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Immigration.doc

Immigration

Dandy
2012-07-05 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Immigrationdoc》,可适用于人文社科领域

ImmigrationAsyouknow,immigrationisthemovementthroughwhichindividualpermanentlymovetheirplaceofresidencefromaparticularcountrytoanotherImmigrationisacontentiousissueSomepeoplebelievethattheimpactofimmigrationisoverwhelminglynegativeandshouldthereforebelimitedOthersaresaidthatthebenefitsareunderstoodandfacilitatedbygovernmentpolicyTheyalsoconcernedaboutherightsofmigrants(IPPR)PeopleholddifferentviewsinthiscasebecausetheyevaluateimmigrationindifferentperspectivesImmigrationhasitsdistinctadvantagesanddisadvantagesObviously,immigrationcanbenefitbothreceivingcountriesandsendingcountriesWithrapidtechnologicalchanges,moreopenmarketsandgreatdemographicimbalances,nationalcompetitivenessdependspartlyonhavingaccesstosufficientskilledlabour(Dibben)Forreceivingcountries,immigrationcanrealizethemobilityoftheworkforce,whichisakeyelementofacompetitveeconomyMobileemployeescontributetothediffusionofknowledge,increasetheskilledlabour,elevatelevelsofcompetencetomeetqualitystandardsandmatchtheneedsofthegrowinginternationlisationofbusinessForsendingcountries,OnebenefitistheremittancestofamiliesinsendingcountriesIn,remittancessenttoIndiaamountedtoalmostbillionpoundsAnotherisreliefonpopulationpressureforsendingcountries(Morrison)Sendingcountriesalsobenefitfromknowledgeexchange,throughreturningworkersandthroughnetworks(XiangBiao)ImmigrationhaveitsdisadvantagesFirstly,cultureconflictisinevitablebecausepeoplefromdifferntcountriesandbackgroundsSecondly,thelocalpeoplemayintolerantbecausetheseforeignersaggravatethemarketcompetitionThediscriminationisexistingImmigrantsmaytendtoreceivelowerwagesthanthelocalworkersMorevoer,manycountrieshavestrictlegislationonimmigration,theillegalimmigrationisinevitableunderthiscircumstanceImmigrationdoeshaveitsdisadvantages:greaterpoverty,increaseincrimes,lowerunskilledwage,educationcosts,andafewothersBenefitthehostcountriesInthelongterm,theimmigrantscanboosteconomicgrowthofhostcountriesCriticshaveclaimedthatimmigrantstakeonjobsandlowerdownwagesHowever,theydonotrealizethatthejobsimmigrantstakearethejobmostlocalworkersdonotwant(Dicken)Immigrantsfillingupthesejobslightentheloadofproducersandconsumers,andresultsingainsineconomicwelfareItisafactthatimmigrantsareasourceoflowcostlabor,butthesecostreductionsareeventuallypassedontotheconsumer,sohostcountrycitizensbenefitfromthisaswellImmigrationincreasesproductdiversity,somethingthatmanypeopleenjoyverymuchImmigrantsmovinginmeansmoreethnicrestaurantstodinein,moreculturalcenterstoenjoy,andeasieraccesstoproductsonlyavailableinothercountries(Increaseinculturaldiversity)TheBBCnews()saidthat,accordingtothegovernment,theevidencesuggeststhatimmigrationcontributedpositivelytowardsGDPgrowthbyallowingemployersgreaterchoiceinawiderlabourmarket,allowingemployerstofindabettermatchbetweenvacanciesandavailablelabourThegovernmentalsopointedoutotherbenefitsthatimmigrationbringstoBritain"TheCommitteenotesandweagreethatmigrationcankeepdowninflationarypressureinthelabourmarket,""MigrationalsobringsinnovationsasUKworkersandbusinesseslearnfromtheexchangeofideasandexperienceswithimmigrantworkersthisleadstonewwaysofworkingandnewproductsandservices"Inaddition,thegovernmentarguedthatmigrantsarenecessarytofilllabourandskillsshortages,andthatimmigrationgeneratessignificanttaxrevenueforthegovernment"Onaveragemigrantsaremorelikelytobeinwork,earnmoreandarethereforelikelytobepayingmoretax,andarealighterburdenonpublicfinancesthanthosebornintheUK,"saidImmigrationMinisterLiamByrne"OurjobnowistomakesuremigrationdoesevenmoretoprofitBritain,economicallyandculturally"AyoungerworkforceforlowgrowthratecountriesTheratioofretiredpeopletoworkersisexpectedtodramaticallyincreaseinthecomingdecadesthatwouldresulttosignificantchangesintheSecuritySystemImmigrants,withtheirchildrenandyoungerrelatives,willbringinmoreyoungworkforcethatcanslowdowntheincreaseofthisveryimportantratioIOMresearchintopreviousfinancialcriseshasshownthatmigrantscanhelpeconomiesrecoverfasteroutofdepressionSkilledmigrantshelpcreatejobsandpassonskillstonativeworkerswhilelowerskilledmigrantsfilllabourholesinsectorsthatcontributetothewellbeingofahostpopulation(Swing)EmergingeconomiesinAfrica,AsiaandLatinAmericaarenowseeingconsiderablygreatermigrationflowsthanOECDcountries(Loyal)TheeconomicdevelopmentofChinahadbenefitalotfromimmigrationForexample,ChinaisfacinglabourshortageduetotherapiddevelopmentofeconomySkilledworkersinmuchneededsectorssuchasconstructionandmedicineManyimmigrantsarriveandtheyofferdskillsthatareveryscarceinChinaTheymadecontributionsfordevelopmentofChinainmanyindustriesTheskilleddoctorsfromUKandUSAsignificantlyincreasedthelevelofhealthindustryImmigrantsaremorelikelytoworkasacontingentlaborforceImmigrantsprovideanimportantsourceoftemporarylaborwhentheeconomyisgrowingforexample,throughtempagencies,shorttermcontracts,ordaylaborarrangementsTheseworkingstructuresareoftenusedtobypassstricterlaborregulationsthatmakeitdifficulttofirepermanentemployeescountrieswithstricteremploymentprotectionlegislationforpermanentjobs(Wick)Immigrationlegislationandpolicy

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