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首页 【Routledge 重要社会学家】Comte.pdf

【Routledge 重要社会学家】Comte.pdf

【Routledge 重要社会学家】Comte.pdf

上传者: calvino_lue 2012-07-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【Routledge 重要社会学家】Comtepdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含AUGUSTECOMTEAugusteComteiswidelyacknowledgedasthefounderofthescienceofsoci符等。

AUGUSTECOMTEAugusteComteiswidelyacknowledgedasthefounderofthescienceofsociologyandthe‘ReligionofHumanity’Inthisfascinatingstudy,thefirstmajorreassessmentofComte’ssociologyformanyyears,MikeGanedrawsonrecentscholarshipandpresentsanewreadingofthisremarkablefigureComte’scontributionstothehistoryandphilosophyofsciencehavedecisivelyinfluencedpositivemethodologiesHecoinedtheterm‘sociology’andgaveititsfirstcontent,andheisrenownedforhavingintroducedthesociologyofgenderandemotionintosociologyWhatislesswellknown,however,isthatComtecontributedtoethics,andindeedcoinedtheword‘altruism’Inthisimportantwork,GaneexaminesComte’ssociologicalvisionandshowsthatbecausehethoughtsociologycouldandshouldbereflexive,encyclopaedicandutopian,heconsideredtopicssuchasfetishism,polytheism,fate,love,andtherelationsbetweensociology,science,theologyandcultureThisfascinatingaccountofthebirthofsociologyfillswhattillnowhasbeenaconsiderablegapinthemarketforanaccessibletextonComte,basedonnewresearchGane’sworkisanessentialreadforallsociologistsandstudentsofthedisciplineMikeGaneisProfessorofSociologyattheDepartmentofSocialSciences,LoughboroughUniversityHisteachinginterestsareinthesociologyofpower,gender,consumercultureandintheoryHehaspublishedwidelyonDurkheimiansociology,onBaudrillard,andhaseditedtwocollectionsonFoucaultHisrecentwritingshaveconcernedComte,Marx,Mauss,Lyotard,Canguilhem,Baudrillard,DerridaandVirilioKEYSOCIOLOGISTSEditedbyPETERHAMILTONNowreissued,thisclassicseriesprovidesstudentswithconciseandreadableintroductionstothework,lifeandinfluenceofthegreatsociologicalthinkersWithindividualvolumescoveringindividualthinkers,fromEmileDurkheimtoPierreBourdieu,eachauthortakesadistinctline,assessingtheimpactofthesemajorfiguresonthedisciplineaswellasthecontemporaryrelevanceoftheirworkThesepocketsizedintroductionswillbeidealforbothundergraduatesandpreuniversitystudentsalike,aswellasforanyonewithaninterestinthethinkerswhohaveshapedourtimeSeriestitlesinclude:EMILEDURKHEIMKenThompsonTHEFRANKFURTSCHOOLANDITSCRITICSTomBottomoreGEORGSIMMELDavidFrisbyMARXANDMARXISMPeterWorsleyMAXWEBERFrankParkinMICHELFOUCAULTBarrySmartPIERREBOURDIEURichardJenkinsSIGMUNDFREUDRobertBocockZYGMUNTBAUMANTonyBlackshawAUGUSTECOMTEMikeGaneAUGUSTECOMTEMIKEGANEFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusinessMikeGaneAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookhasbeenrequestedISBN:–––(hbk)ISBN:–––(pbk)ISBN:––––(hbk)ISBN:––––(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”Ifthenoveltyanddifficultyofmycreativetaskshouldcompelmeoccasionallytodesertmyownlogicalprecept,thewarningIhavenowgivenwillenablethereadertorectifyanyerrorsintowhichImaylapse(Comte)Hisanalysisofhistory,towhichthereismuchtobeadded…wedonotthinklikelyever,initsgeneralfeatures,willeverbesuperseded(Mill,:–)Methodfromeverypointofviewhasahighervaluethandoctrine(Comte)Thehermit…willdoubtwhetherbehindeachofhiscavestheredoesnotlieanotherdeepercave…anabyssbehindevery‘foundation’(Nietzsche)ContentsviiTableofContentsPrefaceixAcknowledgementsxiAbbreviationsxivChapterAnIntroductiontoComte’sIdeasChapterTheComteanIllusionChapterTheContextandMaterialsofSociologyChapterTheIntimationsofSocialScienceandaNewPoliticsChapterComte’sHereticalReportonKnowledgeChapterButWhyDidComteNeedSociologyviiiContentsChapterASociologicalTheoryofModernityChapterSpiritualPower,SociologyandHumanityChapterASecondSociologyChapterSociologistsandtheRegimeofFetishesChapterComte’sFuturesGlossaryNotesBibliographyIndexPrefaceixPrefaceMyinterestinconductingresearchintoComte’sworkbeganafterIhadwrittenabookonDurkheim’ssociologicalmethodinanddecidedtoexaminewideraspectsoftheworkofnineteenthcenturytheorists,especiallytheirworkongenderThisresultedinabookongender,theoryandpersonalrelationships(),inwhichthereisachapteronComteInreadingComteforthatbookIbegantoseehowmuchofDurkheim’smethodwasprefiguredinearlierwritingsofthenineteenthcentury,andhowmuchmyearlieressayonDurkheimshouldhaveacknowledgedthisdebtIhavetriedtoremedythisaccountinmyrecentstudy,FrenchSocialTheory()SubsequentlyIhavebecomeinterestedinComte’ssociologymorespecifically,anditisinthisbookthatIsetoffinsearchofthefirst‘sociology’,andthefateofthesociologicallawComteclaimedtohavediscoveredinatorridfewdaysinHepresentedhislawinanumberofshortessaysnowoftencalledthe‘opuscules’inthefollowingyears,butafullpresentationanddemonstrationofithadtowaittothefinalvolumesofhisCourseinPositivePhilosophy(–)Thelawwascalledthelawofthethreestates(‘loidestroisétats’),whichheclaimedprovidedthefundamentaldiscoveryoftheobjectandthelogicofanewscience,thusfoundingmodernsociologyMypurposeistosearchforthenatureofthediscoveryitself(ifthereisone),andonlycommentonAugusteComtehimselfasaperson,whereitseemsnecessaryxPrefaceforcontextualisationorexplanationofthelogicofhisthoughtIfollowsomeofmyanalyticideasintotheworkofhiscontemporariesandsubsequentwritingsofsociologiststolocateComte’sparticularpositioninthisdisciplineJeanMichelBerthelot()arguesthatComte’sthoughtbelongstotheprehistoryofthemoderndisciplineButeveninMichelFoucault’sarchaeologyofthesocialsciencesintheeighteenthandearlynineteenthcenturiesComtegetsbarelyamention,sinceforFoucaulttherealsourcesoftheemergingsocialscienceslieelsewhereThuswehavehereapeculiarcaseofexclusionofsociologicalpositivism,ofintellectualdemotionvergingoneliminationfromtherecordInfactitisfiftyyearssinceWJHSprottsaid‘Comte’stheoryisnowadaysbutamuseumpiece’(:),aphraserepeatedtwentyyearsagobyRalfDahrendorf(inMommsenandOsterhammel,:)ButinwhichmuseumisComte’ssociologyondisplayPerhapsonecouldpointtotheworkofRonaldFletcher,whoinhisnotestoaneditionofComte’searlywritings(Comte,a:),claimedthattherewasacontinuingComteantraditioninBritishsociologythatcouldbefoundinthecollectionTheScienceofSocietyandtheUnityofMankind(Fletcher(ed)),butturningtothevolumeitselfthereareindeednoindicationsofthisclaiminthecollectionandfewreferencestoComteItistruethattherewerefromaseriesofAugusteComteMemorialTrustLectures,establishedbythe‘EnglishPositivistCommittee’(givenbysuchwritersasIsaiahBerlin,MorrisGinsberg,GilbertRyle,AJAyer,andbyRonaldFletcherhimself())Ithinkitfairtosaythatthiswasnota‘tradition’inanycoherentsense,andthereisnownolineagetothesmall‘positivistmovement’thatonceexistedinBritainToday,however,leadingintroductorybooksonsocialandsociologicaltheoryarenowincludingComteonceagainwitness,forexample,thosebyLarryRay,Ritzer,andShillingandMellorsThenewJournalofClassicalSociologyhascarriedalongreviewarticlecalled‘L’EffetComte’byThomasKemple(,()–),symptomaticandindicativeofthisnewinterestSteveFuller’sTheNewSociologicalImagination()placesComtecentrestageAcknowledgementsxiAcknowledgementsTherearemanypeopleIshouldthankforhelpinonewayoranotherinrelationtothisbookMyfirstencounterswithComte’sworkwereasastudentatLeicesterUniversity(lecturesonComtebyEricDunningandIlyaNeustadt)inthemidswheretheinfluenceofNorbertEliaswaspredominantbutneverunquestionedinamilieuwhichincludedAnthonyGiddens,TerryJohnson,BarryHindess,ChristopherBryant,DaveChaney,NicosMouzelisandMaryMacIntoshIalsoencounteredadifferentComteinthepostgraduatemilieuattheLondonSchoolofEconomicswhereIdidmydoctoralstudies,andwhereIencounteredthewritingsofBachelardandCanguilhem(thanksparticularlytoBenBrewster,TonyCutler,MikeRadford,GretaJones,TedBenton,PaulHirst,andtoconversationswithStephenGaukroger,ErnestGellner,ImreLatakos,DavidMartin,DonaldMacRae,DominiqueLecourtandLouisAlthusser)IhavesubsequentlytaughtcourseswhereComtehasfiguredasamajortopicandresourceatLoughboroughUniversity,andIoweadebttomanystudentsandstaffmembersandvisitors(particularlyMariamFraser,GeorgesSalemohamed,MikePickering,JimMcGuigan,DennisSmith,MichaelBillig,SteveBrown,LeslieSklair,BrunoLatourandJeanBaudrillard)IhavepresentedpapersonComtetomanyuniversitydepartmentsandatinternationalconferences,andIwouldliketothankxiiAcknowledgementsinparticularthosewhocontributedtodiscussionsatLancasterUniversity(especiallyScottLashandLarryRay),LeicesterUniversity(especiallyDavidAshton,JoeBanks,AnneWitzandJackBarbalet),ajointSussexWarwickseminarheldatSussexUniversity(particularlyAndrewWernick,CharlesTurner,RobertFineandPeterWagner),furthereventsatWarwick(particularlyAndrewBenjamin,KeithAnsellPearson,ClaudeLefortandSlavoj*i$ek),aGeorgesCanguilhemConferenceheldinLondon(particularlyPaulRabinow,FrançoisDelaporteandMichaelLynch)IoweadebttotheeditorofRenaissanceandModernStudies,ColinHeywood,andtomembersoftheeditorialboardofEconomyandSociety,especiallyBeverleyBrown,MaximeMolyneux,ThomasOsborne,AliRattansi,NikolasRose,GrahameThompson,NigelThrift,TonyWoodiwiss,TalalAsad,FrankPearceandSamiZubaidaTheCentreforDurkheimianStudiesatOxfordhasheldmanystimulatingworkshopsinwhichComteanthemeshavebeendiscussedindetail(particularthankstoBillPickering,NickAllen,WillieWattsMiller,JosepLlobera,SusanStedmanJones,MikeHawkins,KennethThompson,PhilipMellors,andguestspeakersnotablyJeffreyAlexander,EdwardTiryakian,LionelKochanandJackHayward)IalsowouldliketothankparticipantsattheAugusteComteBicentenialColloquesheldinParisinandtheCerisylaSalleColloque,particularlyJasodharaBagchi,DanielBecquemont,JeanMichelBerthelot,LaurentClauzade,JulietteGrange,JohanHeilbron,AngèleKremerMarietti,MaryPickering,MichelBourdeau,JeanFrançoisBraunsteinandAnniePetitAtotherconferencesIhavehadfruitfulconversationsonComteanthemeswithTerryWright(atCork)andGeorgeRitzer(atBrunel),andatoneconferenceinParistoananonymousmemberoftheaudiencewholeantovertomeandsaidquietly‘afterPierreArnauddiedtherehavebeennotrueComteansinFrance’FinallyIwouldliketothankMoniqueArnaud,andmynephewNicholasGaneforallkindsofhelpfuladvice,encouragement,assistanceandconstructivedisbeliefEveryonementionedhelpedmeinonewayoranothertofindoutthelieoftheland,clarifyandsharpenmyideas,butIamnaturallyintheendresponsibleforanymistakesoffact,conceptionorinterpretationIwouldliketothankthemanyseminarandconferenceparticipants,butalsoanumberofeditorsandpublishersforpermissiontodrawfromvariouschaptersandarticlesFirstthefollowingpapersgiventoseminarsandconferences:‘SociologicalTheoryandGender:AugusteComte’,SociologyDepartment,LeicesterUniversity()‘Comte’sPositivismasScienceFiction’,DepartmentofSociology,LancasterUniversity()‘Comte’sLawoftheThreeStates’,DurkheimStudiesCentre,Oxford()Acknowledgementsxiii‘DurkheimcontreComte’,InternationalColloque,Bordeaux()‘ComteandDurkheim’sConceptofSocialPathology’,MaisonFrançaise,Oxford()‘Comte’sTheoryofAbnormalSocialForms’,OxfordUniversity()‘Comte’sSociology’,CentreforCriticalSocialTheory,SussexUniversity()‘LaScienceSociale’,(TableRonde),ComteColloqueParis()‘FetishisminComte’sSocialTheory’,(SocialityMaterialityConference),BrunelUniversity()‘VariationvsPluralityinFrenchSocialTheoryfromComtetoBaudrillard’,WarwickUniversity()‘L’ÉtatMetaphysiqueetsaPeriodisationInterne’,Colloque,CerisylaSalle()‘IntotheAbyssTheFirstFrenchSociologists’,InauguralLecture,LoughboroughUniversity()‘FrenchSociologyToday’,WarwickUniversity()Andsecondthefollowingchaptersandarticles:‘UnresolvedComte’,EconomyandSociety(),vol,,pp–‘LaDistinctionduNormaletduPathologique’,inBorlandietal(eds)(),LesRèglesdelaMéthodeSociologique,Paris:L’Harmattan,pp–‘EngenderingtheEndofEuropeanHistory:AugusteComte’sCultofWomanattheHeartoftheWesternRepublic’,RenaissanceandModernStudies(),vol,pp–‘CanguilhemandtheProblemofPathology’(),EconomyandSociety,vol,–,pp–‘DurkheimContreComte’,inCuin,H(ed),LaMéthodeDurkheimienned’unSiècleal’Autre(),Paris:PressesUniversitairesdeFrance,pp–‘“ReadingGenderFutures”,fromComtetoBaudrillard’,SocialEpistemology(),vol,,pp–‘NormativityandPathology’,Philosophy,PsychiatryandPsychology,()vol,,pp–ReviewofAugusteComteandtheReligionofHumanity(Wernick),TheSociologicalReview(),vol,,pp–‘DansleGouffreEntreScienceetReligion,lesPremiersSociologuesFrançais’,inBourdeau,M,Braunstein,JandPetit,A(eds),AugusteComteAujourd’hui(),pp–‘Introduction’,inMauss,MTheNatureofSociology,Oxford:BerghahnPress(),ppix–xxii‘Untamed’,TheSemioticReview(),vol,,pp–xivAbbreviationsAbbreviationsCPPCourseinPositivePhilosophy(,vols)Irefertothisinthetextas‘Course’SPPSystemofPositivePolity(,vols)Irefertothisworkas‘System’NOTEONTEXTSThereisanobviousproblemtodayforthosewhochoosetowriteonComte:Comte’stextsinEnglishManyofthetranslationsareveryoldandindeednotgoodonthewholeUnfortunatelymorerecenttranslationsarenotalwaysbetterTranslatorshaveoftenfelttheneedto‘improve’thetextsbyomissionofkeyclausesorqualifyingadjectivesThefamousattemptbyHarrietMartineautocondenseComte’ssixvolumeCourseinPositivePhilosophymayhaveaidedpopularisationinthenineteenthcentury,butithasmeantthatreadershavehadtheirtextdumbeddowntoaconsiderabledegree,especiallyitstheoreticalcontentMorerecently,MargaretClarke’stranslationofaselectionfromtheCoursechangesthecontentbyeliminatingtext–herwordsarethat‘manyofComte’spleonasmsandexpletives–adjectives,adverbs,subordinatephrases,havebeenprunedaway,astheyareheavyinEnglishandobscureratherthanAbbreviationsxvilluminatethethought’(inComte,c,Andreski(ed),p)Anexample:Comte’stext,renderedliterally,says,‘thepresentmentaldisorderis,inthelastanalysis,duetothesimultaneoususeofthreeradicallyincompatiblephilosophies…’(,i,,Andreski(ed),:p)Clarkehascuttheword‘radically’thusflatteningandweakeninganabsolutelykeytheoreticalpointThuseventhisnoncondensedtranslationcannotberelieduponforfineaccuracyIfweturntoanalternativetranslation,thatofFrederickFerré()whotranslatedthefirsttwochaptersoftheCourseonly,wefindthesamepassagetranslatedas,‘theactualconfusionofmen’smindsisatbottomduetothesimultaneousemploymentofthreeradicallyincompatiblephilosophies’(p)HereComte’swords,‘ledésordreactueldesintelligences’arerendered‘actualconfusionofmens’minds’whichisprobablymoremisleadingthanClarke’s‘presentmentaldisorder’,butatleasttheradicalnatureoftheoppositionsisregisteredMyaiminthisbookistopresentadiscussionofComte’sideasthatisasfaraspossibleaccessibletotoday’sstudentsThus,wherepossible,IgivereferencestothetextsavailableinEnglishButasIhaveveryoftenhadtoalteratranslationtobringoutanessentialtheoreticalpointthereferencesaretotheplaceinwhichComte’sdiscussioncanbefoundinEnglish,nottotheexactphrasingInthiswayIhavethusnotusedexpressionssuchas‘translationmodified’or‘amended’ItisalwayspossibletolocatetheoriginalFrenchsourceandthesiteofthequotationinanEnglishtranslationThereare,atthemoment,manyofComte’sworksavailableinpaperbackinFrench,somewithintroductionsandnoteswhichIhavefoundtobeveryusefulThereis,however,nobookinEnglishorFrenchwhichcurrentlyoffersareliableintroductiontoComte’ssociologicalthoughtxviAbbreviationsAnIntroductiontoComte’sIdeasAnIntroductiontoComte’sIdeasComteassumed,likeMarx,thattherevolutioninmoderncultureandsocietyhadnotyetreacheditsfinaldestinationThemodernrevolutioncouldnotbereducedtoanaccountoftheeventsleadinguptoJulyandtheofficialoutbreakoftheFrenchRevolutionItsroots,heargued,couldbetracedbacktothelatemiddleages,andthecourseofthelongrevolutionstillhadtobedeterminedAllhisworksevenhisearlyessays,werecomposedwiththeintentionofconstructingthefirstadequateexplanationofthelong‘moderncrisis’andofindicatinghowitmightbeendedAlthoughthereiscontroversyaboutjusthowconsistentComte’sthoughtwasinworkingouthissolution,thereisnodoubtthatinarathersurprisingway,hedidcompletetheprogrammehesethimselfinhisearlytwentiesHefoundedsociologyaspartofthislargerproject,thatisheconceivedsociologyasthescientificbaseforphilosophicalandpoliticalreflectionswhichcouldprovidethedoctrineofanewpoliticalpowerTheinitialprogrammewaswrittenundertheinfluenceofSaintSimonwithwhomheworkedfrom–HowmuchheowedtoSaintSimonisnownotindoubt,whatisclearisthattheideasheinheritedweregivenaradicalunityandcoherence,anewidiom,notfoundinthefragmentaryessaysofSaintSimonItseemsverypr

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