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Science June 8 2012.pdf

Science June 8 2012

zheng6822 2012-07-05 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Science June 8 2012pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含CONTENTSVolumeIssuewwwsciencemagorgSCIENCEVOLJUNECOVERHumanintestinalbacte符等。

CONTENTSVolumeIssuewwwsciencemagorgSCIENCEVOLJUNECOVERHumanintestinalbacteria(fieldofviewwidth:~µm)ThehumangutisteemingwithsymbioticmicrobesthatinteractwiththeirhosttomaintainhealthAjointScienceandScienceTranslationalMedicinespecialsection(seepage)exploresadvancesinmicrobialecology,microbialandhostmetabolisms,andinteractionsbetweengutmicrobesandthehostimmunesystemComplementaryarticlesdiscusshowtoapplythisknowledgetoboosthealthandnutrition,combatinfectiousdisease,andcontrolnoncommunicablediseasessuchasobesityanddiabetesFrontcoverimage:CopyrightDennisKunkelMicroscopy,IncDEPARTMENTSThisWeekinScienceEditors’ChoiceScienceStaffNewProductsScienceCareerspageEDITORIALTacklingtheMicrobiomeLeroyHood>>TheGutMicrobiotasectionpNEWSOFTHEWEEKAroundupoftheweek’stopstoriesNEWSANALYSISOilSpillResearchersLoseFighttoProtectDocumentsGrowingDistasteforNuclearPowerDimsProspectsforRDEuropeMullsPlanstoBoostResearchinPoorerRegionsChinaPushesthe‘InternetofThings’NEWSFOCUSDoSportsEventsGiveMicrobesaChancetoScore>>SciencePodcastFromSoldierstoVeterans,GoodHealthtoBadCrossoverImmuneCellsBlurtheBoundaries>>ReportpLETTERSClimate’sRoleinPolarBearPastKEGalbreathetalWaterCycleVariesoverLandandSeaMLRodericketalEuropeanDualUseProceduresJRathTheBUZZ:TheCostofOpenAccessBOOKSETALTheAgeofInisghtERKandel,reviewedbyCGrossAGuidetoAcademiaPChakrabarty,reviewedbyAYKawaharaPOLICYFORUMSWaterResourcesManagement:WhatShouldBeIntegratedJGHeringandKMIngoldASaferNuclearEnterpriseSDDrelletalPERSPECTIVESSmallButExtremelyToughKETanner>>ResearchArticlepVirulenceorCompetitionVSperandio>>ReportpTheGutMicrobiotasectionpNuclearSpinQuantumMemoryPoisedtoTaketheLeadCBoehmeandDRMcCamey>>ReportsppandVitaminKTakesChargeSBhaleraoandTRClandinin>>ReportpDancingtotheTuneoftheGlacialCyclesNKurita>>ReportpGatheringInterstellarGasSRedfield>>ReportpCONTENTScontinued>>SPECIALSECTIONTheGutMicrobiotaINTRODUCTIONTheGutMicrobiotaNEWSTakingStockoftheHumanMicrobiomeandDiseaseMyMicrobiomeandMePigsasStandInsforMicrobiomeStudiesPERSPECTIVESHonorThyGutSymbiontsReduxJIGordon>>SciencePodcastSciTranslMedPerspectivebyGordonetalIsItTimeforaMetagenomicBasisofTherapeuticsHJHaiserandPJTurnbaughREVIEWSTheApplicationofEcologicalTheoryTowardanUnderstandingoftheHumanMicrobiomeEKCostelloetal>>SciTranslMedReviewbyLemonetalHostGutMicrobiotaMetabolicInteractionsJKNicholsonetal>>SciTranslMedReviewbyHolmesetalInteractionsBetweentheMicrobiotaandtheImmuneSystemLVHooperetal>>SciTranslMedReviewbyBlumbergandPowrie>>EditorialpPerspectivepReportspp,,andandathttp:scimaggutmicrobiotaPublishedbyAAASwwwsciencemagorgSCIENCEVOLJUNECONTENTSpagepageBREVIACrystalStructureofHumanEnterovirusPPlevkaetalThestructureofaviruslinkedtoneurologicaldiseaserevealshowdrugstargetingvirusesinthisfamilycanbemodifiedRESEARCHARTICLETheStomatopodDactylClub:AFormidableDamageTolerantBiologicalHammerJCWeaveretalThestructureofmantisclubsisoptimizedtopreventcompletefailurecausedbyrepetitiveimpacts>>PerspectivepSciencePodcastREPORTSQuantumInformationStorageforoversUsingDonorSpinsinaSi“SemiconductorVacuum”MStegeretalAnalmostisotopicallypuresampleofSiprovidesavacuumlikeenvironmentforPqubitsRoomTemperatureQuantumBitMemoryExceedingOneSecondPCMaureretalDefectsindiamondcanbeoperatedasquantummemoriesatroomtemperature>>PerspectivepBrightCoherentUltrahighHarmonicsinthekeVXrayRegimefromMidInfraredFemtosecondLasersTPopmintchevetalAnelectronexcitationprocessinahighpressuregasconvertsinfraredlightintoawellconfinedbeamofxraysTheHeliosphere’sInterstellarInteraction:NoBowShockDJMcComasetalObservationsfromtheInterstellarBoundaryExplorerarenotconsistentwithabowshockaheadoftheheliosphere>>PerspectivepTemplatingThreeDimensionalSelfAssembledStructuresinBilayerBlockCopolymerFilmsATavakkoliKGetalAnarrayofpostsguidesthebilayerassemblyofblockcopolymerswithindependentcontrolofmorphologyandorientationTitaniumandZincOxideNanoparticlesAreProtonCoupledElectronTransferAgentsJNSchraubenetalProtonscanplaymoreofarolethanpreviouslyappreciatedinchargetransfereventsatnanoparticleinterfacesInterglacialHydroclimateintheTropicalWestPacificThroughtheLatePleistoceneANMeckleretalPrecipitationinBorneo,largelyinvariantduringthelastfourinterglacialperiods,decreasedduringglacialterminations>>PerspectivepGlobalHoneyBeeViralLandscapeAlteredbyaParasiticMiteSJMartinetalThearrivalonHawaiiofthemiteVarroahasdecreaseddiversityandincreasedprevalenceofdeformedwingvirusVitaminKIsaMitochondrialElectronCarrierThatRescuesPinkDeficiencyMVosetalAddingvitaminKrescuesfruitfliesbearingamutationinaParkinson’sdiseasegenehomolog>>PerspectivepActinNetworkArchitectureCanDetermineMyosinMotorActivityACReymannetalMyosincrumplesupantiparallelactinfibersandleavesparallelbundlesintactInteractionsBetweenCommensalFungiandtheCTypeLectinReceptorDectinInfluenceColitisIDIlievetalMammalscontainresidentfungalintestinalpopulationsthatinfluencediseasesusceptibility>>TheGutMicrobiotasectionpChemokineGeneSilencinginDecidualStromalCellsLimitsTCellAccesstotheMaternalFetalInterfacePNancyetalTurningofftheexpressionintheplacentaofTcellattractantsallowsthemothertotoleratethefetusInnateLymphoidCellsPromoteAnatomicalContainmentofLymphoidResidentCommensalBacteriaGFSonnenbergetalLymphocytespreventbacteriafromspreadingbeyondgutassociatedlymphoidtissuesandcausingsystemicinflammation>>NewsstorypTheGutMicrobiotasectionpRegulatedVirulenceControlstheAbilityofaPathogentoCompetewiththeGutMicrobiotaNKamadaetalVirulencegenesandnutritionalrequirementsdeterminethecourseofagastroentericbacterialinfectioninmice>>PerspectivepTheGutMicrobiotasectionpCONTENTScontinued>>CREDITS(TOPTOBOTTOM):TENIOPOPMINTCHEVANDBRADBAXLEY,JILA,UNIVERSITYOFCOLORADOATBOULDERILIYANILIEVPublishedbyAAASwwwsciencemagorgSCIENCEVOLJUNECONTENTSSCIENCEXPRESSwwwsciencexpressorgMassivePhytoplanktonBloomsUnderArcticSeaIceKRArrigoetalInmidsummer,diatomshavetakenadvantageofthinningicecovertofeedinnutrientrichwaterssciencedSarmSarmIsRequiredforActivationofanInjuryInducedAxonDeathPathwayJMOsterlohetalMutationsinascaffoldproteinblocktheWalleriandegenerationofaxonsinfliesandmicescienceMMSAssemblesIronSulfurProteinsRequiredforDNAMetabolismandGenomicIntegrityOStehlingetalAproteinthoughttobeinvolvedinDNArepairis,infact,responsibleforinsertingironsulfurclustersintoenzymesscienceMMSLinksCytoplasmicIronSulfurClusterAssemblytoDNAMetabolismKGarietalAproteinthatassociateswithDNAmetabolismenzymesservesasaplatformfortheintegrationofironsulfurclustersscienceSCIENCENOWwwwsciencenoworgHighlightsFromOurDailyNewsCoverageRaindropsDon’tSwatDownMosquitoesTheannoyinginsect’stoughbodyletsitsurvivemidaircollisionswithmuchbiggerraindropsandkeeponflyinghttp:scimagRaindropsMosquitoesAnAsianOriginforHumanAncestorsAMyanmarfossilsuggeststhatourearliestpredecessorsmaynothavecomefromAfricahttp:scimagAsianOriginWhereHavetheHawkSizedInsectsGoneAstudysuggeststhatasbirdflightimproved,thesizeoftheirinsectpreydroppedconsiderablyhttp:scimagLargeInsectsSCIENCESIGNALINGwwwsciencesignalingorgTheSignalTransductionKnowledgeEnvironmentJuneissue:http:scimagssRESEARCHARTICLE:MatrixRigidityControlsEndothelialDifferentiationandMorphogenesisofCardiacPrecursorsKshitizetalCulturingcardiacprecursorsonasurfacewiththesamerigidityashearttissueincreasestheyieldofendothelialcellsSCIENCEONLINESCIENCE(ISSN)ispublishedweeklyonFriday,exceptthelastweekinDecember,bytheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScience,NewYorkAvenue,NW,Washington,DCPeriodicalsMailpostage(publicationNo)paidatWashington,DC,andadditionalmailingofficesCopyrightbytheAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofScienceThetitleSCIENCEisaregisteredtrademarkoftheAAASDomesticindividualmembershipandsubscription(issues):$($allocatedtosubscription)Domesticinstitutionalsubscription(issues):$Foreignpostageextra:Mexico,Caribbean(surfacemail)$othercountries(airassistdelivery)$Firstclass,airmail,student,andemeritusratesonrequestCanadianrateswithGSTavailableuponrequest,GST#PublicationsMailAgreementNumberPrintedintheUSAChangeofaddress:Allowweeks,givingoldandnewaddressesanddigitaccountnumberPostmaster:SendchangeofaddresstoAAAS,POBox,Washington,DC–Singlecopysales:$currentissue,$backissueprepaidincludessurfacepostagebulkratesonrequestAuthorizationtophotocopymaterialforinternalorpersonaluseundercircumstancesnotfallingwithinthefairuseprovisionsoftheCopyrightActisgrantedbyAAAStolibrariesandotherusersregisteredwiththeCopyrightClearanceCenter(CCC)TransactionalReportingService,providedthat$perarticleispaiddirectlytoCCC,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MATheidentificationcodeforScienceisScienceisindexedintheReader’sGuidetoPeriodicalLiteratureandinseveralspecializedindexesRESEARCHARTICLE:CoupledActivationandDegradationofeEFKRegulatesProteinSynthesisinResponsetoGenotoxicStressFKruiswijketalPERSPECTIVE:FBoxProteinsElongateTranslationDuringStressRecoverySMelocheandPPRouxDNAdamagetriggersthephosphorylationoffactorsinvolvedinproteinsynthesistoregulatepolypeptideelongationPROTOCOL:LabelingandIdentificationofDirectKinaseSubstratesSMCarlsonandFMWhiteAstrategythatusesanalogsensitivekinasesenablestheidentificationoflowabundancekinasesubstratesSCIENCETRANSLATIONALMEDICINEwwwsciencetranslationalmedicineorgIntegratingMedicineandScienceJuneissue:http:scimagstmTheGutMicrobiota:JointSpecialSectionPERSPECTIVE:TheHumanGutMicrobiotaandUndernutritionJIGordonetalInteractionsbetweenbreastmilkandthedevelopinggutmicrobiotaandimmunesystemmodulatemalnutritionREVIEW:MicrobiotaTargetedTherapiesAnEcologicalPerspectiveKPLemonetalInsightsfromecologywillhelptodrivethedevelopmentofmicrobiotatargetedtherapeuticsREVIEW:TherapeuticModulationofMicrobiotaHostMetabolicInteractionsEHolmesetalAbnormalmicrobialhostmetabolicinteractionsunderlyingdiseaseprovidenewtargetsfortherapeuticinterventionREVIEW:Microbiota,Disease,andBacktoHealthAMetastableJourneyRBlumbergandFPowrieThegutmicrobiotaaffectsmanyimmunerelateddiseasesthenextstepistoharnessthisknowledgefortherapeutics>>ForrelatedSciencecontent,seehttp:scimaggutmicrobiotaRESEARCHARTICLE:PreexistingBCGSpecificTCellsImproveIntravesicalImmunotherapyforBladderCancerCBiotetalPreexistingimmunitytobacillusCalmetteGuérin(BCG)improvestreatmentresponsetointravesicalBCGtherapyforbladdercancerinmousemodelsandhumansRESEARCHARTICLE:IdentificationofNaturallyOccurringFattyAcidsoftheMyelinSheathThatResolveNeuroinflammationPPHoetalMyelinfattyacidsresolveneuroinflammationRESEARCHARTICLE:PhaseStudyofStereotacticBodyRadiotherapyandInterleukinTumorandImmunologicalResponsesSKSeungetalStereotacticbodyradiationtherapyenhancestumorresponseratetohighdoseinterleukininaphasestudyRESEARCHARTICLE:AValidatedTumorgraftModelRevealsActivityofDovitinibAgainstRenalCellCarcinomaSSivanandetalAnextensivelyvalidatedtumorgraftmodelshowsactivityofinvestigationalagentdovitinibagainstrenalcellcarcinomaRESEARCHARTICLE:NoninvasiveWholeGenomeSequencingofaHumanFetusJOKitzmanetalSequencingofcellfreefetalderivedDNAfrommaternalplasmaprovidesanoninvasivewaytopredictthefetalgenomesequenceSCIENCECAREERSwwwsciencecareersorgcareermagazineFreeCareerResourcesforScientistsEmergingProfessions:KnowledgeBrokerSAHolgateOpportunitiesareopeningupforscientistsinterestedinfacilitatingknowledgeexchangebetweenresearchersandawiderangeofstakeholdershttp:scimagKnowledgeBrokersAHiddenAcademicWorkforceSCarpenterForuniversitystaffscientists,therewardsarefaroffthetenuretrackhttp:scimagHiddenWorkforceSCIENCEPODCASTwwwsciencemagorgmultimediapodcastFreeWeeklyShowOntheJuneSciencePodcast:harnessingbiologicalhammers,respectingourmicrobialresidents,thehealthimplicationsofmassgatherings,andmorePublishedbyAAASEDITEDBYSTELLAHURTLEYCREDITS:(TOP)SILKEBARON(LEFT)KEVINGOTRIKStomatopodsaremarinecrustaceansthatusehammerlikeclawsfordefenseandtoattacktheirpreyTheclawsundergorepeatedhighvelocityandhighforceimpactsWeaveretal(pseethePerspectivebyTanner)usedavarietyoftechniquestoexaminethestructure,mechanicalbehavior,andtougheningmechanismsoftheclawofthePeacockMantisshrimpTheclaw’scompositestructureisoptimizedfortoughness,whichhelpstopreventthecompletefailurethatmightarisefromtheclaw’srepetitivehammeringExtendingQuantumMemoryPracticalapplicationsinquantumcommunicationandquantumcomputationrequirethebuildingblocksquantumbitsandquantummemorytobesufficientlyrobustandlonglivedtoallowformanipulationandstorage(seethePerspectivebyBoehmeandMcCarney)Stegeretal(p)demonstratethatthenuclearspinsofPimpuritiesinanalmostisotopicallypuresampleofSicanhaveacoherencetimeofaslongassecondsatatemperatureof~KIndiamondatroomtemperature,Maureretal(p)showthataspinbasedqubitsystemcomprisedofanisotopicimpurity(C)inthevicinityofacolordefect(anitrogenvacancycenter)couldbemanipulatedtohaveacoherencetimeexceedingonesecondSuchlifetimespromisetomakespinbasedarchitecturesfeasiblebuildingblocksforquantuminformationscienceTotheNextLevelBlockcopolymerswillspontaneouslyseparateintoarangeofmicrostructuresthatdependonthepolymerblocklengthsandchemicalcompositions,andhavebeenusedasatemplatingmaterialbecauseonecanselectivelyetchorfunctionalizeoneoftheblocksHowever,creatingatemplatethatismorethanonelayerthickischallengingTavakkoliKGetal(p)usedanarrayofpoststoprovideindependentandsimultaneouscontrolofthemorphologyandorientationoftwolayersofblockcopolymersandwereabletocreatelocalvariationsinthecurvatureandspacingofthedomainsFromLongtoShortWhenyouplayastringinstrument,youraisethefrequency,orpitch,ofthenotebyshorteningthevibratingportionofthestring:Dropthelengthinhalf,andyouhearaharmonicatdoublethefrequencyItispossibletodoessentiallythesamethingwithlightwavesbyusingselectiveexcitationandrelaxationprocessesoftheelectronsincrystalsorhighpressuregasesthroughwhichthebeamoflightisdirectedtoproducelightharmonicsOverthepastdecade,researchershavebeenoptimizingtheconversionofredlighttothefaredgeoftheultraviolet,whichcorrespondstotensofharmonicsPopmintchevetal(p)nowshowthatmidinfraredlightcanundergoaprocessinhighpressuregastogenerateultrahighharmonicsuptoordersgreaterthaninthexrayregimeNoShockAheadoftheSunTheboundaryoftheheliosphereistheregionwherethesolarwindinteractswithinterstellarspace,anditmarkstheedgeofoursolarsystemBasedonobservationsfromNASA’sInterstellarBoundaryExplorer,McComasetal(p,publishedonlineMayseethePerspectivebyRedfield)determinedvaluesforlocalinterstellarparameterssuchasspeed,direction,andtemperatureandshowthattheseandotherrecentconstraintsarenotconsistentwithabowshockaheadoftheheliosphere,aspreviouslybelievedPlusesandMinusesBecauseoftheirhighsurfaceareaandtunableelectronicstructure,nanoparticlesareofinterestfornextgenerationphotocatalysisandlightharvestingapplicationsManyoftheseapplicationsinvolveelectrontransfereventsattheparticlesurfaceafterlightabsorptionSchraubenetal(p)nowshow,throughaseriesofradicaltrapkineticstudies,thatprotontransfercanconcurrentlyaccompanyelectrontransferatthesolventinterfacesoftwocommonnanoparticleformulations(oxidesoftitaniumandofzinc)TheresultsmayhelpintheoptimizationofparticlestructureandenergeticsTheRainsofChangeApproximatelytothousandyearsago,afundamentalchangeinthenatureofglacialcyclesoccurred,includingashifttolargeramplitudevariationsinatmosphericcarbondioxideconcentrationsandglobaltemperaturesMeckleretal(p,publishedonlineMayseethePerspectivebyKurita)presentastalagmiterecordfromBorneowhichprovidesarecordofprecipitationfrom,to,yearsagoTheamountofregionalprecipitationwassimilarduringallfouroftheinterglacialsduringthatinterval,anddryingeventsduringglacialterminationscorrespondedwithcoolingeventsinhighnorthernlatitud

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