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首页 【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文化理论 Cultural Theory Key Th…

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文化理论 Cultural Theory Key Thinkers.pdf

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文化理论 Cultura…

上传者: calvino_lue 2012-07-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【Routledge 五十思想家系列】文化理论 Cultural Theory Key Thinkerspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含CulturalTheoryTheKeyThinkersAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickGIGAPEDIACULTURALTH符等。

CulturalTheoryTheKeyThinkersAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickGIGAPEDIACULTURALTHEORY:THEKEYTHINKERSCulturalTheory:TheKeyThinkersistheessentialguidetotheliterarycritics,sociologists,artists,philosophersandwriterswhohaveshapedcontemporarycultureandsociety,andthewayinwhichweviewthemTheentriesofferalucidanalysisoftheworkofthemostinfluentialfiguresinthestudyofculturaltheory,including:•Adorno•Marx•Bourdieu•Oakeshott•Freud•Saussure•Leavis•WittgensteinWithacomprehensivebibliographyandsuggestionsforfurtherreading,CulturalTheory:TheKeyThinkersistheperfectintroductionforthestudentandgeneralreaderalikeAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickarebothlecturersattheUniversityofWales,CardiffTheyaretheauthorsofKeyConceptsinCulturalTheory,alsopublishedbyRoutledgeROUTLEDGEKEYGUIDESRoutledgeKeyGuidesareaccessible,informative,andlucidhandbooks,whichdefineanddiscussthecentralconcepts,thinkers,anddebatesinabroadrangeofacademicdisciplinesAllarewrittenbynotedexpertsintheirrespectivesubjectsClear,conciseexpositionofcomplexandstimulatingissuesandideasmakeRoudedgeKeyGuidestheultimatereferenceresourcesforstudents,teachers,researchersandtheinterestedlaypersonAncientHistory:KeyThemesandApproachesNevilleMorleyBusiness:TheKeyConceptsMarkVernonCinemaStudies:TheKeyConcepts(secondedition)SusanHaywardCulturalTheory:TheKeyThinkersAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickEasternPhilosophy:KeyReadingsOliverLeamanTelevisionStudies:TheKeyConceptsNeilCasey,BernadetteCasey,JustinLewis,BenCalvertandLiamFrenchFiftyEasternThinkersDianeCollinson,KathrynPlantandRobertWilkinsonFiftyContemporaryChoreographersEditedbyMarthaBremserFiftyContemporaryFilmmakersEditedbyYvonneTaskerFiftyKeyClassicalAuthorsAlisonSharrockandRhiannonAshFiftyKeyContemporaryThinkersJohnLechteFiftyKeyJewishThinkersDanCohnSherbokFiftyKeyThinkersontheEnvironmentEditedbyJoyPalmerwithPeterBlazeCorcoranandDavidACooperFiftyKeyThinkersonHistoryMamieHughesWarringtonFiftyKeyThinkersinInternationalRelationsMartinGriffithsFiftyMajorEconomistsStevenPressmanFiftyMajorPhilosophersDianeCollinsonFiftyMajorThinkersonEducationJoyPalmerFiftyModernThinkersonEducationJoyPalmerInternationalRelations:TheKeyConceptsMartinGriffithsandTerryO'CallaghanKeyConceptsinCommunicationandCulturalStudies(secondedition)TimO'Sullivan,JohnHartley,DannySaunders,MartinMontgomeryandJohnFiskeKeyConceptsinCulturalTheoryAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickKeyConceptsinEasternPhilosophyOliverLeamanKeyConceptsinLanguageandLinguisticsRLTraskKeyConceptsinthePhilosophyofEducationJohnGingellandChristopherWinchKeyConceptsinPopularMusicRoyShukerPostColonialStudies:TheKeyConceptsBillAshcroft,GarethGriffithsandHelenTiffinSocialandCulturalAnthropology:TheKeyConceptsNigelRapportandJoannaOveringCULTURALTHEORY:THEKEYTHINKERSAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickAll'LondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEESimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeWestthStreet,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupAndrewEdgarandPeterSedgwickTypesetinBembobyRefmeCatchLimited,Bungay,SuffolkPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyTJInternationalLtd,Padstow,CornwallAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,"withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataSedgwick,PeterCulturaltheory:thekeythinkersPeterSedgwickAndrewEdgarpcm(Routledgekeyguides)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesCultureIEdgar,AndrewIITitleHMSdcISBN(pbk)ISBN(hbk)CONTENTSListofcontributorsixPrefacexiAdornoAlthusserArendtAristotleArnoldBakhtinBarthesBatailleBaudrillardBenedictBenjaminBlochBourdieuBrechtCastoriadisChomskyCixousDeleuzeandGuattariDeManDerridaDescartesDeweyDurkheimEcoEliasFanonFoucaultCONTENTSFreudGadamerGeertzGiddensGofTmanGramsciHabermasHallHegelHeideggerHoggartHorkheimerHumeHusserlIrigarayJakobsonJamesCLRJamesonJungKantKristevaKuhnLacanLeavisLeCorbusierLeDoeurTLevinasLeviStraussLukacsLyotardMaclntyreMalrauxMarxMaussMerleauPontyMillNietzscheNussbaumOakeshottParsonsPeircePlatoVICONTENTSPopperRawlsRicoeurRortyRoseRousseauSaidSartreSaussureSchutzSimmelSkinnerSmithSontagTaylorWeberWilliamsWittgensteinGlossaryBibliographyIndexLISTOFCONTRIBUTORSGaryDay,AndrewEdgar,StephenHorton,KevinMills,MariannaPapastephanou,MarkPatterson,NadiraRegrag,PeterSedgwick,ShivaKumarSrininvassanIXPREFACEThisvolumeisintendedtocomplementourearliervolumeKeyConceptsinCulturalTheoryItprovidesintroductionstotheworkofarangeofauthorswhohavecontributedtothedevelopmentofwhatwenowunderstandasculturaltheoryWehaveselectedthosewhomweregardasthemostinfluentialcontemporarythinkers,suchasDerrida,HabermasandRortyWehaveincludedmajorthinkersofthetwentiethcentury,suchasBenjamin,FoucaultandHeidegger,andhavecomplementedthemwiththinkerswhomayhavefallenintosomeneglect,suchasArendt,BenedictandOakeshottInadditionwehaveaimedtoprovidethereaderwithsummariesoftheworkofcrucialpretwentiethcenturyfigures,suchasAristotle,Hegel,HumeandPlato,whoseideashaveservedtoshapemuchofWesternthought,andthusourunderstandingofcultureAglossaryisincludedinordertoprovidethereaderwithanexplanationofsomeofthetermsthatrecurthroughoutthetextAEPSXIADORNO,THEODORWIESENGRUNDADORNO,THEODORWIESENGRUND()Germanphilosopher,sociologistandmusicologistwhowasaleadingmember(andeventuallydirector)oftheFrankfurtInstituteforSocialResearch(theinstitutionalbasisoftheFrankfurtSchoolofGermancriticaltheory)Adorno'sworkmaybeunderstoodasanattempttodevelopaMarxisttheoryoftwentiethcenturycapitalism(Adorno)HefollowsLukacs()inrecognisingthatMarx'saccountofcapitalismisinadequate,foritlacksatheoryofbureaucracyThistheoryisfoundintheworkofMaxWeber(b)LukacsfusedMarxandWeberthroughhistheoryof'reification'Areifiedsocietyisonethatconfrontsitsmembersasaquasinaturalobject,ratherthanasaproductofhumansubjectiveactionReificationisrootedintheallpervasivenessoftheprinciplesofcommodityexchangeCommodityexchangeentailsthecomparisonofqualitativelydistinctgoodsandprocessesbyreducingthemtoacommonquantitativemeasure(monetaryvalue)ForLukacsthisquantificationofthequalitativelyuniqueunderpinsnotjustcommodityexchange,butallformsofsocialinteraction,includingthebureaucraticorganisationofworkforcesandastate'scitizensForAdorno,moreradicallystill,theprinciplesofquantificationandexchangeinfiltrateeventhoughtitselfWhileLukacsretainedfaithintherevolutionarypotentialoftheproletariat,sothathefoundinthestandpointoftheproletariatasupposedlyobjectivepointfromwhichtocriticisecapitalism,AdornolacksthisfaithTraditionalclassdistinctionsarenolongerrelevant,forallhumanbeingsarealikeintegratedintothe'totallyadministered'capitalistsocietythroughcommodityexchange,bureaucracy,andthroughwhathecallsthecultureindustry(Adornoa)Thecultureindustryiscomposedofprimarilytheadvertisingandmassmediaindustries,thatinfluencetheconsumer'sjudgementoftheusefulness(or'usevalue')ofcommoditiesIneffect,whileinnineteenthcenturycapitalismconsumerschosegoodsbecausetheyfoundthemuseful,nowourveryactsofchoiceareconstructedbytheproducersThecommodityexists,nottosatisfytheneedsordesiresofconsumers,butsimplytobeexchangedandgenerateprofit(surplusvalue)andthustoperpetuatethecapitalistsystemCriticismofcapitalismishamperedbecause,crucially,theresourcesthatcapitalismprovidestotheintellectual(forexampleinphilosophyorthesocialandnaturalsciences)arenolongersufficienttochallengethecapitalistorder,becausetheseresourcesarefundamentallycoherentwithcapitalism'sbasicprinciplesofquantificationandexchangeInADORNO,THEODORWIESENGRUNDeffect,philosophyandscience(likeadvertising)existtoreproducecapitalismAdornoisthereforesuspiciousoftheverypossibilityofthinkingcoherentlyandcriticallyaboutcapitalisminitsownterms,andsomustseekanapproachtosocialanalysisthatwillbreakapartthereifiedornaturalappearanceofcapitalism,andthusopenupthepossibilityofrecognisingthatthingscouldbeotherwiseInpartthisinvolvesacomplexuseoflanguage,arefusaltodefineconcepts,andapursuitofargumentsintounresolvedcontradictionsContradictionsexposetheinadequaciesofreifiedthought,andspecificallythefailureofthought(theorderofideas)tograspadequatelysocialreality(theorderofthings)Thus,Adorno's(b)approachof'negativedialectics'(or'nonidentitythinking')proceeds,not,likeLukacs',bypositingsomeobjectivestandpointfromwhichphilosophyandcriticismcouldbedeveloped,butratherbyrecognisingonlythefalsehoodofallexistingaccountsandjudgementsofsociety(preciselybecausetheyfallintocontradiction)AdornoisthusarguingthatthethinkeroranalystisnotautonomousfromtherealitytheyseektoanalyseRather,becausetheverystructureoftheirthoughtsisdeterminedbycapitalism,theanalystcanonlyworkbyrecognisingthewaysinwhichcapitalismhasfalsifiedandinhibitedthoughtThethinkerstrivesfor'exactfantasy'thatisatoncedisciplinedbyasensitivitytotheobjectunderanalysis,andyetisfreetotakerisks,breakingfromthecontroloforthodoxsystematicthought(,p)Art,andspecificallytheartofthemodernistavantgarde,isforAdornotheprinciplesourceofresistancetocapitalismHeapproachesartthroughacontradictorythesis:artisatonceasocialfactandyetautonomousfromsocietyThisistoclaimthattheanalysisofartrequiresboththatonerecognisesthatitisdeterminedbysociety,andyetthatitisfreeofsocietyAdornounravelsthisthroughareinterpretationofKant'sdefinitionof'beauty'as'purposivenesswithoutapurpose'(Kanta,p)Aworkofartispurposive,inthesensethatitisanintentionallyconstructedhumanartefactItispurposelessinthatitdoesnotwhollypursuethedominantpurposesofcapitalism(whichistosay,aworkofartisnotsimplyacommoditythatexistsforexchangeandtherealisationofsurplusvalue)AestheticsthephilosophyofartpresupposesthatanartworkshouldbeanalysedinitsowntermsAnartworkpursuesintrinsicallyartisticproblems,suchasexpressionorrepresentationofthenaturaloremotionalworldtheorganisationofthesurfaceofapaintingthedevelopmentofanarrativeorthestructuringofthemeswithinapieceofmusicIncontrast,asociologyofartwilldemonstratethatanygivenartworkisaproductADORNO,THEODORWIESENGRUNDofitsageThetechnologyusedintheartworkwillbesimilartothatusedinindustry(considerthechemicalsinpaintorthemachineryofthemusicalinstrument),thethoughtprocessesoftheartist(suchasthesenseoftime,space,narrativeandlogicaldevelopment)willbeakintothoseoftheircontemporaries,andtheartworkwillbedistributedandconsumedlikeothergoodsAdorno'sclaimisthatthesociologyofartrevealsthattheautonomous,purelyaesthetic,contentoftheartworkisinfactasedimentedsocialcontentBypursuingitsaestheticconcerns,theartworkispursuingtheconcernsofmundanesociety,albeitcruciallystrippedoftheconstraintsofthedominantobjectivesofcapitalismAnappropriatereadingofaworkofartcan,potentially,tellusmoreaboutsocietythancananempiricalsociology,preciselybecausetheworkofartexposestheinnertensionsofsociety,notitsreifiedappearanceAdornoturnstomodernistavantgardeworkssuchasthemusicofSchoenberg(Adornoa)orthetheatreofBeckett(Adornocasthemostprofoundresponse,notjusttoaestheticproblemsbutalso,necessarily,tosocialproblemsTheshocking,seeminglyincomprehensiblenatureoftheavantgardeisimportant,becausetheavantgardeisrespondingtotheartofthepast,andisrecognisingthatitssolutionstoaestheticproblemsarenolongeradequateThus,forSchoenberg,thetonalsystemthatgovernedWesternmusicfromtheseventeenthtothenineteenthcenturiesisnolongeradequatetoexpressemotions,anditspossibilitiesfororganisingthematicmaterialisexhaustedInbreakingwithtonality,SchoenbergexposesasconventionalwhatwaspreviouslytakenforgrantedasnaturalAreifiedsurfaceisbrokenapart,andonerealisesthatthingscouldbeotherwiseWhileAdornoisacriticoftheEnlightenment,heisultimatelyacriticofitsfailure(AdornoandHorkheimer)Therehasbeentoolittleenlightenment,nottoomuchInavantgardeart,incontrasttotherestofcontemporaryculture,hestillfindstherelentlesschallengingoftakenforgrantedfoundationsandboundaries(mythsofgivennessornaturalness)thatcharacterisecritical,enlightenedthought,andastrivingfortruth,ifonlyinexposingthefalsehoodofpastandpresentAEFurtherreading:BuckMorssDCookJamesonaJarvisJayLunnO'ConnorO'NeillRoseALTHUSSER,LOUISALTHUSSER,LOUIS()BorninAlgeria,AlthusserstudiedphilosophyattheEcoleNormaleSuperior(althoughhewasacceptedforagregationin,hedidnotproceedtoituntil,havingservedintheFrenchforcesduringtheSecondWorldWar,duringwhichtimehewastakenasaprisonerbytheGermans)HefirstcametoprominenceintheswiththepublicationofaseriesofarticleswhichexpoundedhiscombinationofstructuralismandMarxism,andpresentedhiscriticismsofthehumanismoftraditionalMarxistthoughtAlthusser'sstructuralMarxismputforwardarevisedviewoftheroleofeconomicdeterminacywithregardtotheideological,political,legislativeandculturalstructurespresentwithincapitalistsocialordersThus,hesoughttodisplacetheperceivedemphasisinmuchofMarx'sworkuponaclassicalmodelofpoliticaleconomywhich,coupledwithanempiricistmodelfortheanalysisofsocialrelations,hadbeentakenasprovidingthebasisforthepurportedly'scientific'statusofMarx'sconclusionsForAlthusser,eachofthesestructures(ideological,political,etc)pertainstoarelativeautonomywithinthelargernetworkofsocialrelationswhichconstitutecapitalistsocietyThus,capitalistsocietyisatotality,butitisalsoastructurewhichdoesnothaveacentreoforganisationHence,ratherthanadvocatingadirectdeterminacyaccordingtowhichtheeconomicbasedictatesthesuperstructure(themodelofclassicalMarxism),AlthusserviewedcapitalistsocietyasanetworkofinterrelatedstructuresTheautonomyofthesestructuresis,however,seenasrelativeratherthanabsolutesince,inthelastinstance,economicfactorsexertacausalinfluenceoverthestructureasawholeInturn,thetraditionalMarxistconceptionof'society',inthesenseofanempiricallyverifiablewhole,isreplacedwithinAlthusser'saccountbytheconceptofthe'modeofproduction'Thecapitalistmodeofproductionismarkedbyparticularfeatures,egthecommodificationofgoods,thenotionsofexchangeandsurplusvalue,theorganisationoflabourModesofproduction,inturn,evolvethroughhistory,andMarxism,onthisaccount,becomesthehistoricalanalysisofthedevelopmentofmodesofproductionintheirimmanentrelationshiptothevarioussocial,political,cultural,ideologicalandlegislativestructureswhichmakeupthesocialtotalityMarxisthuscreditedbyAlthusserwithdevelopinganewtheoreticalarticulationofsocialrelationswhich,however,duetotheeconomicandscientificparadigmsathisdisposal,hecouldnothimselffullyarticulateInturn,AlthusserproposedreplacingthetraditionalMarxistconceptionofscienceasempiricalanalysiswithamodelwhich,insteadofARENDT,HANNAHgroundingitselfinproceduresofobservationandverification,stressedtheinternalconsistencyofatheoryasprovidingproofofitsvalidityThus,forAlthusser,whatMarxisttheorystatesneednotcorrespondtoanimmediatelyverifiablesocialreality,fortheveracityofitsanalysisisshownintheinternalconsistencyofthepremisesthatunderpinitTheconceptionofmodesofproductionwasthensupplementedbyAlthusserwithareformulationofthemeaningandsignificanceofideologyintheshapeofhistheoryifideologicalstateapparatuses,aconceptionagaindevelopedinordertofillwhathecontendedweregapsintraditionalMarxisttheoryAlso,AlthusserespousedtheviewthatindividualsdonotinanysenseexistindependentlyoftheconstitutionofeconomicandsocialstructuresThisviewlayattheheartofAlthusser'santihumanismWhereasMarxistshadtraditionallyarguedthathumanbeingsaretheauthorsoftheirowndestinies,Althusser'scontentionwasthatindividualsareanexpressionoftherelationswhichinherewithinthehistoricallydeterminedstructuresthatmakeupthecapitalistmodeofproductionPSFurtherreading:KaplanandSprinkerSSmithARENDT,HANNAH()Germanborn(althoughnaturalisedAmerican)politicalphilosopher,whocontributedsignificantlytotheanalysisoftotalitarianism,andthefateofJewryinthetwentiethcenturyArendtisperhapsbestknownforasingleutterance,herresponsetotheNaziAdolfEichmannstandingtrial:'thelessonofthefearsome,wordandthoughtdefyingba

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