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首页 【Routledge 五十思想家系列】论发展 Fifty key thinkers on de…

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】论发展 Fifty key thinkers on development.pdf

【Routledge 五十思想家系列】论发展 Fifty ke…

上传者: calvino_lue 2012-07-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《【Routledge 五十思想家系列】论发展 Fifty key thinkers on developmentpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含shalinisFileAttachmentecovervbjpgFIFTYKEYTHINKERSONDEVELOPMENTFiftyKeyThin符等。

shalinisFileAttachmentecovervbjpgFIFTYKEYTHINKERSONDEVELOPMENTFiftyKeyThinkersonDevelopmentistheessentialguidetotheworld’smostinfluentialdevelopmentthinkersItpresentsauniqueguidetothelivesandideasofleadingcontributorstothecontestedterrainofdevelopmentstudiesfrombothNorthandSouthDavidSimonhasassembledahighlyauthoritativeteamofcontributorsfromdifferentbackgroundsanddisciplinestoreflectonthelivesandcontributionsoffiftyleadingdevelopmentthinkersfromaroundtheworldTheseinclude:•ModerniserslikeKindlebergerandRostow•DependencistassuchasFrank,CardosoandAmin•ProgressiveslikeHirschman,Prebisch,HelleinerandStreeten•Politicalleadersenunciatingradicalalternativevisionsofdevelopment,suchasMao,NkrumahandNyerere•Progenitorsofreligiouslyorspirituallyinspireddevelopment,suchasGandhiandAriyaratne•DevelopmentenvironmentthinkerslikeBlaikie,BrookfieldandShivaThisinvaluablereferenceisaconciseandaccessibleintroductiontothelivesandkeycontributionsofdevelopmentthinkersfromacrosstheideologicalanddisciplinaryspectrumDavidSimonisProfessorofDevelopmentGeographyandDirectoroftheCentreforDevelopingAreasResearchatRoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondonHeisthecoeditorofThePeriUrbanInterface:ApproachestoSustainableNaturalandHumanResourceUse(Earthscan,)AlsoavailablefromRoutledgeEconomics:TheBasicsTonyCleaverTheRoutledgeCompaniontoGlobalEconomicsEditedbyRobertBenyonFiftyMajorEconomistsStevenPressmanFiftyMajorPoliticalThinkersIanAdamsandRWDysonFiftyKeyThinkersontheEnvironmentJoyPalmerFIFTYKEYTHINKERSONDEVELOPMENTEditedbyDavidSimonFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeParkSquare,MiltonPark,Abingdon,OxonOXRNSimultaneouslypublishedintheUSAandCanadabyRoutledgeMadisonAve,NewYork,NYRoutledgeisanimprintoftheTaylorFrancisGroupDavidSimonAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilisedinanyformorbyanelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataFiftykeythinkersondevelopmenteditedbyDavidSimonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexPlannersBiographyEconomicdevelopmentPlanningEconomicdevelopmentCrossculturalstudiesEconomicpolicyCrossculturalstudiesITitle:KeythinkersondevelopmentIISimon,David,–HDFdcISBN(hbk)ISBN(pbk)ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,“TopurchaseyourowncopyofthisoranyofTaylorFrancisorRoutledge’scollectionofthousandsofeBookspleasegotowwweBookstoretandfcouk”CONTENTSIntroductionDavidSimonviiAdebayoAdedejiReginaldClineColeAnilAgarwalTimForsythElmarAltvaterHenningMelberSamirAminMAMohamedSalihATAriyaratneLakshmanYapaJagdishBhagwatiVNBalasubramanyamPiersBlaikieJonathanRiggJamesM‘Jim’BlautBenWisnerNormanBorlaugKatieWillisEsterBoserupVandanaDesaiHaroldBrookfieldJohnConnellandBarbaraRugendykeFernandoHenriqueCardosoRobertoSánchezRodríguezMichaelCerneaAnthonyBebbingtonRobertChambersMichaelParnwellHollisBCheneryJuhaIUittoDianeElsonSylviaChantAndreGunderFrankMichaelWattsPaoloFreireAndersNärmanJohnFriedmannGaryGaileMohandas(Mahatma)GandhiRanaPBSinghSusanGeorgeCathyMcIlwaineAlexanderGerschenkronRobertGwynneGeraldKHelleinerChristopherCramerAlbertOHirschmanJohnBrohmanRichardJollyJoBeallCharlesPoorKindlebergerJanToporowskiSirWilliamArthurLewisMorrisSzeftelMichaelLiptonJohnHarrissReverendThomasRobertMalthusWTS(Bill)GouldvMaoZedongTonvanNaerssenKarlMarxRichardPeetManfredMaxNeefRitaAbrahamsenTerenceGaryMcGeeJohnPLeaGunnarMyrdalSarahRadcliffeKwameFrancisNkrumahAlfredBabatundeZackWilliamsJuliusKambaragweNyerereDaniWNabudereRaúlPrebischCristóbalKayWalterRodneyJamesSidawayWaltWhitmanRostowUlrichMenzelEF(Fritz)SchumacherTonyBinnsDudleySeersArturoEscobarAmartyaKumarSenStuartCorbridgeVandanaShivaBrendaSAYeohHansWolfgangSingerJohnShawJosephStiglitzBenFinePaulPatrickStreetenFrancisWilsonJamesTobinDavidSimonMahbubUlHaqMarcusPowerEricRWolfReinhartKößlerandTilmanSchielPeterWorsleyRonaldoMunckAboutthecontributorsIndexviCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONTheinvitationtoeditthisbookprovedirresistible,despiteseveralothersimultaneouseditorialcommitmentsFirst,Routledge’sconfidenceinamarketforadevelopmentstudiestitleinthiswellestablishedandsuccessfulseriesthatspansmanyfieldsofstudyandresearchwaspleasingMoreparticularly,though,Iperceivedtheopportunitytoaddressalongfeltgapinthedevelopmentstudiesliterature,namelyagoodqualitybiographicalreferenceworkthatbringstogetherleadingfiguresfromthevariousconstituentdisciplinesPreciselybecauseofitsinter(andtosomeextentbutstillinadequatelymulti)disciplinarynature,aswellastheverycontestednatureofboththeoryandpolicy,bothofwhichhavebeenevolvingrapidlyinthisyoungfield,developmentstudiesstillhasaremarkablyunderdevelopedcentreorcoreConsequently,thereislesssenseofsharedheritageorofawidelyagreedsetofleadingfiguresandpersonalitiesthaninlongerestablishedfieldsMoreover,mostacademicresearchandteachingstilltakeplacewithintraditionaldisciplines,afeaturerecentlyreinforcedintheUKandseveralotherEuropeancountriesasaresultofthecurrentdisciplinebasedresearchassessmentandauditculturesalongsideyearsofcutbacksandrationalisationinhighereducationasawholeMultidisciplinaryinstitutesorcentresofdevelopmentstudieswereestablishedinvariouscountriesamidtheoptimismofthesandearlysbuttheirsubsequentfortuneshavebeenmixedIntheUSA,theprimacyofconventionalacademicdisciplineshasneverbeenseriouslychallengedAtanotherlevel,thedevelopmentfieldwaslongbesetbyaveritable‘townversusgown’dividebetweenacademicsandpractitionersMichaelEdwards’()polemicbothreflectedandexacerbatedthesenseofdivisionbutdidfocusattentionontheproblemAlthoughhemoderatedhisviewswithinafewyears(Edwards,),suggestingthatrapidprogresstowardsrapprochementhadbeenmade,thelastdecadeorsohascertainlyseenmorewidespreadinteractionandcollaboration,resultinginaconsiderablenarrowingofthedivideviiAttestingtothevitalityofthefield,numerousrecenttextbooksandcompendiahavesoughttokeeppacewiththerapidityofchangeinthepostColdWarworldandtheprofounddebatesovertheverymeaningandfutureof‘development’Yet,despiteharbingersofdoompredictingitsdemise,andwhetherweprefertodenotecontemporaryperspectivesbymeansofprefixeslikeantiorpost,ortorefashionandreinvigoratetheterm‘development’itself,thereiscertainlymuchongoingtheoreticaldebate,conceptuallyrigorousresearchanddynamisminpolicydrivenpracticeAssuch,thisvolumeaimstomakeasubstantialcontributionthroughinformedreflectiononthelifeandworkofseminalthinkersandactorsinthebroadlydefinedfieldofdevelopmentstudiesThefiftiethanniversaryofPresidentTruman’s‘PointFour’speechinwasmarkedbyseveralretrospectiveandprospectiveworksThisbookwillcontinuethattrend,givenadditionalimpetusbytherecentdeathsofseveralprominent,ifinsomecaseshighlycontroversial,figureslikeWaltRostow,CharlesKindlebergerandJamesTobinAssomeofthelastsurvivorsofthepostWorldWarIIimpetusto‘develop’thenewlyindependentstates,theirpassingalsosymbolisesthegenerationalchangethathasbeentakingplacewithindevelopmentstudiesThemostdifficultchallengeinproducingthisbookcameattheoutset:howtonarrowdownthelonglistofnearlynamesthatIjotteddowninaveryshorttimetoonlyfiftyItquicklybecameclearthatnouniversalconsensuswouldbereached,regardlessofthefinalchoiceIndeed,thiswasconfirmedthroughaprocessofconsultationwithfriends,colleagues,thepublisherandthesubsequentsuggestionsofrefereesoftheproposalforthistitleInreachingthefinallist,IhaveundoubtedlymadeafewdecisionsthatsomepeoplewillfindsurprisingSeveralcontributorshaveevenadmittedtonotknowingofallthefiftythemselves,perhapsillustratingourindividualdisciplinaryandregionalbiasesAbitofcontroversyinthisdiverseandcontestedfieldmaythusbebothgoodandnecessaryLetmeexplaintheselectionprocessOnehelpfulfactorwasthatanumberofleadinglightswhosecontributionstodevelopmenthavebeenmadeaspractitionersoractivistsratherthanas‘thinkers’couldbeexcludedThisappliesforinstancetoChicoMendes,thechampionoftheindigenousBrazilianAmazonianrubbertappers,whowasbrutallymurderedinbyagentsofthepowerfulranchersandloggingfirmswhosedestructionwasbeingchallengedAsithappens,heisincludedinFiftyKeyThinkersontheEnvironment(Palmer)Interestingly,fivethinkersdoappearinboththeabovetitleandthisvolume(ThomasMalthus,KarlMarx,MohandasGandhi,EFSchumacherandVandanaShiva),whileMarxandGandhialsoappearinFiftyMajorPoliticalThinkers(AdamsandDyson)InviiiINTRODUCTIONsuchcases,therespectiveentrieshavebeenwrittenbydifferentauthorsandbringoutdifferentaspectsorinterpretationsoftheircontributions,soreaderscouldusefullyconsultmorethanoneOverall,thechoiceofThinkersisintendedtoenhancetherelevanceandcontributionofthisbookbyhavingagroupwhoarebroadlyrepresentativeofthediversecurrentsandmovementsintheworldofdevelopmentThishasmeantensuringthatthepervasiveAngloAmericandominanceofdevelopmenttheoryanddiscourse(notleastbyeconomists)ischallengedthroughtheinclusionofpeopleworkingindifferentdisciplines,overdifferentperiodsoftimeand–crucially–hailingfromdifferentwalksoflifeandgeographicalregionsThisvolumeisbydefinitionthereforeaverydifferentundertakingfromtheselfreflectivestudiesbyfifteeneminentNortherndevelopmenteconomists(withcommentariesbyyoungereconomists)commissionedbytheWorldBanksometwentyyearsago,wheneconomicdevelopmentanddevelopmentwerestillcommonlyconflated(MeierandSeers),althoughseveralofthoseeconomistsarealsofeaturedhereReaderswillalsonoticethesharpgenderimbalanceamongtheThinkersfeaturedherethisreflectsthestrongmaledominanceinmostareasofdevelopmentthoughtEconomicsisapartialexceptionbuteffortstobalancethevariousdisciplinesandNorthernversusSouthernrepresentationmadeforafewdifficultchoicesOneotherpossiblewomancontender,GroHarlemBrundtland,chairoftheUN’sWorldCommissiononEnvironmentandDevelopment,isfeaturedintheEnvironmenttitleinthisseries(Palmer)Afewofthevoices(both‘Southern’and‘Northern’)includedinthisbookarefarlesswellknown‘internationally’thantheyshouldbe,preciselybecauseofthelinguistic,cultural,disciplinaryandgeographicallimitationsunderwhichmanyofuslabourandwhich–howeverunwittingly–sometimesservetoperpetuatetheverysimplificationsandabstractionsthatweclaimtochallengeTheirinclusionisthereforedeliberate,asasmallcontributiontoovercominginsularityandpromotingpolyvocalityindevelopment,asbefitsapostcolonialapproachSimilarly,oneortwopeoplelikeNormanBorlaug,progenitoroftheGreenRevolution,areincludedbecauseoftheirvisionandtheprofoundimpactoftheirwork,eventhoughthismightarguablyhavebeensomewhatmore‘technical’than‘conceptual’Inevitably,though,somedifficultchoiceshavehadtobemadeinviewoftheartificiallimitoffiftythinkersForinstance,despitetheundoubtedinfluenceofhis‘worldsystemstheory’,ImmanuelWallersteinhasbeenomitted,inpartbecausehisideasintegratelessdirectlywithdevelopmentissuesthanthecloselyrelatedworkofJimBlautAnotherimportantcriterionforinclusionhasbeenixINTRODUCTIONthat,toallow‘mature’reflectiononthesignificanceofthelivesandcontributionsoftheThinkers,theyshouldbeclosetotheendoftheiractivecareers,ifnotyetretiredordeadGiventherelativeyouthfulnessofDevelopmentStudies–asevidencedbyMalthusandMarxbeingtheonlyThinkersincludedwhopredatethetwentiethcentury–thisstillleavesplentyofscopefortopicality,whileavoidingthetemptationforauthorstomakeprematurejudgementsorriskincurringpersonalembarrassmentPersonally,theprocessofeditingtheessaysandmeldingthemintoahopefullycoherentbookhasbeenfascinatingbeyondmymostoptimisticexpectationsIndeed,itwouldbenoexaggerationtosaythatithasbeenthemostrewardingeditorialchallengeIhaveundertakentodateFirstandforemost,ithasbroughtmeintodirectcontactwithtwodiversesetsofpeople,theauthorsandtheThinkers,someofwhomIhadneverpreviouslymetorhadcontactwithSomeofthesenewrelationshipswilldoubtlessendureFindingcontributorswillingtowriteabouttheidentifiedThinkerswasinitselfachallenge,particularlyasIwassolicitingonlyoneentryperauthorInmostcases,thetaskprovedremarkablyeasy,perhapsbecausetheideaofthebookcaughttheirimaginationtooInafewinstances,itwasdifficulttorecruitanauthorforaparticularThinkerortomatchawillingcontributortoanappropriateThinkernotalready‘taken’Nevertheless,Imustacknowledgetheefficiencywithwhichcommitmentswereturnedintowellcraftedessays,andmostlybytheagreeddeadlines,asaresultofwhichithasprovedpossibletoproducethebookonscheduleManyoftheauthorsalsofoundtheirresearchandwritingmostilluminatingSomewereactuallyabletocommunicatewith,andoccasionallyeveninterview,thefigureonwhomtheywereworkingThemanuscripthasbenefitedgreatlyasaresultInevitably,tryingtocapturetheessenceoffullandfascinatinglives,aswellasassessingtheirlastingcontributions,inabout,wordshasbeenaconsiderablechallengeMysecondsourceofinspirationaseditorhasbeenhowmuchIhavelearnedabouttheThinkersandtheirlivesandtimes,regardlessofhowmuchIknewofthemandtheirworkbeforehandThisreflectstheformulaadoptedforthebook,namelytointerweavetheirbiographical‘stories’andanappreciationoftheirworkandlegaciesThird,however,afascinatingsetofinsightsemergedastheessayswereeditedandintegratedintothebookmanuscriptTwoinparticularstandoutandexemplifythe‘addedvalue’ofthiscompendiumThefirstwasthetremendousimpactoftheNaziregimeonthesubsequentevolutionofDevelopmentStudiesthroughtheemigrationorescapeofmanyyoungEuropeanJewish(andsomenonJewish)refugeestotheUKandUSA,wheretheylateremergedthroughuniversitiesandpoliticalofficeasinfluentialcontributorstotheemergingideasandapproachesHolocaustxINTRODUCTIONsurvivorsandescapeesaresurprisinglynumerousamongtheThinkersrepresentedhereWhilemanyotherimplicationsofWorldWarIIforwhatwastobecomeDevelopmentStudies,suchasthestimulustocolonialliberationstrugglesandformulationoftheMarshallPlan,forinstance,arequitewellknown,thisonehasseeminglynotpreviouslybeendocumentedSecond,andsomewhatmorebroadly,thegeopoliticalshiftsandrupturesofthe‘endofempire’representedbydecolonisationopenedupthepossibilityofinteresting,indeedimportant,newinterregionalandexperientialconnectionsthathadimportantinfluencesonthesubsequentthinkingandworkoftheThinkersconcernedThisisexemplifiedbyArthurLewisandWalterRodney,twonativesoftheCaribbeanwhostudiedattheUniversityofLondon(theformerinthesandthelatterinthes)andthenworkedforatimeinGhanaandTanzaniarespectivelyTherearebetterknownexamplestooDecadesearlier,Gandhi’sexperiencefightingracisminSouthAfricahadprovedseminaltohissubsequentstrategyofnonviolentdirectactionandresistance(Satyagraha)inIndiaSimilarly,mostoftheNorthernvoicesinthiscollectionwereprofoundlyinfluencedbygrowingup,travellingandorworkinginpartsoftheSouthatanearlyageThethirdimportantinsightwastheoftencloseandinfluentialinterconnectionsamongsomeThinkerswhommostpeopletodaydonotparticularlyassociatewithoneanother(egBoserup,Lipton,MyrdalandStreetenwithrespecttotheAsianDramastudyinthes)–somethingthatmayhelpexplaintheprocessesofinteractionsthatspawnedandpopularisedkeyideasandtheoriesatmomentoustimesinthehistoryofdevelopmentthinkingHopefullyreaderswillfindthisvolumebothstimulatingasagoodreadandusefulforreferencepurposesPerhapssomewillevenseektoexplorethelivesandcontributionsofotherkeyfiguresinthefieldReferencesAdams,IandDyson,RW(eds)()FiftyMajorPoliticalThinkers,LondonandNewYork:RoutledgeEdwards,M()‘TheIrrelevanceofDevelopmentTheory’,ThirdWorldQuarterly():()‘HowRelevantisDevelopmentStudies’,inFSchuurman(ed),BeyondtheImpasseNewDirectionsinDevelopmentTheory,London:Zed()‘RethinkingSocialDevelopment:TheSearchforRelevance’,inDBooth(ed),RethinkingSocialDevelopment,Harlow:LongmanMeier,GMandSeers,D(eds)()PioneersinDevelopment,Oxford:OxfordUniversityPressxiINTRODUCTIONPalmer,JA()‘ChicoMendes’,inPalmer,JA(ed),FiftyKeyThinkersontheEnvironment,LondonandNewYork:Routledge,ppDavidSimonEgham,SurreyMarchNoteoncrossreferencesAllcrossreferencesbetweenessaysareindicatedinthetextbytherelevantThinker’snamecitedinboldxiiINTRODUCTIONFIFTYKEYTHINKERSONDEVELOPMENTADEBAYOADEDEJI(–)BornininIjebuOdeinsouthwesternNigeria,AdebayoAdedejireceivedhisdoctorateinEconomicsfromtheUniversityofLondonin,followinginitialtraininginEconomics(BScHons,London,)andPublicAdministration(Diploma,UniversityCollege,Ibadan,andMPA,Harvard,)Afterworkinginitiallyasacivilservant,hejoinedtheUniversityofIfe(nowObafemiAwolowoUniversity,IleIfe)in,becomingNigeria’sfirstProfessorofPublicAdministrationinand,concurrently,DirectoroftheInstituteofAdministrationBetweenandheservedasNigeria’s(postcivilwar)MinisterofEconomicPlanni

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