizetheirrolewithoutgivingSimmelhisdueBecausehisworkwastakenoverquiterapidlyinAmericansociology,especiallybythe‘ChicagoSchool’sociologists,hisinfluenceintheemergenceofsuchcentralconceptsasrole,interaction,conflict,dominationandsubordinationhastendedtobeglossedoverbyvirtueofitsincorporationinthemoresystematicorempiricallygroundedtheoriesofhissuccessorsTotakeonequitewellknownexample,Simmel’srecognition(inhisessayTheMetropolisandMentalLifeof)thatthecityis‘notaspatialentitywithsociologicalconsequences,butasociologicalentitythatisformedspatially’canbeseentoprefiguremuchofthelaterChicago‘ecological’theoryofurbansocietyofPark,BurgessandThomasMoreover,Simmel’smethodologicalstartingpointinconstructingsociologicaltheory,theassumptionthatsocietyisawebofpatternedinteractions,isnotseriouslyquestionedbyanycontemporaryparadigmofsociologicaltheoryItiscommonplacetodefineSimmel’ssociologyas‘essayistic’,overconcernedwiththeephemeralandmundaneandinsufficientlysystematicThefactthatSimmelwroteonmanyothersubjects(especiallyphilosophy,psychologyandart)aswellassociologyisfrequentlycountedagainsthimtofurtherdepresshisimportance,especiallyvizàvisthe‘HolyTrinity’ofMarx,WeberandDurkheimHowever,asDavidFrisbyshowsinthisbook,theseimagesofSimmel’ssociologicaltheoriesaremisleadingDrFrisbyisaleadinginternationalscholarofSimmel’swork,andhisdeepknowledgeoftheSimmelianoeuvreisbroughtintoplaytorevealaSimmelwhoisbothmoresystematicandconsistentthanhadhithertobeensupposedAsaresultofhisworkwecannowseeclearlyhowSimmeldemarcatedsociologyasadistinctiveintellectualdisciplinewithaspecificsubjectmatter,andhowthisinitialmethodologicalproceduresetsthescenefortherestofhisworkThefactthatSimmel’sconceptionofsociologywashighlyrationalist,andtendedtoavoidanyattemptatempiricalgeneralization,wasperhapsresponsiblefortheimpressionthatitprovidedlittlemorethaningenioussuggestionsforfurtherresearchDurkheim’sassessmentofSimmel’sThePhilosophyofMoneyasawork‘repletewithillegitimatespeculation’,a‘treatiseonsocialphilosophy’whichcontains‘anumberofingeniousideas,pungentviews,curiousorevenattimessurprisingcomparisons’,seemstohavebeentypicalofonestrandofcriticalresponsetoSimmeliansociologyingeneralPerhapsmorerealisticwasWeber’sargumentthatvirtuallyeveryoneofSimmel’sworks‘aboundsinimportanttheoreticalideasandthemostsubtleobservations’DavidFrisby’streatmentofSimmelstartsfromasimilarpointtoWeber’sassessment,andcoversthewholerangeofSimmel’ssociologicalworkItisableasaresulttopresentamuchmoreroundedpictureofSimmel’sclaimtoacentralroleinthedevelopmentofmodernsociologicalthinkingthanwashithertopossibleFrisbyshows,forexample,EDITOR’SFOREWORDixhowThePhilosophyofMoneycontributedtoWeber’sformulationofhis‘ProtestantEthic’thesis,andhowProblemsofthePhilosophyofHistoryandotherwritingsbySimmelprovideaconceptoftheintentionalityofsocialactionwhichisclosetoWeber’snotionofrationalactionTheimpactofSimmel’sideasuponGeorgLukács,ErnstBlochandWalterBenjaminalsoindicatesthathisinfluenceextendedintotherealmofMarxistthoughttoanimpressiveextentButitisperhapsSimmel’sstatusasthefirstsociologistof‘modernity’whichismostinterestinglydevelopedbyDavidFrisbyThatthisconcernwiththesocialeffectsofmodern,cosmopolitan,andpredominantlyurbanlifeshouldhavebeensucharichsourceofSimmel’stheoriesandconceptsisnotsurprising,giventhatmuchofhiscareerwasspentinBerlinatatimewhenthatcitywasattheforefrontofmodernistcultureItsrelationshiptothewayinwhichSimmeldevelopedmanyofhismostinfluentialinsightsintomodernliferemindsusoftheextenttowhichsociologyisareflectionof(andupon)itssocioculturallocationsSimmel’sintellectualheirsaremanyandvaried,perhapsaconsequenceofthefactthatnoSimmelianschoolofsociologydevelopedbeforeorafterhisdeath,butalsoduetothefactthathismostinterestingideasarecapableofbridginggapsinhistoricaltimeandsocialspaceAsDavidFrisbyarguesinthisbook,thetimehascometoreexamineSimmel’splaceinsociologyandtoallotmoreattentiontothethinkerwhofirstdevelopedsomanyconceptswenowtakeforgrantedPeterHamiltonxGEORGSIMMELThispageintentionallyleftblankAcknowledgementsIwishtothankthestaffofthefollowinglibrarieswhoprovidedmaterialforthisvolume:GlasgowUniversityLibrary,theBritishLibrary,theUniversitätsbibliothekKonstanzandtheStaatsbibliothekPreussischerKulturbesitz(WBerlin)CompletionofthisstudywasfacilitatedbythegenerousrenewalofmyAlexandervonHumboldtFellowshipatKonstanzUniversityInthisconnection,IwishtothankHorstBaierforhishospitalityandassistanceThanksareduetoHJürgenDahmeandKlausCKöhnkeFinally,IwishtothankPruLarsenfortypingthemanuscriptForthenewedition,IwishtothankGainPoggiforhisinvitationtogiveapapertohisseminarattheEuropeanUniversityInstitute,Fiesole,whichhelpedmetooutlinesomeoftheideaspresentedinthePrefaceAndthanksareduetoMaureenMcQuillanfortypingthenewtextThispageintentionallyleftblankPrefaceINTRODUCTIONAnintroductiontothesociologistandsocialtheorist,GeorgSimmel(–),whoseworksrangeovertwentyvolumesandoverthreehundredessaysandotherpiecesandnowintwentyfourvolumesforhiscollectedworksinGermanmustnecessarilybeselectiveThisisallthemoretrueofatheoristwhoseinterestsandimpactencompassedphilosophy,sociology,socialpsychology,aesthetics,culturalanalysis,literatureandartTheoriginaltextofthisintroductionsoughttoindicatesomeofthebreadthofSimmel’sinfluenceinsocialtheoryandbeyondMorespecifically,withreferencetosociologyandsocialtheory,acasewasmadeforSimmelasindeedacontemporaryofEmileDurkheim(–),insofarashetoowasconcernedwithestablishingsociologyasanindependentdisciplineintheearlysoveradecadebeforeMaxWeberThebreadthofSimmel’searlyconcernshasnowbeenexploredindetailinKlausCKöhnke’soutstandingworkontheyoungSimmeldowntothemidsThefocusuponthreeofSimmel’smajorworksOnSocialDifferentiation(),ThePhilosophyofMoney()andSociology()suggested,inthefirstcase,thatsomecentralthemesinhissociologywerealreadyoutlinedinalongwithanearlyfoundationofsociologyinthesecond,thatinhismostsystematicworkinsocialtheory(despiteitstitle)hewasabletoexplore,inamannerhardlyexcelledsince,theinteractionofaneglectedaspectoftheeconomythemediationsofthemoneyforminsuchawayastoextendittothewholeofsocietyandtomodernculture(withitscontradictionbetweensubjectiveandobjectiveculture)andtherebytooutlineasignificanttheoryofmodernityandinthethirdcase,that,despitetheapparentheterogeneityofhisexplorationsofdiverseformsofsocialinteractionorsociation,acasecanbemadefordiscerningacoherentsociologicalprogrammefocusinguponthegeneralpropertiesofsocialinteractionTheexaminationofSimmel’sfoundationofsociologyinchapterthreetookupthesomewhatproblematicalrelationshiptosocialpsychologyHere,wewillfocusuponSimmel’sconceptionofsocietyAsidefromtheextensivetreatmentofasociologyofmoney,thediscussionofSimmel’sSociology()brieflyexploredhiscontributionstoasociologyofsociabilityandofspaceHere,otherinstancesofhisexplorationoftheformsofsociationandculturewillbeoutlinedtogiveafullerideaofthebreadthofSimmel’sconcernsInthediscussionofthemoneyeconomyandinthebriefoutlineofaspectsofSimmel’sessayonthemetropolis,hiscontributiontoatheoryofmodernityandmodernculturewereintimatedbutnotdevelopedTheintentionherewillbetoexpandupontheseandotherexplorationsofmodernityFinally,wewillbrieflyexaminetherelevanceofSimmel’scontributionstoatheoryofmodernityformorerecenttheoriesofpostmodernitySOCIOLOGYInessayspublishedin,and(thelatterthreetitled‘TheProblemofSociology’)andelsewhere,SimmelsoughttogroundsociologyasanindependentsocialsciencedisciplineThebasicprinciplesofthisfoundationforsociologyareostensiblysimplebutalsofarreachingTheycanbesummarisedasfollowsIntheworldeverythinginteractswitheverythingelseThispropositionistrueofthesocialworldtooSiegfriedKracauerarguedthatthiswasencapsulatedinacoreprincipleofthefundamentalinterrelatedness(Wesenszusammengehörigkeit)ofthemostdiversephenomenaAfocusuponinteractionisthereforeaconcernwithrelationsbetweenphenomena,withthereciprocaleffect(Wechselwirkung)ofphenomenawithoneanotherSociologymustinvestigatethediversityofinteractionsand,from,Simmeldefinessociologyasthestudyofthe‘formofsocialinteraction’ThediverseformsofsocialinteractionsignifyourparticipationintheprocessofbeingmembersofsocietyThusby(intheessay‘TheProblemofSociology’andinitsexpandedEnglishversion),SimmelamplifiesthestudyofformsofsocialinteractionbyintroducingafurtherconceptualisationThisresultsindefiningsociologyasthestudyofthe‘formsofsociationPREFACExv(Vergesellschaftung)’,thatis,theprocessesbywhichweengageinandaremembersofsocietySociologyisconcernedwiththe‘forms’ratherthanthe‘contents’ofsocialinteractionandsociationbecauseothersocialsciencedisciplinesalreadydealwiththesecontentsForthepurposesofanalysistheseformsareabstractedfromtheircontentsSociologyisconcernedwith’theinvestigationoftheforces,formsanddevelopmentofsociation,ofthecooperation,associationandcoexistenceofindividuals’ItdoesnottakeasitsstartingpointapreexistingsocietyastotalityRatheritinvestigateshowwhatwetermsocietycomesintobeing,andhowitispossibleSociology,inSimmel’ssense,is‘theonlysciencewhichreallyseekstoknowonlysocietysensustrictissimo’,andthatisreally‘thestudyofthatwhichinsocietyissociety’Thisdisciplineisgroundednotsomuchintermsofitssubjectmatterbutintermsofitsdistinctivemethod,whichreliesuponabstractingtheformsofsociationforsociologicalinvestigationIfsociationandsocialinteractionsoccuranywhereinthesocialworld,thentheissuearisesastowhetheranyofthemshouldbeprivilegedforsociologicalanalysisTheuniversalexistenceofinteractionsleadsSimmeltomaintainthatsociologyshouldexamineanyformofsociationsincenoneistooinsignificant(whetheritbeinteractionatmealtimes,therendezvous,flirtation,etc)Allformsofsociationmaybestudiedhistoricallyandcomparativelyinordertodiscovertheirgeneralfeaturesandproperties(astudywhichmightfocusuponthesameformwithdifferentcontents,asinthecomparisonofconflictintheeconomicandpoliticalspheres)SOCIETYSimmel’sfoundationforhissociologyclearlyhasimportantimplicationsforthewayinwhichwestudysocietyAswellasSimmel’sexplorationofthetranscendental,quasiKantianquestion‘Howissocietypossible’()andhisdelineationthereofthethreeapriorisofrole,individualityandstructure(seepp–),itispossibletodiscoveratleastfourconceptionsofsocietyinhisworkThefirstisthatofsocietyastotality,whichSimmelrejectsastheimmediateobjectofsociology,insofarasitisviewedas‘anabsoluteentity’(explicitlyarguingagainstHerbertSpencer,butalsoDurkheim)Rather,sincesociety‘isonlythesynthesisorthegeneraltermforthetotalityof…specificinteractions’,itmustremaina‘gradual’conceptuntilwehaveexploredthemyriadinteractionsthatxviGEORGSIMMELconstituteitHencewecanonlyanswerthequestion‘whatissociety’oncewehaveinvestigated‘allthosemodesandforcesofassociationwhichuniteitselements’Thisimplies,therefore,thatforSimmelsocietyisaconstellationofformsofsociation,includingemergentaswellaspermanentformsThus,Simmeldeclaresthat‘Iseesocietyeverywhere,whereanumberofhumanbeingsenterintointeractionandformatemporaryorpermanentunity’Theminimal‘number’thatiscrucialforSimmelisthreeThepropertiesofsociationcanbeexploredwiththeinteractionofthreeormorepersons(thoughoneofhisstudents,MartinBuber,exploredthesignificanceoftwoIandyou)TheentryofthethirdpersonasOtherandIandYouas‘We’isoneofthecrucialdifferencesbetweenthedyadicandtriadicrelationshipsThevarietyoftheformsofinteractionexploredbySimmelandtheirconstituentfeatureswillbeindicatedmorefullybelowButitisworthpointingtotwoidealorpureformsofinteractionexploredbySimmel:sociabilityasapureformofsociationthatmustbedevoidofseriouscontent,andexchangeas‘asociologicalphenomenonsuigeneris’,anditsreifiedforminmoneyexchangeAlessfullydevelopedbuthighlysignificantconceptionofsocietyistobefoundintheessays‘TheSociologyoftheSenses’(),‘TheProblemofSociology’()and‘HowisSocietyPossible’TheresocietyisconceivedasbeinggroundedintheexperienceandknowledgeofitsparticipantsWithrespecttoexperience,itshouldbeemphasizedherethatonmanyoccasionsSimmelhighlightstheimportanceofeverydayexperienceItistruethatmajorformationsandsystems(classes,thestate,religion,etc)appeartoconstitutethatwhichwecallsocietyButsociologyshouldalsobeconcernedwiththelessstructuredcrystallizationsofinteractionsthat‘remaininafluidstate

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