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首页 【Routledge 五十思想家系列】政治学 Fifty major political thi…

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】政治学 Fifty major political thinkers.pdf

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】政治学 Fifty maj…

calvino_lue 2012-07-05 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【Routledge 五十思想家系列】政治学 Fifty major political thinkerspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含FileAttachmentfcovervbjpgFIFTYMAJORPOLITICALTHINKERSSECONDEDITIONNowinitss符等。

FileAttachmentfcovervbjpgFIFTYMAJORPOLITICALTHINKERSSECONDEDITIONNowinitssecondedition,FiftyMajorPoliticalThinkersintroducesthelivesandideasofsomeofthetheoristswhohaveshapedWesternpoliticalthought,fromtheancientworldtothepresentdayAlongsidenewentriesonsuchfiguresasCicero,FrantzFanonandCarlSchmitt,otherthinkerscoveredinclude:HannahArendtSimonedeBeauvoirMohandasGandhiMachiavelliKarlMarxJohnStuartMillThomasPaineJeanJacquesRousseauFullycrossreferencedandincludingaglossaryoftheoreticalterms,thiswiderangingandaccessiblebookisessentialreadingforanyonewithaninterestintheevolutionandhistoryofpoliticalthoughtacrosstheagesIanAdamsisformerlyaLecturerinPoliticsandHonoraryFellowattheUniversityofDurhamRWDysonisaLecturerintheSchoolofGovernmentandInternationalAffairsattheUniversityofDurhamAlsoavailablefromRoutledgePolitics:theBasics(Thirdedition)StephenTanseyTheRoutledgeDictionaryofPoliticsDavidRobertsonFiftyKeyFiguresinTwentiethCenturyBritishPoliticsKeithLaybournFiftyKeyThinkersinInternationalRelationsMartinGriffithsInternationalRelations:theKeyConceptsMartinGriffithsandTerryO’CallaghanTheRoutledgeCompaniontoFascismandtheFarRightPeterDaviesandDerekLynchFIFTYMAJORPOLITICALTHINKERSSecondEditionIanAdamsandRWDysonFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeThiseditionpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroup,aninformabusiness,IanAdamsandRWDysonAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAdams,Ian,–FiftymajorpoliticalthinkersIanAdamsandRWDysonndedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexPoliticalsciencePoliticalscientistsIDyson,RWIITitleJAA'dcISBN:(hbk)ISBN:(pbk)ISBN:(hbk)ISBN:(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”ISBNMasterebookISBNvCONTENTSAlphabeticallistofcontentsviiPrefaceixPlato(–BCE)Aristotle(–BCE)Cicero(–BCE)StAugustineofHippo(–)StThomasAquinas(–)NicolòMachiavelli(–)SirThomasMore(–)ThomasHobbes(–)JamesHarrington(–)JohnLocke(–)Montesquieu(–)DavidHume(–)JeanJacquesRousseau(–)ImmanuelKant(–)EdmundBurke(–)TomPaine(–)JohannGottfriedHerder(–)MaryWollstonecraft(–)WilliamGodwin(–)GWFHegel(–)JeremyBentham(–)‘Publius’andTheFederalistPapersCharlesFourier(–)andUtopianSocialismKarlMarx(–)AlexisdeTocqueville(–)JohnStuartMill(–)HerbertSpencer(–)THGreen(–)FriedrichNietzsche(–)PrincePeterKropotkin(–)andAnarchismGeorgesSorel(–)EduardBernstein(–)MaxWeber(–)VladimirIlichLenin(–)BenitoMussolini(–)andFascismCarlSchmitt(–)HannahArendt(–)SirIsaiahBerlin(–)FriedrichvonHayek(–)MohandasGandhi(–)SirKarlPopper(–)MichaelOakeshott(–)SimonedeBeauvoir(–)andSecondWaveFeminismHerbertMarcuse(–)andtheFrankfurtSchoolFrantzFanon(–)MichelFoucault(–)JohnRawls(–)RobertNozick(–)JürgenHabermas(–)JeanFrançoisLyotard(–)GlossaryIndexCONTENTSviviiALPHABETICALLISTOFCONTENTSStThomasAquinas(–)HannahArendt(–)Aristotle(–BCE)StAugustineofHippo(–)SimonedeBeauvoir(–)andSecondWaveFeminismJeremyBentham(–)SirIsaiahBerlin(–)EduardBernstein(–)EdmundBurke(–)Cicero(–BCE)FrantzFanon(–)MichelFoucault(–)CharlesFourier(–)andUtopianSocialismMohandasGandhi(–)WilliamGodwin(–)THGreen(–)JürgenHabermas(–)JamesHarrington(–)FriedrichvonHayek(–)GWFHegel(–)JohannGottfriedHerder(–)ThomasHobbes(–)DavidHume(–)ImmanuelKant(–)PrincePeterKropotkin(–)andAnarchismVladimirIlichLenin(–)JohnLocke(–)JeanFrançoisLyotard(–)NicolòMachiavelli(–)HerbertMarcuse(–)andtheFrankfurtSchoolKarlMarx(–)JohnStuartMill(–)Montesquieu(–)SirThomasMore(–)BenitoMussolini(–)andFascismFriedrichNietzsche(–)RobertNozick(–)MichaelOakeshott(–)TomPaine(–)Plato(–BCE)SirKarlPopper(–)‘Publius’andTheFederalistPapersJohnRawls(–)JeanJacquesRousseau(–)CarlSchmitt(–)GeorgesSorel(–)HerbertSpencer(–)AlexisdeTocqueville(–)MaxWeber(–)MaryWollstonecraft(–)ALPHABETICALLISTOFCONTENTSviiiixPREFACEThenatureofpoliticalactivityandhowitmaybestbeconductedisoneoftheperennialquestionsofhumanexistenceIntheWestalonethesemattershavebeenthesubjectofphilosophicaldiscussionformorethan,years,andthediscussionisonetowhichmanymorethanfiftythinkershavecontributedInchoosingourfiftywehaveconfinedourselvestoWesternpoliticalthought(withtheexceptionofMohandasGandhi,whoseideaswereinfluencedbytheWest)Wehavelittleexpertiseoutsidethisfield,and,besides,nonWesterntraditionsarerepresentedinothervolumesinthisseriesNorhavewebeenconcernedwiththeoreticaldebatesconcerningthe‘scientific’studyofpoliticsEvenso,thebusinessofchoosingthebestormostappropriatefiftywasadifficultoneAnyshortlistof‘greats’compiledfromsuchawideandvariedfieldwillcontainentriesofthreekindsFirst,therewillbethosenamesitwouldbeimpossibletoexclude:inthiscasePlato,Aristotle,Hobbes,LockeandsoonThispartofthelistalmostcompilesitselfThentherewillbeapenumbraofcasesthat,thoughdiscussable,wouldprobablybeincludedbymostknowledgeablepeopleFinally,therewillbeaclassofsubstantiallycontroversialentries,wherethechoicereallyisamatterofeditorialdiscretionAnyonewhoundertakestodrawupsuchalistwillthereforefacesomedifficultdecisions,anditisinevitablethatthefinalselectionwillnotbeagreeabletoeveryoneSelectionisparticularlydifficultwhenwecometotheeraaftertheFrenchRevolution:theageofmasspoliticsinwhichsomanymovementsofpoliticalsignificancehaveemergedTheRoutledgeDictionaryofTwentiethCenturyPoliticalThinkers()hasentriesanddoesnotclaimtobeexhaustiveItisunavoidablethatavolumepurportingtodealwithmajorpoliticaltheoristswillbe‘thin’atitsmodernend,quitesimplybecause,withsomefewdistinguishedexceptions,itisnotpossibletopredictwhichveryrecenttheoristswillcometoberegardedas‘major’byposterityAthinkermaybe‘major’onanumberofgrounds:powerofreasoning,originality,extentofinfluenceandsoonChoicesareinevitablybasedonabalanceofthesethingsHowever,formorerecentcenturieswehaveintroducedafurthercriterion:thatofrepresentativenessInthepoliticsofthelasttwocenturiestherehavebeenmanymovementswhichembodyimportantpoliticalideasSometimessuchmovementsproduceseveralthinkersofsimilarstatureorperhapstheyproducenogreatthinkeratall,yetthemovementitselfisimportantHencethedecisionwasmadetoincludesomethinkerswhoaremorerepresentativethanoutstandingThisdecisionappliestomovementssuchasanarchism,feminism,blackemancipationand–mostcontroversially,perhaps–fascismUsingthesevariouscriteria,wehavetriedtodojusticetoboththevarietyandthedepthofWesternpoliticalthought,andtoencouragereaderstoexplorebeyondthefiftythinkerswhom,forgoodorill,wehavechosenPREFACExFIFTYMAJORPOLITICALTHINKERSPLATO(–BCE)ThephilosophyofPlatohasthecuriouspropertyofbeingdeliveredalmostentirelythroughthemouthofsomeoneelseNearlyallhissurvivingworksare‘dialogues’:transcriptsofrealorimaginaryconversationsbetweengroupsofacquaintances,inwhichthechiefprotagonistishisteacherSocratesInthedialogues,SocratesistheexponentofthedoctrinesthatPlatowishestorecommendInprinciple,itispossibletoisolateSocrates’actualopinionsfromthoseattributedtohimbyPlato,butthedistinctionisproblematical,andweshallnottrytodealwithitOfSocrateshimselfweknowonlywhatcanbegleanedfromPlato’sdialogues,fromthewritingsofXenophon,andfromthefactthatheissentupinAristophanes’comedyCloudsAstonemasonbytrade,hepreferredtospendhistimediscussingphilosophywithfriendsHewrotenothingHis‘dialectical’methodconsistsintheclarificationofconceptsbyaprocessofquestionandanswercalledelenchosHeseeshimselfnotasteachinganythingnew,butasencouragingpeopletounderstandwhattheyknowalreadyHeisalsoaselfproclaimed‘gadfly’whosemissionistopesterpeopleintorealisingthatwhattheythinktheyknowisnotreallyknowledgeatallPlatowasSocrates’friendanddisciplefromcuntilSocrates’deathPlatoistheauthorofthreelargescalepoliticalworks:theRepublic,thePoliticusorStatesmanandtheLawsAnumberofhisotherdialogues–especiallytheCrito–containorimplyimportantpoliticaldoctrines,butitisintheRepublicthathispoliticalphilosophyreceivesitsmostinfluentialexpositionItiswiththeRepublicthatweshallbemainlyconcernedPlato’searlyadulthoodcoincidedwiththeperiodofpoliticaldislocationfollowingthedefeatofAthensinthePeloponnesianWarof–BCEAnimmediateconsequenceofdefeatwastheoverthrowofthedemocraticconstitutionofPericlesandtheestablishmentofarulingcouncilofthirtyoligarchsPlatohadhighhopesthatthisoligarchymightpresideoverasuccessfulpostwarreconstruction,butsuchoptimismsoonfounderedEspeciallyinthebehaviourofPlato’suncleCritias,itsmostprominentmember,theoligarchywasdistinguishedbyanextremedisregardforordinarystandardsofmoralityCritiaswasbyallaccountsabrutalandcynicalpoliticianThe‘ThirtyTyrants’adoptedmethodsofgovernmentsosavagethattheyalienatedmanyofthosewealthyAthenianswhohadinitiallyregardedtheirrulewithfavourInBCE,acounterrevolutionundertheleadershipofThrasybulussweptitawayandreinstatedthedemocraticconstitutionItwasunderthisnewregimePLATOthatSocratesperished,condemnedonthecuriousandprobablyspeciouschargeof‘notrecognisingthegodswhichthecityrecognises…introducingnewgodsandcorruptingyoungmen’(DiogenesLaertius:)ItislikelythathewasapoliticalcasualtyAlthoughnotpersonallyassociatedwiththeexcessesoftheThirty,hewasknowntobeanassociateofthehatedCritiasTheoligarchCharmideswasalsoamemberofhiscircle,andhewasaclosefriendofAlcibiades,amanofpronouncedantidemocratictendenciesTheoratorAeschines,speakinginBCE,tellsusthatSocrateswascondemnedbecauseofhisassociationwithCritiasSocrates’condemnationwasadefiningmomentinPlato’scareerThecelebrationofhisreveredteacher’slifebecamehismissionInBCE,PlatoleftAthensandremainedinvoluntaryexileuntilBCEItisnotdifficulttoimaginehisfeelingsHehadseentheoligarchyoftheThirty,whichhehadhopedmight‘leadmenoutofabadwayoflifeintoagoodone’,turnintoasanguinaryfiascoHehadseenhisfriendandteachercondemnedundertheensuingdemocracyTheconclusionformedinhismindthatallexistingstatesarebadWhilestillyoung,hecametobelievethatmankind’stroubleswillneverceaseuntileithertrueandgenuinephilosophersachievepoliticalpoweror,bysomedispensationofprovidence,rulersofstatesbecomegenuinephilosophers(SeventhLetter)PlatoismuchinclinedtoassociatethepoliticalillsofhisyouthwiththegroupofteachersandoratorsactiveinfifthcenturyAthensknownastheSophistsItisnoaccidentthattheliterarydevicebywhichtheRepublicisgotproperlyunderwayisachallengetoSocratesbythe‘radical’SophistThrasymachusNotionally,thedialogueisanenquiryintothenatureofdikaiosyne:justiceAfterafewpagesofamiableconversation,thefloorisseizedbyThrasymachusHehasbeenlisteningwithirritationtothepoliteattemptsoftheprotagoniststodiscoverwhatjusticeisPlatowantsustothinkhimboorishanddiscourteousThrasymachusoffershisowndefinition:‘Justiceisnothingelsethantheinterestofthestronger’ThisdictumisclearlyintendedtoexemplifythepoliticalamoralismthatPlatoassociateswiththeyoungergenerationofSophists(ofwhomCallicles,inthedialoguecalledGorgias,isanotherexample)InthelongdiscussionthatoccupiestherestofBookI,ThrasymachusismadetoshifthisgroundseveraltimesWhathehasinmind,itturnsout,isnotquitethatjusticeistheinterestofthestronger,butthatitisintheinterestofthestrongerforotherstobejustandhehimselfunjustHispositioncanbereducedtothefollowingfourassertions:PLATOThegoodlifeconsistsindisregardingalllimitorrestrictionandenjoyingalifeofboundlessgratificationPeoplearehappytotheextentthattheydonothavetoconsideranyoneelse’sinterestsbuttheirownThesamegeneralsentimentisexpressedbyCalliclesintheGorgias‘Justice’means‘compliancewiththelaw’ItthereforeinvolvesacceptingthelimitsorcontrolsprescribedforonebyasuperiorLawsarerulesmadebythestrongandimposedbythemontheweakTheyarethedevicesbywhichthestrongcontroltheweaktotheirownadvantage–oratanyratetowhattheybelieveistheirownadvantageTheinterestoftheruleristhereforebestservedwhenhissubjectsarejust–thatis,whentheycomplywithhislaws–andhehimselfisabletobe‘unjust’inthesenseofnotlimitedbyanywillopposedtohisownInthissense,Thrasymachusthinks,injusticeisbetterandstrongerthanjusticeUnsurprisingly,ThrasymachusisafrankadmireroftyrannyThegoodrulerwillbetherulerwhotakesadvantageofhissubjectsasfullyandsuccessfullyaspossibleSubjects,bycontrast,willbepeoplewholivestultifiedandfrustratedlivesThisispreciselythekindofattitudetowhichPlatoattributesthecapriciousandviolentstyleofpoliticsthathehadexperiencedasayoungman,andthewholeoftherestoftheRepublicisanattempt,usingSocratesasamouthpiece,torebutitThrasymachusbelievesthatinjusticeispreferabletojusticebecausejusticeinvolvestheacceptanceofrestrictionsThejustmanisakindofamiablefoolThenaturallysuperiormanknowsthatthegoodlifeisamatterofdisregardingalllimitsBut,Socratespointsout,tocharacterisethegoodlifeinthiswayisobviouslyamistakeIfweaimatalifeinwhichalllimitsareignored,weshallsimplynotbeabletogetwhatwewantAmusicianwhotuneshisinstrumenthastotightenthestringstoasuitabledegree:neithermorenorlessAphysicianwhotreatsapatienthastogivejusttherightamountoftreatment:neithermorenorlessParadoxically,evenrobbershavetoobserveakindof‘justice’TheyhavetoactwithintherulesthatgovernthedivisionoflabourwithinthegangIftheydonot,thegangwillnotbeabletoachievethepurposesforwhichitcametogetherinthefirstplaceThesuccessfulconductofanyhumanactivitydependsuponobservingthelimitsthatconstitutethepossibilityofthatactivityIfremainingwithinlimitsiswhatwemeanbyjustice,then,itseemsthatjusticeisnot,afterall,aconventionaldeviceinventedbythestrongtocontroltheweak‘Justice’isnaturalinthesenseofbeingindispensabletoanykindofcoherentaction,andinjusticeisnotsomuchwrongasselfdefeatingTothePLATOextentthathumanlifeisapurposiveactivity,justiceisessentialtoitssuccessfulconductJusticetotheindividualhumanbeing–totheindividualsoul,asSocratesexpressesit–isthereforewhatsharpnessistoaknifeorkeennessistotheeyeItisthe‘virtue’thatenablesthesoultoperformitsfunctionproperlyJustasyoucanpruneavineafterafashionwithachiselorabluntknife,soyoucanlive,afterafashion,withanunjustsoulbutitwillnotbethebestkindoflifeClearly,then,itisimportantforustounderstandwhatthejusticeoftheindividualsoulactuallyis,orwhereinthesoulitliesInordertodothis,Socratessays,weshouldfirstidentifyjusticeinthepolisorstateByconsideringjusticeonalargescale,weshallbebetterabletounderstanditonthesmallorindividualscaleWhat,then,constitutesthejusticeofthestateSocratesanswersthisquestionnotbyanalysingtheconstitutionofanyexistingstate,butbydescribingthedevelopmentofanimaginaryor‘ideal’state,whichhecallsKallipolis(‘BeautifulCity’)SuchastatewouldoriginateinthefactthathumanbeingsneedtocooperateinordertomeettheirmaterialneedsButthemeetingofbasicneedswillinevitablyproducemoresophisticatedneeds,andsomorecomplexstructureswillhavetobedevisedtosupplythemAttheendpointofitsevolution,Socratessuggests,thestatewillcontainthreeoccupationalgroups,betweenwhomthestate’s‘virtues’willbedistributedThesegroupsarecalledGuardians,AuxiliariesandProducersTheGuardianswillembodythestate’swisdomtheAuxiliariesormilitaryclasswillembodyitscouragetheProducerswillembodytemperanceorselfrestraint,inthattheywillrecognisethatitisnecess

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