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首页 【Routledge 五十思想家系列】心理学 Fifty key thinkers psych…

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】心理学 Fifty key thinkers psychology.pdf

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】心理学 Fifty ke…

上传者: calvino_lue 2012-07-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【Routledge 五十思想家系列】心理学 Fifty key thinkers psychologypdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含FIFTYKEYTHINKERSINPSYCHOLOGYFiftyKeyThinkersinPsychologyintroducesthelife,符等。

FIFTYKEYTHINKERSINPSYCHOLOGYFiftyKeyThinkersinPsychologyintroducesthelife,thought,workandimpactofsomeofthemostinfluentialfigureswhohaveshapedanddevelopedmodernpsychologyItfeaturesaccessiblywrittenandfullycrossreferencedentriesonsuchfiguresas:SigmundFreudAnneAnastasiNoamChomskyKonradLorenzCarlJungHansEysenckIvanPavlovWilliamJamesJeanPiagetAbrahamMaslowThisfascinatingandinformativeguideisaninvaluableresourceforthosestudying,workingin,orwhosimplywanttofindoutmoreaboutpsychologyNoelSheehyisProfessorofPsychologyatQueen’sUniversity,BelfastROUTLEDGEKEYGUIDESRoutledgeKeyGuidesareaccessible,informativeandlucidhandbooks,whichdefineanddiscussthecentralconcepts,thinkersanddebatesinabroadrangeofacademicdisciplinesAllarewrittenbynotedexpertsintheirrespectivesubjectsClear,conciseexpositionofcomplexandstimulatingissuesandideasmakesRoutledgeKeyGuidestheultimatereferenceresourcesforstudents,teachers,researchersandtheinterestedlaypersonAncientHistory:KeyThemesandApproachesNevilleMorleyKeyWritersonArt:FromAntiquitytotheNineteenthCenturyEditedbyChrisMurrayKeyWritersonArt:TheTwentiethCenturyEditedbyChrisMurrayBusiness:TheKeyConceptsMarkVernonCinemaStudies:TheKeyConcepts(Secondedition)SusanHaywardCommunication,CulturalandMediaStudies:TheKeyConcepts(Thirdedition)JohnHartleyCulturalTheory:TheKeyConceptsEditedbyAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickCulturalTheory:TheKeyThinkersAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickKeyConceptsinEasternPhilosophyOliverLeamanEasternPhilosophy:KeyReadingsOliverLeamanGurdjieff:TheKeyConceptsSophiaWellbelovedInternationalRelations:TheKeyConceptsMartinGriffithsandTerryO’CallaghanKeyConceptsinLanguageandLinguisticsRLTraskKeyConceptsinthePhilosophyofEducationJohnGingellandChristopherWinchPopularMusic:TheKeyConceptsRoyShukerPostColonialStudies:TheKeyConceptsBillAshcroft,GarethGriffithsandHelenTiffinSocialandCulturalAnthropology:TheKeyConceptsNigelRapportandJoannaOveringSportandPhysicalEducation:TheKeyConceptsTimothyChandler,MikeCroninandWrayVamplewSportPsychology:TheKeyConceptsEllisCashmoreTelevisionStudies:TheKeyConceptsNeilCasey,BernadetteCasey,JustinLewis,BenCalvertandLiamFrenchFiftyKeyFiguresinTwentiethCenturyBritishPoliticsKeithLaybournFiftyContemporaryChoreographersEditedbyMarthaBremserFiftyKeyClassicalAuthorsAlisonSharrockandRhiannonAshFiftyEasternThinkersDianéCollinson,KathrynPlantandRobertWilkinsonFiftyMajorEconomistsStevenPressmanFiftyMajorThinkersonEducationJoyPalmerFiftyModernThinkersonEducationJoyPalmerFiftyKeyThinkersontheEnvironmentEditedbyJoyPalmerwithPeterBlazeCorcoranandDavidACooperFiftyContemporaryFilmmakersEditedbyYvonneTaskerFiftyKeyThinkersonHistoryMarnieHughesWarringtonFiftyKeyThinkersinInternationalRelationsMartinGriffithsFiftyKeyJewishThinkersDanCohnSherbokFiftyKeyFiguresinManagementMorgenWitzelFiftyMajorPhilosophersDianéCollinsonFiftyMajorPoliticalThinkerslanAdamsandRWDysonFiftyKeyContemporaryThinkersJohnLechteFiftyKeyThinkersinPsychologyNoelSheehyiiiFIFTYKEYTHINKERSINPSYCHOLOGYNoelSheehyLONDONANDNEWYORKFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”NoelSheehyAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthistitlehasbeenrequestedISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ALPHABETICALLISTOFCONTENTSChronologicallistofcontentsixPrefacexiAllport,Gordon(–)Anastasi,Anne(–)Anderson,John(–)Asch,Solomon(–)Baddeley,Alan(–)Bandura,Albert(–)Bartlett,Frederick(–)Binet,Alfred(–)Bowlby,John(–)Broadbent,Donald(–)Bruner,Jerome(–)Cannon,Walter(–)Cattell,Raymond(–)Chomsky,Noam(–)Erikson,Erik(–)Eysenck,Hans(–)Freud,Sigmund(–)Galton,Francis(–)Gibson,James(–)Gregory,Richard(–)Hebb,Donald(–)vonHelmholtz,Hermann(–)Hull,Clark(–)James,William(–)Jung,Carl(–)Kohlberg,Lawrence(–)Lewin,Kurt(–)Lorenz,Konrad(–)Luce,Robert(–)Luria,Alexander(–)Maccoby,Eleanor(–)Maslow,Abraham(–)McClelland,David(–)Milgram,Stanley(–)Neisser,Ulric(–)Pavlov,Ivan(–)Piaget,Jean(–)Rogers,Carl(–)Simon,Herbert(–)Skinner,Burrhus(–)Spearman,Charles(–)Sperry,Roger(–)Thorndike,Edward(–)Titchener,Edward(–)Tulving,Endel(–)Vygotsky,Lev(–)Watson,John(–)Wertheimer,Max(–)Wundt,Wilhelm(–)Zimbardo,Philip(–)viiGlossaryIndexviiiCHRONOLOGICALLISTOFCONTENTSvonHelmholtz,Hermann(–)Galton,Francis(–)Wundt,Wilhelm(–)James,William(–)Pavlov,Ivan(–)Freud,Sigmimd(–)Binet,Alfred(–)Spearman,Charles(–)Titchener,Edward(–)Cannon,Walter(–)Thorndike,Edward(–)Jung,Carl(–)Watson,John(–)Wertheimer,Max(–)Hull,Clark(–)Bartlett,Frederick(–)Lewin,Kurt(–)Vygotsky,Lev(–)Piaget,Jean(–)Allport,Gordon(–)Luria,Alexander(–)Rogers,Carl(–)Erikson,Erik(–)Lorenz,Konrad(–)Gibson,James(–)Hebb,Donald(–)Skinner,Burrhus(–)Cattell,Raymond(–)Bowlby,John(–)Asch,Solomon(–)Maslow,Abraham(–)Anastasi,Anne(–)Sperry,Roger(–)Bruner,Jerome(–)Eysenck,Hans(–)Simon,Herbert(–)McClelland,David(–)Maccoby,Eleanor(–)Gregory,Richard(–)Bandura,Albert(–)Luce,Robert(–)Broadbent,Donald(–)Kohlberg,Lawrence(–)Tulving,Endel(–)Chomsky,Noam(–)Neisser,Ulric(–)Milgram,Stanley(–)Zimbardo,Philip(–)Baddeley,Alan(–)Anderson,John(–)GlossaryIndexxPREFACEModernpsychologyhasitsrootsintheintellectualandculturallifeofGermanyduringthesandsComparedtothenaturalsciences,psychologyisinitsinfancyand,likeeveryinfant,itsgrowthintheearlyyearshasbeenextraordinaryAhundredandfiftyyearsagoitwouldhavebeenpossibletolistthenamesofallofthepsychologistsinEuropeandNorthAmericaonthebackofanenvelopeTodaythenumberofpeoplewithdegreesinpsychologyrunstomanyhundredsofthousandsThisbookconsidershowfiftypeoplehaveinfluencedtheshapeanddirectionofthissuccessWhoarethesefiftykeythinkersThefoundationsofpsychologycanbetracedtotheconvergenceofideasandmethodsfromphilosophy,medicineandthenaturalsciencesTovaryingdegreestheideasandinfluenceofthekeythinkersconsideredherereflectthoseoriginsSome,suchasvonHelmholtz,havebackgroundsinmedicineandphysicssomeareneurologists(egSperry)andothersaremathematicians(egLuce)Several,suchasthelinguistNoamChomskyandtheethologistKonradLorenz,haveneverregardedthemselvesaspsychologistsandwoulddeclinethatdescriptionNeverthless,theirideasandinvestigationsareinareascloselyrelatedtopsychologyandhavehadaprofoundimpactonthewayspsychologiststhinkaboutandexplainbehaviourEuropeanandAmericanapproachestopsychologyhaveidentifiedanumberoffacetsofthehumanconditionascruciallyimportantTheseincludethebrain,perception,motivation,learning,intelligence,language,thinking,personality,developmentandsocialrelationshipsTheprofilesincludedherereflectthethinkingofkeyindividualsineachoftheseareasChoosingthoseforinclusionhasbeenamarvellouslydifficulttaskTheessaysfollowacommonformatPsychologistsareattractedtotheideathatthekindofpersononeisasanadultcanoftenbetracedtoone’schildhoodexperiences,sobiographicaldetailsareprovidedEachprofilealsoidentifiessomeofthemainintellectualinfluencesinthedevelopmentofeachofthethinkersandgivesacriticalappreciationofthewaytheirworkwasreceivedEachessayconcludeswithalistofmajorwritingsandsuggestionsforfurtherreadingThefiftyprofilesarenotentirelyunconnected:conceptual,thematicandbiographicinterconnectionsarenotedHowever,theprofileshavebeenwrittensoastoencourageareadertodipinandoutofthebookastheylikeForthosenewtopsychology,aglossaryoftermshasbeenprovidedthisshouldmakeiteasiertoaccesssomeofthelanguagepsychologistsroutinelyusewhentheythinkandwriteThephilosopherandhistorianGeorgeSantayanaonceremarkedthatthosewhodonotknowtheirhistoryaredoomedtorepeatitsmistakesAperusalofsomeoftheessayswillrevealthatthisisnotalwaystrueInsomecasespsychologistshaveknownaboutthemistakesofthepastandsoughttorepeatthemButtherecurrencecansometimesbefruitful:goingroundincirclescanbeagoodthing,providedthecircleissufficientlylargethatwhenonereturnstothetaskoneseesitinanewlightandtheerrorbringsnewinsightsNoelSheehyQueen’sUniversity,BelfastxiiFIFTYKEYTHINKERSINPSYCHOLOGYALLPORT,GORDONWILLARD(–)AllportpioneeredanapproachtothestudyofpersonalitythatemphasisestheinfluenceofsocialprocessesonpersonalitydevelopmentandstressestheimportanceoffreewillandpersonalresponsibilityGordonAllport’sfather,John,wasacountryphysician,andhismother,NellieWise,aformerteacherThefamilymovedtoCleveland,Ohio,shortlyafterGordon,theyoungestoffourbrothers,wasborninMontezuma,IndianaMuchofhisadolescencewasspenthelpinghisfatherrunhisbusymedicalpracticeInanautobiographicalpieceherecalledhishomeas‘markedbyplainProtestantpietyandhardwork’(:)Hewasashy,modestmanandadevoutEpiscopalianIthasbeensuggestedthat,beingimbuedwithvaluesofcleanliness,pietyandvirtue,Allportwasleftwithaparticularsensitivitytocertainaspectsofpersonalitythatothers,suchasFreud,tendedtooverlook(Elms,)AllportmetwithFreudononlyoneoccasionItwasduringavisittoVienna,andheretoldthestoryonmanyoccasions:‘…ItoldhimaboutanepisodeonthetramcarcomingoutIhadseenalittleboyaboutfouryearsoldandthelittleboyobviouslywasdevelopingarealdirtphobia…thelittleboywassaying:“Idon’twanttositthere!Don’tlethimsitnearme,he’sdirty”Hekeptthisupallthetime,andIthoughtitmightinterestFreudhowearlyaphobiaofdirtcansetinHelistened,andfixedhistherapeuticeyeuponmeandsaid:“Wasthatlittleboyyou”Honestly,itwasn’t,butIfeltguilty’(Elms,:)Allport’sdecisiontostudyatHarvardUniversitywaspartlyinfluencedbyhisbrother,Floyd,whowasagraduatepsychologystudentthereandwhowentontoaneminentcareerasafounderofexperimentalsocialpsychologyGordontookanumberofcoursesinpsychologybutmajoredineconomicsandphilosophyAftergraduatinginhetaughtEnglishandsociologyatRobertCollege,Constantinople,Turkey,andinwonafellowshiptostudypsychologyatHarvardTherehecompletedhisPhD(onpersonalitytraitsthefirstsuchstudyconductedintheUnitedStates)underHerbertSLangfeld,whostronglyinfluencedhisgeneralapproachtopsychologyLangfeldhadstudiedunderCarlStumpfattheUniversityofBerlinandsubscribedtoamotortheoryofconsciousnesstheideathatsensations,emotionsandthoughtsarealllinkedtomotorprocessesLater,AllportwastoarguethatpersonalitysimilarlyinvolvescomplexlinkagesbetweenphysiologicalprocessesandmentalprocessesAftercompletinghisdoctorateinAllportwasgrantedaHarvardtravellingscholarshipThisallowedhimtospendtimeinEngland,wherehewasinfluencedbyBartlett’sideasontheroleofmyth,legendandfolkloreasdevicesusedbyculturesasakindofmemorythatallowsinformationaboutsocialvaluesandsocialordertobepassedfromgenerationtogenerationHealsotravelledtoGermanywherehecameintocontactwiththeemergingGestaltschoolofpsychologywhichwasbeingdevelopedbyWolfgangKöhler,WertheimerandothersIn,hereturnedtoHarvard,thistimetotheDepartmentofSocialEthics,andremainedtherefortwoyearsbeforeacceptingapositionatDartmouthCollegeWhileatDartmouthhiswife,AdaLufkinGould,alsoapsychologist,gavebirthtotheirsonIn,thefamilyreturnedagaintoHarvardwhereAllporttookupapositionvacatedbyWilliamMcDougallDuring,AllportandseveralofhisHarvardcolleaguesbrokeawayandformedtheseparateDepartmentofSocialRelationsThisnewdepartmentincludedsocial,developmentalandclinicalpsychologists,aswellassomesocialanthropologistsandsociologistswhofeltacloserintellectualaffinitywiththepsychologiststhanwithcolleaguesintheirnativedepartmentsBruner,MilgramandMcClellandwereamongthemanydistinguishedpsychologiststohavepassedthroughhisdepartmentThatdepartmentretainedanindependentexistenceuntilcoincidentally,theyearthatAllportretiredThedemiseoftheSocialRelationsdepartmentwaslargelyduetothefactthat,withthedepartureofAllport,thesocialanthropologistsandsociologistsconsideredtheirinterestsmightbebestservedbyreturningtotheirrespectivedepartments(withwhichmanyofthemhadretainedlinks)AllportwasaheavysmokeranddiedfromlungcancerthreeyearsafterhisretirementAllportandHenryOdbert’sstudyofEnglishlanguagedescriptionsofpersonalitylaidsomeofthefoundationsonwhichtheFiveFactorModelofpersonalitywassubsequentlybuiltThemodelwasdevelopedduringthesthroughtheconvergenceoftheworkofseveraltheorists,includingRaymondCattell,JoyGuilford,HansEysenckandLRGoldbergItsuggeststhathumanpersonalitycomprisesfundamentaldimensions:extraversion,agreeableness,neuroticism,conscientiousnessand‘opennesstoexperience’orintellectTheoriginsofthemodelcanbetracedtoAllportandOdbert,whosetaboutselectingtermsrelevanttopersonalityfromWebster’sNewInternationalDictionaryTheyidentified,termsand,inordertoimposesomeorderonthislist,fourcategoriesweredevised:personalitytraits(egsocial,aggressive),temporarystates(egmoods),evaluativejudgements(egaverage,unworthy)andphysicalFIFTYKEYTHINKERSINPSYCHOLOGYcharacteristics(egtalents)Althoughitwasclearthatfourcategorieswastoofewinthesensethattherewasenormousvariabilityamongthewordsfallingwithineachcategory,AllportalwaysconsidereditbettertoerrinthedirectionofoverinclusivenessandpreferredtoretainasmanyfinegraineddistinctionsaspossibleForexample,heconsideredthatwordswouldberequiredtoaccommodateeverypossibledescriptionofpolitenessHewasawarethatfurtherabstractionandsimplificationcouldbepossiblebyapplyingfactoranalysis,astatisticaltechniqueforexaminingtherelationshipsbetweenverylargenumbersofvariablesandreducingthemtoasmallnumberofunderlyingfactorsordimensionsHowever,heremaineddoubtfulofthetruemeritofsuchanalysesandleftitforothers,suchasCattell(wholatereliminatedpercentofAllport’spersonalityterms),topursuethatavenueofinvestigationOneofthemajorweaknessesoftheanalysisofwordsisthatitshiftsthefocusofinvestigationawayfromanexaminationofsimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenindividualstowardsanassessmentofhowthetermsusedtodescribeindividualsaresimilartoanddifferentfromeachotherInhisfirstbook,Personality:APsychologicalInterpretation(),Allportclassifiedfiftydifferentdefinitionsoftheconcept‘personality’andconcludedthattheyhadincommonaconcernfordetermining‘whatamanreallyis’(p)Elsewherehedefinedpersonalityas‘thedynamicorganizationwithintheindividualofthosepsychologicalsystemsthatdeterminehischaracteristicbehaviorandthought’(:)Notwopeoplearecompletelyalike,andAllportexplainedthisusingtheconceptoftrait,whichheregardedasapredispositiontoactinthesamewayinawiderangeofsituationsHesuggestedthattraitsgeneralisetoindividualsandsituations:therearetraitsthatarespecifictoindividualsandothertraitsthataresharedbymostindividualsInTraitsRevisited(),heidentifiedseveralcriteriathatcanbeusedtodeterminetheexistenceofapersonalitytrait:atraithasmorethannominalexistence,ismoregeneralisedthanahabit,anditsexistencecanbeestablishedempiricallyInaddition,traitsareonlyrelativelyindependentofoneanother,theyaredifferentfrommoralorsocialjudgements,theymaybeconsideredin

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