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首页 【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文学理论 Fifty key literary theor…

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文学理论 Fifty key literary theorists.pdf

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文学理论 Fifty ke…

calvino_lue 2012-07-05 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文学理论 Fifty key literary theoristspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含SureshkumarkFileAttachmentfecovervbjpgFIFTYKEYLITERARYTHEORISTSWhatisittha符等。

SureshkumarkFileAttachmentfecovervbjpgFIFTYKEYLITERARYTHEORISTSWhatisitthatdefinesliterarytheoryRichardJLaneexploresfiftyinfluentialfigureswhohaveshapedthisfieldoverthelastcenturyInonevolumetheoristsfromamultitudeofdisciplinesarebroughttogetherinordertoexploreliterarytheoryinallitsdiversity,coveringfeminismtopostcolonialism,postmodernismtopsychoanalysisEachentrydealswithkeyconceptsandideasthathaveinformedliterarystudiesinthetwentiethandtwentyfirstcenturiesIncludedinthiscomprehensiveguideareentrieson:•RolandBarthes•JudithButler•JacquesDerrida•SigmundFreud•EdwardWSaidRichardJLaneisProfessorofEnglishatMalaspinaUniversityCollege,CanadaHispreviouspublicationsincludeJeanBaudrillard(Routledge,),BeckettandPhilosophy(),ContemporaryBritishFiction()andReadingWalterBenjamin()AlsoavailablefromRoutledgePoetry:TheBasicsJeffreyWainwright–––LiteraryTheory:TheBasicsHansBertens–––XShakespeare:TheBasicsSeanMcEvoy–––ContemporaryBritishNovelistsNickRennison–––TheRoutledgeDictionaryofLiteraryTermsPeterChildsandRogerFowler–––TheRoutledgeCompaniontoCriticalTheorySimonMalpasandPaulWake–––TheRoutledgeCompaniontoFeminismandPostfeminismEditedbySarahGamble–––TheRoutledgeCompaniontoPostmodernismEditedbyStuartSim–––TheRoutledgeCompaniontoRussianLiteratureEditedbyNeilCornwell–––FIFTYKEYLITERARYTHEORISTSRichardJLaneFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYSimultaneouslypublishedintheUKbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorandFrancisGroup,aninformabusinessRichardJLaneAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataLane,RichardJ,–FifykeyliterarytheoristsRichardJLanepcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexCriticism–BiobibliographyCriticism–History–thcenturyITitlePNL′–dcISBN:–––(hbk)ISBN:–––(pbk)ISBN:–––(ebk)ISBN:––––(hbk)ISBN:––––(pbk)ISBN:––––(ebk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”CONTENTSPrefaceviiHoustonABaker,Jr(–)MikhailMikhailovichBakhtin(–)RolandBarthes(–)JeanBaudrillard(–)WalterBenjamin(–)HomiKBhabha(–)HaroldBloom(–)WayneCBooth(–)JudithButler(–)HélèneCixous(–)SimonedeBeauvoir(–)GillesDeleuze(–)andPierreFélixGuattari(–)Paul(AdolphMichel)deMan(–)JacquesDerrida(–)Terry(TerrenceFrancis)Eagleton(–)(Sir)WilliamEmpson(–)FrantzOmarFanon(–)ShoshanaFelman(–)StanleyEugeneFish(–)(Paul)MichelFoucault(–)SigmundFreud(–)NorthropFrye(–)HansGeorgGadamer(–)HenryLouisGates,Jr(–)GérardGenette(–)SandraMortolaGilbert(–)andSusanDavidGubar(–)vPaulGilroy(–)StephenGreenblatt(–)DonnaJHaraway(–)GeoffreyHHartman(–)LindaHutcheon(–)LuceIrigaray(–)WolfgangIser(–)RomanOsipovischJakobson(–)FredricRJameson(–)(Sir)FrankKermode(–)JuliaKristeva(–)JacquesMarieEmileLacan(–)FrankRaymondLeavis(–)Georg(György)Lukács(–)JeanFrançoisLyotard(–)HerbertMarshallMcLuhan(–)VladimirIakovlevichPropp(–)IvorArmstrongRichards(–)PaulRicoeur(–)EdwardWadieSaid(–)ElaineShowalter(–)GayatriChakravortySpivak(–)LionelTrilling(–)SlavojZˇizˇek(–)IndexCONTENTSviPREFACEThisbookemergesfromanumberofintenseencounters,overnearlytwodecades,withwhatmostacademicsnowsimplycall‘theory’,includingmydoctoralstudieswithGeoffBennington,atTheUniversityofSussex,whichresultedinmyDPhilthesisonJacquesDerrida(FunctionsoftheDerridaArchive:PhilosophicalReceptions,,published)timespentatTheBritishLibrary,London,researchingmybookonJeanBaudrillardfortheRoutledgeCriticalThinkersSeries,editedbyRobertEaglestone(JeanBaudrillard,)andmybriefperioddirectingtheLondonNetworkPhilosophyandTheoryResearchSeminar,thatmet(informally)atTheInstituteofContemporaryArtsinLondonbetweenandAttheICAmeetings,twofigureswereexploredmostclosely:SamuelBeckettandWalterBenjamin(BeckettandPhilosophy,andReadingWalterBenjamin:WritingThroughtheCatastrophe,)ThisslightlytangledwebofinterestsandconnectionsbroughtmetothepositionwhereIcouldsay‘yes’toRoutledge,whentheysuggestedthatImightliketotacklefiftykeytwentiethcenturyliterarytheoristsOfcourse,atthatpointthedebatesreallybegan,concerningwhothe‘fifty’shouldactuallybeInevitablysomeone’sfavouriteandimportanttheoristhasbeenleftoutofthisselection,butcarefulconsiderationwasgiventotheoverallrangeofcriticsandortheoristsincludedhereSomebiographicalinformationisgivenforeachthinker,butthebulkofeachentrydealswithkeyconceptsandideasthathaveinformedliterarystudiesinthetwentiethandtwentyfirstcenturiesTheentriesareselective,andstudentreadersmaywishtofollowupparticulartheoristsbyturningtotheRoutledgeCriticalThinkersSeriesIalsostronglyrecommendtostudentreaderstherelevantGalereferencepublications,suchastheDictionaryofLiteraryBiographyandtheContemporaryLiteraryCriticismseries,wheremoreextensiveentries,withcompetingcriticalviews,canbefoundAparticularlyviiusefulbookthatIhaveconsultedmanytimesisPatrickFfrench’sTheTimeofTheory:AHistoryofTelQuel(–)(ClarendonPress,)ElizabethRoudinesco’sbiographyofJacquesLacan(Polity,)providedexcellentbackgroundinformationconcerningpsychoanalysisandtheoryinFranceandelsewhereTothesetwoauthors,andmanyothers,IamindebtedVariouspeopledeserveappreciationandthanksforthesupportthattheyhavegivenmeduringthewritingofthisbookTheseincludeDavidAvital,AndreaHartill,RachelSextonandRosieWatersatRoutledge,RobertEaglestoneatRoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon,TamasBenyei,NoraSellei,PeterSzaffkoandJuditSzabóatTheUniversityofDebrecen,Hungary,SherrillGraceatTheUniversityofBritishColumbia,andTerriDoughty,SteveLaneandJohnLepageatMalaspinaUniversityCollegeDeborahMadsen,atTheUniversityofGeneva,hasbeenofconstantsupportandIthankherforherintellectualengagementintheareasofpostcolonialtheoryandliteratureJosephJones,LibrarianEmeritusatTheUniversityofBritishColumbia,hascontinuedtosupportandengagewithmyresearchMyresearchstudents,SusanRankinandBelBirkland,helpedwithbackgroundmaterials,andthestaffatthenewMalaspinaUniversityCollegelibraryprovidedmewithmuchassistanceIamalsoindebtedtothestaffatTheBritishLibrary,LondonHowever,thebulkofmyresearchsupportwasprovidedbymywifeSarah,andIdedicatethisbooktoher,withlovePREFACEviiiFIFTYKEYLITERARYTHEORISTSHOUSTONABAKER,JR(–)Findingcommongroundbetweentheoryandthe‘foundingconditionofAfroAmericanintellectualhistory’,HoustonABaker,Jrarguesthatbothseekexplanationsata‘metalevel’BakercomestothisconclusionbecauseofthewayinwhichhisintellectualprojectisalwaysfirmlygroundedinthehistoryofAfroAmericanexistence,especiallyanawarenessoftheuprooting,dispossessionandvictimizationthatconstitutedtheAfricanslavetradeEarlyAfroAmericansmaintainedtheirculturalheritageduringslaveryinwaysinwhichthedispossessionofmaterialgoodscouldnottouch,leadingnotjusttoaprivilegingofspiritualityandspiritualleaderswithinslavecommunities,butalsotheprivilegingofautobiographyasagenreinwhichAfroAmericanscouldreinforceandreinventselfworthinthemidstoftheirdebasementThisconfluenceoftheoryandintenselypersonalhistoryisoneofthefactorsthathasledtoBaker’sgroundbreakingworkinthefieldofAfroAmericanliterarystudiesBornin,inLouisville,Kentucky,BakerwaseducatedatHowardUniversityandtheUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngeleshisearlyworkonliterarycriticisminvolvedwritingathesisonVictorianaesthetics,whichheachievedinpartthroughhisresearchesatEdinburghUniversityinScotland(–)AtYaleUniversity,whereBakerinitiallyworkedasaninstructor,hisinterestsshiftedtoAfroAmericanliterarystudiesInBakerbecameamemberoftheCenterforAdvancedStudiesattheUniversityofVirginia,andinhebecamethedirectoroftheAfroAmericanStudiesProgrammeattheUniversityofPennsylvaniaBakerwasawardedtheprestigiouspostofAlbertMGreenfieldProfessorofHumanRelationsattheUniversityofPennsylvaniainInhisearlypublications,Baker’sfocuswasondefining,mappingandperformingacritiqueofthe‘blackaesthetic’inAmerica:majortextsfromthisperiodincludeLongBlackSong:EssaysinBlackAmericanLiterature(),SingersofDaybreak:StudiesinBlackAmericanLiterature()andtheeditedcollectionReadingBlack:EssaysintheCriticismofAfrican,Caribbean,andBlackAmericanLiterature()IntheintroductiontoReadingBlack,Bakerarguesthatwhileitisdifficulttopreciselydatetheoriginsofablackaesthetic,itispossibletoofferabasicmapthatincludes:TheestablishmentofLeRoiJones’BlackArtsRepertoireTheatreSchool,thefoundingofnewliteraryandculturaljournals,thewidescalerepudiationofderogatorywhiteHOUSTONABAKER,JRcreativeeffortstreatingtheBlackexperience,andtheappearanceofinvaluableanthologiesandcriticalvolumesbyBlackwritersBakeralsopointsoutthatcriticshavearguedforstronglinksbetweentheemergenceoftheBlackPowerMovementandtheblackaestheticItwasBaker’sbook,calledTheJourneyBack:IssuesinBlackLiteratureandCriticism,thatinitiatedevenmorewidespreadinterestanddebateintheblackaestheticinAmericanstudiesInTheJourneyBack,BakerarguesforaninterdisciplinaryapproachtoblackAmericanliteratureandculturethatanalysestheframeworkthathecallsan‘anthropologyofart’Theessentialcriticalmoveisoneofconsideringcontext,andthisleadstoanawarenessofthefactthatAfroAmericanartworksare‘inmotion’Baker’shistoricalsurveyalsofunctionsasacritiqueoftheearlytheoriesoftheblackaestheticinChapterofTheJourneyBackheexaminestheidealisticdesireinthesandstowill‘intobeinganewartandcriticism’usingaconativemodeofutterance,whichmeansonethatexpressesastrivingtowardsagoal,inotherwordsasmuchthecreationofablackaestheticasthedescriptionofwhatalreadyexistsBakerreferstotwotextspublishedin:BarakaandNeal’santhologyBlackFire,AnAnthologyofAfroAmericanWritingandLarryNeal’smanifesto‘TheBlackArtsMovement’hearguesthatbothtextsdevelopconativeutterancesthroughtheuseofthe‘afterimage’definedas‘visualimagesthatremainafterastimulushaspassed’ThestimulihereareblackAmericanurbanuprisingsandtheconcomitantequationofBlackPowerwiththeemergentblackaestheticWhydoesBakercritiqueconativeutterancesBecausehearguesthatthisisperceptionguidedbyvolition,desireandidealism,andthattheblackaestheticgetsdistortedbyitsreadingandintegrationintoidealismThisisacrucialpointbecauseBakeralsoarguesthatwhitecriticscreatedistortedreadingsoftheblackaestheticbypredicatingtheirinterpretationsonthenotionoffailureInsteadofthisidealism,BakeradvocatesastudyofblackAmericanculturethatacknowledges‘arichculturalcontext’ratherthanpredicatingthatrichnessasalwaysbeingfutural,althoughhedoesadmitthepositive,creativepotentialoftheblackaestheticasapoeticconstructInoneofthemostdensepassagesofTheJourneyBack,BakerdescribestheexistentialsituationoftheAfroAmericanartist,suggestingthateventhoughhistoricallywhiteAmericahasattemptedtoquellablackcollectivity,nonethelessithasalwaysexistedalongsidethatofawhitehegemonyintheformofmusic,poetry,sacredtextsandsculptedimagesThesuggestionisHOUSTONABAKER,JRthattheblackartistisnolongerworkinginavoidformedbyalargelyhostilewhitehegemony,butinsteadthereisaneducatedAfroAmericanaudiencethatisanessentialpartofthecreative,productiveblackcollectivityThe‘journeyback’,then,involvesreaffirmingtherichnessandcomplexityofaculturethatthehegemonicsocietyattemptedtosuppress,oppressanddenythejourneybackisnotanostalgiatrip,butanengagementwithformsthatcouldnotalwaysbeseenorheard,givenlimitationsofinterpretivemodelsandorpreviouslylesswelleducatedaudiencesSuchanengagementandreaffirmationwouldfindpowerfulexpressioninBaker’sreexaminationofthecriticalreceptiontotheHarlemRenaissancePublishedin,ModernismandtheHarlemRenaissanceisBaker’sreevaluationofanintellectualpositionthatarguedthattheHarlemRenaissancewasafailureBakeraskswhoexactlymadethispowerfulvaluejudgementandwhyAfroAmericanscholarsaccepteditInaseriesofsubversivemoves,BakerreorientsthecriticalapproachtotheHarlemRenaissance,first,byarguingfortheimportanceof‘modernAfroAmericansoundasafunctionofaspecificallyAfroAmericandiscursivepractice’,secondbyreflectingonfamilyhistory,andthewaysinwhichjudgementsofsuccessfailurearepredicateduponexclusionaryforcesanddifferentcriteriaofsuccess,andthirdbyrejectingEurocentricnotionsofmodernismasinappropriateforunderstandingAfroAmericanmodernismBaker’staskistorecodetheHarlemRenaissanceintermsof‘adistinctive,familymodernity’,thelatterphrasebeingreminiscentofWittgenstein’sconceptof‘familyresemblance’,wherebyoverlappingsharedfeaturesgrouptogetherobjectsthatalsohaveindividualdifferencesButlerutilizestwofurtherterms:the‘discursiveconstellation’and‘bluesgeographies’thecombinationofthetwoleadshimtoreplace‘renaissance’withAfroAmerican‘renaissancism’ThediscursiveconstellationofAfroAmericanliterature,music,art,graphicdesignandintellectualhistory,facilitatesashiftintonewmodesofproductionwhatBakercalls‘bluesgeographies’,auniqueassemblageofrevivalandrebirthBakerismorespecificthanthis,arguingthattwokeyartisticprocessesarethemasteryofformandthedeformationofmasterylocatingafoundingeventforAfroAmericanmodernism–BookerTWashington’sopeningaddresstotheNegroexhibitoftheAtlantaCottonStatesandInternationalExpositiononSeptember–BakerarguesthatWashingtonbothadopted(discursivelyandstrategically)theminstrelmaskandsubverteditatthesametimeThemaskbecomesatropethatissimultaneouslyimprisoningandfacilitatingIntheemployingofsuchacontentioustrope,however,auniquelyAfroAmericanmodernistanxietyHOUSTONABAKER,JRisproduced:onethatsignalsadistancefromtherealmofslaveryBakersuggeststhatthis‘moveup’fromslaveryisamodeofculturalnegotiationTurningtohisessay‘ThereIsNoMoreBeautifulWay:TheoryandthePoeticsofAfroAmericanWomen’sWriting’,suchanegotiationistiedinwith‘autobiographicalinscription’RejectinganeedforanAfroAmericanliberalhumanism,Bakerpositsinsteadanotionofanactivistautobiographywherethereis‘apersonalnegotiationofmetalevelsthatforegroundsnuancesandresonancesofadifferentstory’KeyhereiswhatBakercallsthe‘autobiographicalrecalloftheauditory’,thatistosay,awillingnessandabilitytolistento‘authenticsourcesofblackexpressivesound’TheimportanceoforalculturalformsisconjoinedheretotheworkofcontemporaryAfroAmericanfeministswhohavecreatedapoeticsofAfricanAmericanwomen’svoicesInhisBlues,Ideology,andAfroAmericanLiterature:AVernacularTheory(),Bakerexpandsuponandrefineshisnotionoforalityandbluesgeographies,developingatheoryofanartisticvernacularthatisintegratedinaneconomicandsociopoliticalhistoryofBlackAmericaHowever,Blues,Ideology,andAfroAmericanLiteratureislessaprogression,andmoreanewbeginningforBaker,drawinguponeconomicsandpoststructuralism,materialityandsemiotics,symbolicanddialecticalthought(withemphasisuponHegel)InaHegelianmove,Bakersublates(incorporatesandliftsupintoanewperspective)hisformersymbolicanthropologicalorientationtoarguethattheAfroAmericanbluesisamatrixWhatdoeshemeanbythisThinkingaboutdifferentdefinitionsof‘matrix’Bakerlists:womb,network,fossilbearingrock,rockytrace,principalmetalinanalloy,aplateforreproducingmediaUsingDerrideantheory,BakerbringsallofthesedefinitionstogetherintheconceptoftheenablingscriptofAfroAmericancultureThebluesareacodeandaforcethatradicallyconditionAfroAmericanculturalsignificationsBakerlistssomekeyelementsofthesynthesisknownastheblues:‘worksongs,groupseculars,fieldhollers,sacredharmonies,proverbialwisdom,folkphilosophy,politicalcommentary,ribaldhumor,elegiaclament,andmuchmore’Asaforce,thebluesoperatesasafoundatio

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