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首页 [美国.时代周刊].Time.2010-02-22.pdf

[美国.时代周刊].Time.2010-02-22.pdf

[美国.时代周刊].Time.2010-02-22.pdf

上传者: 莫昭喻 2012-07-05 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[美国.时代周刊].Time.2010-02-22pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含TableofContents:February,INTHISISSUEEDITION:USVolNoCOVERHowToLiveYears(Hea符等。

TableofContents:February,INTHISISSUEEDITION:USVolNoCOVERHowToLiveYears(HealthCheckup)Acenturyoflifewasonceararething,butthatischangingScienceisslowlyunravelingthesecretsofthecentenariansHowToLivetoaRipeOldAgeSeeingyourthbirthdaywasonceararething,butmoreandmoreseniorsarejoiningthecenturyclubLabReport(TimeHealthSubjectNoLongevity)Gender,genes,dietandevenhumanspermmayallbelifeextendersBeCarefulWhatYouWishFor(TimeHealthHealthCheckup)We'dalllikeanextradecadeoflifeButtherearereasonstothinkwealreadyhangaroundlongenoughEatLess,LiveLonger(TimeHealthHealthCheckup)Restrictingcaloriesextendsanimallife,sodoctorswanttoknowifgoinghungrywouldhelpustooAGlobalLookatLongevity(TimeHealthHealthCheckup)Geography,itseems,isdestiny,atleastwhenitcomestonumberingouryearsLivingLongandLivingWell(TimeHealthPrescription)It'snotsohardandit'snotallgenesHere'swhatwecandotodaytogetextratomorrowsNATIONTheRescueBrigade(TheWellWorld)Themilitary'sairbornemedicalevacuationteamsarecriticaltoholdingdownUScasualtiesinAfghanistanLynseyAddariotravelstothefrontlinestofollowonemedevacunitasitracestosaveanotherlifePhotos:TheRescueBrigadePhotographerLynseyAddariotravelstothefrontlinestofollowamedevacunitWhat'sBehindAmerica'sFallingCrimeRate(TheWellNation)ThemurderrateinAmericaisatanalltimelowWilltherecessionreversethatESSAYIt'sHerParty(CommentaryIntheArena)SarahPalinisclever,deceptiveandinfuriatingwhichmakeshertheRepublicans'mostpotentforceEraofNoConsensus(CommentaryViewpoint)No,Obama'snotFDRhe'salsonotthefirstPresidenttostartoverIt'sjusttoughtohavetodoitnowEchoesofGreece'sDebtCrisis(CommentaryTheCuriousCapitalist)Greece'seconomyissmall,butitsdebtcrisisisthreateningtheeuroListenfortheechoesintheUSMyPriusProblem(TheWellTheAwesomeColumn)SowhatifmywifedrivesoneAtleastnowIwon'thavetohearwhyitmakesherbetterthanmeThere'sNoPointinDoingGoodBadlyToaidishumanButwhathappenswhenourreliefeffortshurtmorethantheyhelpWORLDInIndia,ASalonACutAbovetheRestThankstorisingdisposableincomes,designerhairstylingisfinallymakingthecutwithIndia'smiddleclassTakeachairinthecoiffuredworldofJawedHabibStoppingSoldiersfromBecomingMurderers(World)SomesoldiersbecomemurderersThemilitaryneedstofigureouthowtostopthemTOOURREADERSHealthCheckupWhowantstobeOurfirstinaseriesofspecialreportslooksatlongevityIt'snotjustaboutlivinglonger,butlivingbetterARTSENTERTAINMENTTheGreatestPerformancesoftheYear,aTribute(GreatPerformances)OurannualtributetotheactorsandactresseswhoseworkthisyearlitupthescreenTheDevil'sDue(Books)Withhisnewnovel,JoeHillclimbstothetopofthehorrorpackTylerPerry'sBigHappyFamily(Theater)TouringthecountryasMadea,TylerPerrymaybethemostpopularunsungplaywrightinAmericaVivaVivaElvis!(Theater)CirqueduSoleil'sfizzyevocationofthemanandhismusicrestorestheKingtohisVegasthronePercyJackson(PhenomenonWatch)ShortListTIME'SPICKSFORTHEWEEKBUSINESSBehindtheTroublesatToyota(Business)Itwastheworld'smostadmiredautomaker,acompanythathadredefinedmanufacturingThentherecallsstartedWhatcanotherfirmslearnfromacorporateculturethatwenthorriblywrongEDUCATIONAQuickFixforAmerica'sWorstSchools(Education)TheWhiteHouseisdevoting$billiontoturningaroundAmerica'sworstschoolsWilltheseextrememakeoversworkSOCIETYRealityTVat:HowIt'sChangedTelevisionandUs(CultureCulture)TenyearssincethepremiereofSurvivor,thegenrehasgonefromguiltypleasuretoquintessentiallyAmericanentertainmentTopRealityTVShowsAlookatthebestunscriptedprogramsontelevisionMcDonald'sChef:TheMostInfluentialCookinAmerica(Food)MeetthemostinfluentialcookinAmericaDanCoudreautisthecreativemindbehindthesaladsandwrapsthathelpedupdateMcDonald'sgreasyimageNowhe'sevenplayingwiththeBigMacTheDisasterDiet(LifeFood)InHaiti,ourcorrespondentsubsistsonstateoftheartsurvivalfoodhighenergycookiesSeekingMyRaceBasedValentineOnline(LifeSocialNorms)WhyonlinedatingisthelastrefugeofovertracialpreferencesPEOPLEQuestionsforHenryPaulson(Questions)InOntheBrink,theformerTreasurychieflooksbackonthefinancialcrisisHenryPaulsonwillnowtakeyourquestionsLETTERSInbox(Inbox)NOTEBOOKTheMoment(Briefing)||:NewOrleansTheWorld(Briefing)ESSENTIALSTORIESVerbatim(Briefing)BriefHistory:InvasiveSpecies(Briefing)TopInvasiveSpeciesAsofficialsfighttokeepthefearsomeAsiancarpfrommakingitswayintotheGreatLakes,TIMEtakesalookatotherspeciesthathaveoverstayedtheirwelcomeTheSkimmer(Briefing)BookReview:TheImmortalLifeofHenriettaLacksbyRebeccaSklootJohnMurtha(BriefingMilestones)HowardZinn(BriefingMilestones)CharlieWilson(BriefingMilestones)COVERHowtoLiveYearsByALICEPARKThursday,Feb,SixoftheeightHurlburtsiblingsliveinNewEngland,includingPeggy(),Helen(),Millie(),Peter(),Agnes()andMuriel()JasonGrowforTIMEDon'twritethatdown!Putyourpencilaway!"AgnesBuckleyistryinginvaintoheadoffanentertainingstoryhersistersaretellingmeabouthowsheusedtosneakoutofthehouseasateenager(Shefavoredboyswithmotorcycles)Whentheirfatherhidhershoestokeepherathome,Agnessimplybypassedthefrontdoorandleapedoutthewindow"EveryoneisgoingtothinkIwasatroublemaker,"shelamentsDon'tworry,AgnesYoumayhavehadsomefunasateen,butthere'salifetimeofevidencetoproveyou'vegrownintorespectabilityAlifetime,thatis,thatalreadyincludesafulldecadeandahalfmorethantheorsoyearsthatagirlbornintheUStodaycanexpecttoliveAgneswasbornintheyearthatGrandCentralTerminalopenedinNewYorkCityandtheUSPostalServicebegandeliveringpackagesaswellasletterswhichmakesheryearsoldTwoofherbrothersandsistersarenonagenarianstooTheothersurvivingmembersoftheclanarepushingorwellbeyonditAnd,asAgnespointsout,"noneofushavecanes"Infact,theentireHurlburtfamilyisamodeloflonglived,healthfulvigor,whichmakesitaperfectcandidatefortheLongLifeFamilyStudy(LLFS),aninvestigationintothefactorsthathelpcertainfamiliesproducememberswholiveintotheirs,sandevensThestudysponsoredbytheNationalInstituteonAging,partoftheNationalInstitutesofHealthincludesinvestigatorsfromfourUSresearchcentersandoneDanishoneTheidea,saysDrThomasPerls,theprincipalinvestigatorattheBostonUniversityMedicalCenterlocation,istofigureoutwhichgenetic,environmentalandbehavioralfactorscontributetolongevity"Whenitcomestoraregeneticvariationsthatcontributetolongevity,familyanalysisisparticularlypowerful,"hesays"Butjustbecausesomethingoccursinafamilydoesn'tmeanitisnecessarilygeneticTherearelotsofbehaviorsandtraditionsthathappeninfamiliesthatplayaroleinlongerlifeexpectanciesWewanttousethesefamiliestoferretoutwhatthesefactorsare"There'snodenyingthatlongerlifeexpectancyisswellingthenumberofseniorspeopleoverageinourpopulationButit'sthefastestgrowingsubsetofthatsuperannuatedgroupthatprovesthemostinterestingforresearchersthoseoverage,inparticularthecentenariansborninthelates,whohavelivedthroughtheflupandemic,theGreatDepressionandbothworldwarshavewitnessedwomen'ssuffrageandthemoonlandingsandarestillhere,keepingupwithworldeventsduringtheAdministrationofthenation'sfirstAfricanAmericanPresidentInthemostrecentCensus,healthofficialspredictedthatby,morethan,AmericanswouldbepushingintotheirsecondcenturyoflifeAfterthenumbersfromtheCensusaretabulated,someexpertsbelievethatfigurewillgrowByallaccounts,thesenewcentenariansarefarfromthefrail,ailing,houseboundpeopleyoumightexpectIncontrast,themajorityofthemarementallyalertandrelativelyfreeofdisabilityandremainactivemembersoftheircommunitiesTheymaysimplyrepresentanewmodelofaging,onethathealthexpertsarehopingmoreofuscanemulate,bothtomakeourlivesfullerandtoeasetheinevitablehealthcareburdenthatourlongerlivedpopulationwillimposeincomingdecadesMostpeopletodayfallpreytochronicdiseasesthatstrikeinmidtolatelifeconditionssuchascancer,heartdisease,strokeanddementiaandendupnursingdisabilitiesstemmingfromtheseillnessesfortheremainderoftheirlivesCentenarians,ontheotherhand,appeartoberemarkablyresilientwhenitcomestoshruggingoffsuchailmentstheyseemtodrawonsomereservethatallowsthemtobouncebackfromhealthproblemsandremainrelativelyhaleuntiltheirfinaldaysDozensofstudieshaveinvestigatedsuchindividuals,withthegoalofpickingoutthesecretstotheirsalubriousseniorityThoseanalyses,however,havegenerallyfollowedtwoseparateifparalleltracksThetraditionalapproachhasbeentostudythelifestyleandbehavioralcomponentsofvigorousagingthegoodhabits,suchasahealthydiet,regularphysicalactivityandmentalexercisesthatmightkeeptheelderlyvibrantthroughtheirgoldenyearsTheNewEnglandCentenarianStudy,whichincludespeopleenteringtheirs,forexample,hasidentifiedseveralbehavioralandpersonalitytraitsthatseemtobecriticaltolongevity,includingnotsmoking,beingextrovertedandeasygoingandstayingleanSeparately,biologistsandgeneticistshavepursuedthesecrettolongevityonacellularormolecularlevel,firstinanimalsandmorerecentlyinpeopleThegoalistoidentifygenesassociatedwithslowingnormalagingandavoidingthechronicillnessesthataccompanyitButwithadvancesingenomictechnologythatallowscientiststoscanthousandsofgenesfromasinglesampleatatimeandthenlinkthemtospecificfunctionsinthebody,researchersonagingcanfinallybegintoknittogethertheirtwostrandsofinquiryTheresultisanintricatetapestrythatisstartingtorevealexactlyhowwecanbestpushthelimitsoflifespanThesefindingsinturncouldeventuallyleadtodrugsorothercompoundsthatmimicsuchnaturalmechanisms,stretchinglivesabitlongerbykeepingthegenomeingoodrepair,forexample,orbyboostingthebody'sdefensesagainstfreeradicalsIfwecan'tstaychronologicallyyoung,thescientistsreason,wecanatleastliveandfeelasifweare"Wearegoingthrougharevolution,"saysDavidSinclair,aprofessorofpathologyatHarvardMedicalSchool,whohasstudiedaginginanimalsandcofoundedSirtris,abiotechcompanydevelopingantiagingcompounds"Ithinkwemighthaveourfirsthandleonthemoleculesthatcanimprovehealth"Evenifwearenotendowedwiththegenesthatcaneaseusintoours,mostofuscancertainlylearnsomethingfromfamiliesliketheHurlburts,whoapparentlyareOfYeastandMenUntilrelativelyrecently,thebestcluesaboutthefactorsinvolvedingrowingoldcamenotfromhealthilyaginghumansbutfromother,decidedlylessinterestingspeciesTake,forinstance,yeastTheseorganismsprovidedthefirsthintsabouthowmuchofagingwasduetogenesandinnatebiologyandhowmuchwastheproductofothervariablesItwasyeastand,later,fliesandrodentsthatprovidedthefirstfindingsaboutcaloricrestriction,theintriguinghypothesisthatadrasticallyreducedintakeofcaloriescanextendlifespanWhilethereisnofirmevidencethatthesamephenomenonoccursinhumans,researcherslikeLeonardGuarenteattheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyfoundyeastgenesthatappeartocauseafoodrestrictedmetabolismtouseenergymoreefficiently,burningthroughcaloricinventoryatjusttherightratetomaintainlifesustainingprocesseswhilekeepingsomethingaroundforfutureuseSinclaircallsthesesurvivalgenesWhenthey'reactivated,hesays,theystabilizeDNAand,intheyeast'scase,extendedsurvivalbeyondwhatisnormalSofar,SinclairandothershaveidentifiedadozensimilargenesinpeopleWhattheyarehopingtodoisfindawaytoturnthesepathwaysonwithoutforcingtherestofthebodytohunkerdowninsurvivalmodeButwhilegenesarecertainlyanimportantcomponentofaging,theymaynotbethemostrelevantfactor,ifonlybecausewedon'thavemuchcontroloverthemThegoodnewsisthataccordingtoanimalstudies,onlyaboutofagingisgeneticallybased,whichmeansthatthemajorityofothervariablesareinourhandsNotonlycangettingsuchfactorsundercontrolhelpslowtheagingprocessbeforeitstarts,itcanalsohelpthosewhoarealreadyintheirgoldenyearsimprovetheirfitnessandstrengthRecentstudieshaveshown,forexample,thatwhenseniorsfromagestoexercisewithresistanceweights,theycanimprovetheirscoresoncognitivetestsofmemoryanddecisionmakingOtherresearch,inGermany,foundthatregularphysicalactivitylowerstheriskofdevelopingcognitiveimpairmentinpeopleoverageThesplitbetweenenvironmentandgenes,however,doesn'tapplytoeverybodyForluckyoldsterslikethosewhoqualifyfortheLLFSstudy,thereverseseemstobetruePerlshasfoundthatincentenarians,it'sprincipallygenesthatarethesecrettoextrayearsThat'snotsurprising,sincethesepeoplerepresenttheextremelimitofourspecies'lifeexpectancyButthecentenarians'happyaccidentofbirthmaybenefittherestofustoo,ifPerlsandhiscolleaguesaresuccessfulintheirworkTheirfirstgoalistodrawacompletemapoftheirsubjects'genomes,tofigureoutwhatmakestheirmortalityclocksticksoslowlyandforsolong"Wethinkcentenariansaregoingtobereallypowerfulwhenitcomestogeneticvariationsorcombinationsthatareimportanttolivingtoreallyoldage,"saysPerlsThechallengeforresearchersistoidentifythosegenesthatcontributenotjusttolongevitybuttohealthylongevityinparticularBasedonitsuniquecollectionofgeneticdatafromtheNewEnglandCentenarianStudy,Perls'teamisclosetoidentifyingsuchasuiteofgenesFromtheevidencegatheredsofar,itappearsthatforthemostpart,peoplewholivetoandbeyonddonotnecessarilyavoidthechronicdiseasesofagingthatnormallyclaimtherestofusaftermidlifeAboutofcentenarianshaveexperiencedoneoftheseillnessesintheirlifetimes,buttheyseemtopushthroughthemwithoutlongtermproblemsorcomplicationsAndwhentheydogetsick,accordingtoastudyPerlsconductedin,theyarelesslikelytologtimeintheintensivecareunit(ICU)andoftenrequirelessexpensivecareperadmissionatleastcomparedwiththecardiacsurgery,chemotherapyandotherICUproceduresthatmanyoftheiryoungerelderlycounterpartsneedEvenastheLLFSinvestigatorslookforthefullsweepofgenesbehindsuchresilience,otherresearchersarefocusingonindividualareasofthebodyparticularlythebrainDrBruceYankneratHarvardMedicalSchoolisstudyingwhatdistinguishesbrainsthatmakeittowithlimitedcognitivedeclinefromthosethatsuccumbtotheravagesofAlzheimer'sdiseaseorotherformsofdementiabeforeageYanknerzeroedinongenesinthefrontalcortexwhichisinvolvedinhigherlearning,planningandgoalsettingofpeopleagestoThat'sabigchronologicalspan,anditnettedabiggenetichaul:theresearchidentifiednofewerthangenesthatstarttoslowdownafterageUsingthatsetasastartingpoint,Yankner'sgroupistryingtodeterminejustwhatthosegenesdotoaffectindividualagingprocessesThevirtueofsuchanapproachisthatitgivesyoualookattheentiredevelopmentaltrajectoryofthekeygenesthroughouttheadultlifespanThedisadvantageisthatitlacksspecificity:youcan'teverknowwhichtoyearoldswillactuallymakeittoandbeyond,soyoucan'tbecertainfromlookingattheirbrainswhichgenesarereallyatworkinextremeoldageandwhicheventuallydeteriorateForthatreason,Yankner'steamliketheLLFSinvestigatorsisalsostudyingthebrainsofaseparategroupofpeoplewhohavealreadyachievedextremeoldageComingatthedatafromtwodifferentdirectionscouldbetterpinpointthegenesthataretrulyinplayandleadtoareasonablelibraryoftargetsfordeeperresearch"It'saworkinprogress,butwebelievethattheexpressionofgenesinthebrainandhowtheyareregulatedisatleastanindicatorofhowwellsomeoneisaging,"Yanknersays"Itmayplayacausalroleaswell"Indeed,acausalroleispreciselywhattheearlyresultssuggestThekeyfunctionofthecollectionofbraingenesYanknerhasidentifiedistoregulatetheconnectionsbetweenneuronsvitallyimportant,sinceit'shealthyconnectionsthatkeepneuronsaliveAmongthefirstonestogowhenbraincellsstartdyingarethoseinvolvedinlearningandmemoryThismayhelpexplainwhyeventhesharpestoldstersarepronetosocalledseniormoments,atendencytoforgetnewlylearnedinformationorrepeatstoriesorquestions,sometimesoverandoveragainOthergenesinthecollectionhavemorepreciserepairduties,fixingsmallnicksandmistakesinDNAWithoutsuchmaintenancework,normalgeneticactivitiesareslowlycompromisedYetdespitehisexcitementoverhisgeneticfindings,YanknertooisadamantthatDNAisnotdestinyJustasyoucankeepyourbodyfitwithgoodlifestylehabitsandbyavoidingpollutants,toxinsandcarcinogens,youmaybeabletokeepyourgeneshealthierEnvironmentallytriggeredalterationsingenesknownasepigeneticchangescanaffectwhenageneisactivated,howrobustlyitisturnedonandhowitinteractswithneighboringgenesFreeradicalsprovideaverygoodcasestudyofhowepigeneticprocessesplayoutAsthebrainages,itweathersaconstantonslaughtfromthesedestructiveoxygenionsThebodyisabletopatchovertinydingsandcutsinthegenome,butovertime,thegeneticfixerscannolongerkeepup,andthefunctionofthegeneiscompromisedThebalancebetweenwearandrepairmaybethekeytoahealthilyagingbrainByscanni

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