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life cycle assessment

life cycle assessment

上传者: luorui001 2012-07-03 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《life cycle assessmentpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含LIFECYCLEASSESSMENT•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PM•LifeCycleAssessmentppind符等。

LIFECYCLEASSESSMENT•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PM•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMRalphHornesTimGrantsKarliVergheseLIFECYCLEASSESSMENTPrinciples,PracticeandProspects•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMHorne,GrantandVergheseAllrightsreservedExceptundertheconditionsdescribedintheAustralianCopyrightActandsubsequentamendments,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,duplicatingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthecopyrightownerContactCSIROPUBLISHINGforallpermissionrequestsNationalLibraryofAustraliaCataloguinginPublicationentryHorne,Ralph–Lifecycleassessment:principles,practiceandprospectsRalphHorne,TimGrant,KarliVerghese(pbk)IncludesindexBibliographyEnvironmentalimpactanalysisEnvironmentalriskassessmentGrant,TimVerghese,KarliPublishedbyCSIROPUBLISHINGOxfordStreet(POBox)CollingwoodVICAustraliaTelephone:Localcall:(Australiaonly)Fax:Email:publishingsalescsiroauWebsite:wwwpublishcsiroauFrontcoverimagebyiStockphotoSetinAdobeMinionandStoneSansCoverandtextdesignbyJamesKellyTypesetbyDesktopConceptsPtyLtd,MelbournePrintedinAustraliabyLigareThebookhasbeenprintedonpapercertifiedbytheProgrammefortheEndorsementofForestChainofCustody(PEFC)PEFCiscommittedtosustainableforestmanagementthroughthirdpartyforestcertificationofresponsiblymanagedforestsCSIROPUBLISHINGpublishesanddistributesscientific,technicalandhealthsciencebooks,magazinesandjournalsfromAustraliatoaworldwideaudienceandconductstheseactivitiesautonomouslyfromtheresearchactivitiesoftheCommonwealthScientificandIndustrialResearchOrganisation(CSIRO)Theviewsexpressedinthispublicationarethoseoftheauthor(s)anddonotnecessarilyrepresentthoseof,andshouldnotbeattributedto,thepublisherorCSIRO•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMvContentsForewordviiAcknowledgementsixIntroductionxiChapterLifecycleassessment:origins,principlesandcontextRalphEHorneChapterThedevelopmentoflifecycleassessmentmethodsandapplicationsKarliLVerghese,TimGrantandRalphEHorneChapterLifecycleassessmentinpracticeTimGrantChapterLifecycleassessmentasdecisionsupport:asystemiccritiqueTimGrantandFranMacdonaldChapterTheAustralianenvironment:impactassessmentinasunburntcountryTimGrantChapterLifecycleassessmentandwastemanagementKarliLVergheseChapterLifecycleassessment:applicationsinthebuiltenvironmentRalphEHorne•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMContentsviChapterWillthewellrundryDevelopmentsinwaterresourceplanningandimpactassessmentAndrewSCarreandRalphEHorneChapterLifecycleassessmentandagriculture:challengesandprospectsRalphEHorneandTimGrantChapterClimatechangeresponses:carbonoffsets,biofuelsandthelifecycleassessmentcontributionScottMcAlisterandRalphEHorneChapterAcceleratinglifecycleassessmentuptake:lifecyclemanagementand‘quick’LCAtoolsRalphEHorneandKarliLVergheseChapterProspectsforlifecycleassessmentdevelopmentandpracticeinthequestforsustainableconsumptionRalphEHorne,TimGrantandKarliLVergheseIndex•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMviiForewordOurchoicesnowaredecidingthebroaddirectionofourfutureOuraimmustbelifestylesthatwouldbesustainableAseriesofscientificstudiesatlocal,nationalandgloballevelalltellthesamestory:weareoverusingthenaturalresourcesoftheplanetandstressingitsnaturalsystemsClimatechangeisthemosturgentpriority,butitisonlyoneofseveralindicationsthatourpresentlifestyleisunsustainableWemuststopconsumingtheresourcesourchildrenwillneedWemustalsostopdestroyingthenaturalwondersofthisworldAsustainablefuturewillinvolvefundamentalchangesWehavetomakeresponsiblechoicesabouttheessentialsofacivilisedlife:food,shelter,waterandwastemanagementIntuitionisnotareliableguide,neitherissuperficialanalysisWeneedsophisticatedLifeCycleAssessmentLCAissystematicanalysisconsideringallstepsoftheprocessofusingnaturalresourcestoprovideourneedsItalsoassessestheimpactsofbyproductsofthatprocessWhetheryouaremakingdecisionsasanindividual,ahouseholderoramanagerofacommercialactivity,youneedthesortofinformedbasisthisbookprovidesAswellasexplainingthetechniquesofLifeCycleAssessment,italsodiscussesitslimitationsSoitisatimelycontributiontothemosturgenttaskforourgeneration,modifyingourlifestyletoachievehumanneedswithinthelimitsofnaturalsystemsIanLoweEmeritusProfessorofScience,TechnologyandSociety,GriffithUniversityAdjunctProfessor,SunshineCoastUniversityandQueenslandUniversityofTechnologyHonoraryResearchFellow,UniversityofAdelaideOfficeroftheOrderofAustralia•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PM•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMixAcknowledgementsLifeCycleAssessment:Principles,PracticeandProspectsincludesthesynthesisofmanyyears’workbytheauthors,allofwhichhasbeenundertakenininterdisciplinaryteamenvironmentsWewouldliketoacknowledgetheindirectinputofourmanycollaborators,mentors,supportersandassociates,whoaretoonumeroustonamehereinfullAshorterlistwouldincludeNigelMortimer,RobertMatthews,FrancesPamminger,TonyKelly,HelenLewis,KeesSonneveld,GregNorris,MarkGoedkoep,BoWeidema,OlivierJollietandFrankFisherfortheirvarioussignificantinfluences,inspirationalworkinthefieldofLCAandperspectivesonsystemsthinkingTheauthorsalsowishtoacknowledgeallthosewhomadedirectcontributionstothebook,includingFranMcDonaldwhoprovidedessentialsubeditingandcommentsonthetextthroughoutWearealsoindebtedtothosewhocontributedtospecificchapters,includingRobRouwette,whoprovidedinputandadviceontheDutchcasestudyinChapterDominiqueHes,whoprovidedinputandadviceontheSydneyOlympicscasestudyandAndrewWalkerMorison,whoconducteddevelopmentworkontheBAMSprojectalsomentionedinChapterAnnetteCowieprovidedinputonissuesrelatedtoforestcarbonandLCAinChapter,whileinChapterJohnGertsatkisandKendraWasilukcontributedtoideasandprojectsreportedherebytheauthorsInacknowledgingthesecontributions,wewouldalsoemphasisethatanyerrorsoromissionsareentirelyoursRalphHorneTimGrantKarliVergheseNovember•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PM•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMxiIntroductionLifecycleassessment(LCA)hasdevelopedrapidlyoverrecentdecadesintoatechniqueforsystematicallyidentifyingtheresourceflowsandenvironmentalimpactsassociatedwiththeprovisionofproductsandservicesInterestinLCAhasacceleratedalongsidegrowingdemandtoassessandreducegreenhousegasemissionsacrossdifferentmanufacturingandservicesectorsLifeCycleAssessment:Principles,PracticeandProspectsisdesignedtoprovidepractitionersorinterestedprofessionalswithacriticalinsightintothetechniqueofLCAInsteadofbeingahandbookorasolelytheoreticaltext,thebookfocusesonthereflectivepracticeofLCA,inotherwords,howLCApracticehasdevelopedandmustcontinuetodevelopempirically,throughpracticeandreflectiononthispracticeInsodoingitalsoprovidesacademics,scholarsandstudentswithajourneyintoreflectivepracticeTheearlychaptersdescribethedistinctivestrengthsandlimitationsofLCA,withanemphasisonpracticeinAustraliaThesecondhalfofthebookincludeschaptersontheapplicationofLCAtothekeysectorsofwastemanagement,thebuiltenvironment,waterandagricultureIneachchapter,thecontemporarychallengesforenvironmentalassessmentandperformanceimprovementinthesesectorsareinvestigated,wellillustratedwithexamplesandcasestudiesThelastthreechaptersprojectcurrentissuesanddebatestoandbeyondLCAmethodologiesarecomparedtotheemergingclimatechangemitigationpolicyandpracticetechniques,andtheuptakeof‘quick’LCAandmanagementtoolsareconsideredinthelightofcurrentandchangingenvironmentalagendasInthelastchapter,theauthorsdebatethefutureprospectsforLCAtechniqueandapplications•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PM•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMChapterLifecycleassessment:origins,principlesandcontextRalphEHorneThelaunchoftheInternationalOrganizationforStandardization’sISO(‘Environmentalmanagementsystems–Specificationwithguidanceforuse’)inindicatedtomanybusinessesthatadhocenvironmentalmanagementwasnolongeranoptionForanincreasingnumberoforganisations,regulations,businessdriversandthepublicenvironmentalandsocialconcernshadreachedalevelwhereamorestrategicandsystematicapproachtoenvironmentalchallengeswasnecessaryTheresultantrapidriseincorporateenvironmentalmanagementandaccompanyingdiscourseisalreadywellchartedandcritiqued(egRondinelliandVastagSandström)Contemporaneously,lifecycleassessment(LCA)begantoproduceconvincingevidencethatintuitionwasnolongerenougheither‘Natural’productswerefoundtobenotnecessarilyenvironmentallyoptimalMany‘counterintuitive’outcomesfromLCAstudiesindicatedtheneedforaclosersystemicapproachtoidentifyanddocumentimpactsalongtheprocesschainandlifetimeofproductsandservicesBusinessbegantotakeagreaterinterestinLCA(FranklandRubik)andaseriesoftextsappearedonthesubject(egCurranCiambroneGraedel)ThephysicalsciencesandengineeringdisciplinesbegantorecogniseLCAasatooltohelpreconcilevalues,technologicalimpactsandtheenvironment(Hofstetter)andtheUnitedNations(UN)begantoenvisagetheglobalrolloutofLCApractice(UNEP)Astherolloutgatherspace,thisbookisintendedtoprovidescholarsandprofessionalsacrossarangeofdisciplineswithacriticalperspectiveonthepracticeofLCAanditspossiblefuturedirectionsItisnotintendedasaguideorhandbook,ofwhichthereareseveralalready(egBaumannandTillman)Instead,theory,methodologiesandapplicationsofLCAarecriticallyexaminedKeydevelopments,challengesandopportunitiesareillustratedwithcasestudiesThischapter,aswellasintroducingsubsequentchapters,chartstheoriginsofLCAandthendefinesthetechniquebeforeplacingitwithinthewidercontextofenvironmentalmanagementandassessmentLCAoriginsHumanshavelongbeenconcernedwiththeenergyefficiencyoftechnologiesandtheservicestheyprovidePerennialquestionsarisefromNewton’sFirstLawofThermodynamics–ifenergyisneverlost,inwhatproportionsdoesitdissipatethroughvariousprocessesWhatistheenergybenefitandlossinvariousprocessesAlso,specifically,forenergy‘generation’(ie‘conversion’),howmuchinputenergyisnecessarytoproduceagivenenergyserviceThenagain,and•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMLifeCycleAssessment:Principles,PracticeandProspectsperhapsmosttopically,whataretheimplicationsforclimatechangeofdifferentenergyscenarios,andhowcanweidentifyoptimalservicesfrom‘sustainable’levelsofimpactInthepostWorldWarera,anewgenerationofenergytechnologies–nuclear,geothermal,modernwindandother‘renewables’–testedtheenergybalancequestionEnergyanalysisbecameincreasinglycomplex,systemicandsophisticatedthroughsuccessiveempiricaldevelopmentsAtfirst,thetechniquewastypicallyusedtoassessproductionofagivenunitofenergyinagivenform,examiningimmediateinputsonsiteintheproductionsystemInevitably,asmorecomplexgenerationtechnologieswereexamined,sotheanalysiswasextendedForexample,thequestionofwhetheragivennucleargenerationtechnologyproducedmoreenergythanitconsumedledresearcherstolookbeyondthegenerationfacilitiesthemselvesto‘yellowcake’productionanduraniummining,longtermwastemanagement,andeventotheimpactsoftransport(ofpersonnel,materialsandequipment)andassociatedresearch,development,marketingandmanagementservicesThiswasaprecursortowhatbecameknownas‘lifecycleanalysis’,asystematicprocessorientedapproachtoidentifyingenergyinputsintheproductionofenergyservicesInthelates,thefirstResourceEnvironmentalProfileAnalyses(REPAs)wereundertakenandthesebecametheforerunnersofmodernLCANotably,CocaColaAmatilcommissionedworkbyagroupofresearchers(latertobecomeFranklinAssociates)intheUnitedStatesofAmerica(USA)toinvestigatetheresourcesandenvironmentalprofileofdifferentpackagingmaterialsfortheirproducts(Huntetal)OilshortagesintheearlysledtoafocusbackonenergyanalysisHowever,bythemids,multicriteriasystematicinquiryhadspreadtoincludenappies,appliances,automobilesandhousingInterchangeabletermswereusedtodescribethesestudiesincludingecobalances,cradletograveanalysis,andlifecycleanalysisIn,theterm‘lifecycleassessment’wasproposedandagreeduponbythoseattendingaworkshopinVermont,USA,heldbytheSocietyofEnvironmentalToxicologyandChemistry(SETAC)Rapiddevelopmentfollowed,asLCAgrewintoabodyofsystematic,inclusive,analyticalapproachestoenvironmentalimpactassessmentSETACthenembarkedonthedevelopmentandextensionofLCA,publishingvarious‘bestpractice’guides(egBarnthouseetalKotajietalUdodeHaesetal)andadviceonLCAsimplificationandmethods(egUdodeHaesChristiansen)Applicationstopublicpolicy(Allenetal)andparticularsectors,suchasbuildingandconstruction(Kotajietal),werealsoexaminedaswellastheapplicationofLCAtomoreembeddedmanagementmodeswithinorganisations(Hunkeleretal)In,theUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme(UNEP)andSETACformedtheUNEPSETACLifeCycleInitiativetoassistdevelopmentanduptakeofLCABuildinguponabaseofpracticeinseveralEuropeancountries,theUSAandJapan,thisinitiativeseekstoenableuserstoputlifecyclethinkingintopracticeThishasgeneratedfocusonthe‘new’manufacturingcentresinAsia(includingthesubcontinentandeasternAsia),AfricaandSouthAmericaHence,astheproductioncentresofmodernmanufacturingshiftedthroughtheeffectsofglobalisation,soLCApractitionersfollowed,furtherdevelopingmethodsandtechniquesforcalculatingtheenvironmentalimpactsofproductionandconsumptionsystemsTheapparentinterdependenceofevolvingLCApracticeanddemandacrossgeographicregionshasspecificimplicationsinAustraliaLCAdefinition,standardsandprocessAlthoughmanydefinitionsexist,LCAessentiallycomprisesasystematicevaluationofenvironmentalimpactsarisingfromtheprovisionofaproductorserviceTheoriginalInterna•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMLifecycleassessment:origins,principlesandcontexttionalOrganizationforStandardization(ISO)definitionprovidessomeindication,althoughitisselfreferencing:‘compilationandevaluationoftheinputsandoutputsandthepotentialenvironmentalimpactsofaproductsystemthroughoutitslifecycle’(ISO,p)GenericLCAmethodrequiresthatallthemaininputstotheprocessesthatprovidetheservicearetakenintoaccount,aswellastheprocessesandmaterialsthatfeedintothoseprocesses,andsoonback‘up’thesupplychainsofthevariousmaterialsintheproducttotherawresourceinputsTheserawinputsareinvariablyenergybased–thecoalmineoroilwell–ratherthansimplyrawmaterialsForexample,makingbricksmayrequirebrickclayandanextractionquarry,butthisprocessoperateswithfossilfuelpoweredmachineryHence,althoughbricksaremadefromquarriedclayandothermaterials,attheendofthisprocessistheoilwellorcoalminerequiredtodrivethesteelmilltomakethemachineryusedinclayextractionInternationalstandardsassistinthespecification,definition,methodandprotocolsassociatedwithundertaking,reviewingandreportingLCAstudiesISOdescribestheprinciplesandframeworkforlifecycleassessmentTheoriginalstandard(producedin)wasupdatedin(ISOa)This‘core’standardincludesguidanceondefiningthegoalandscopeofanLCAstudy,developmentofthelifecycleinventory,thelifecycleimpactassessment,andinterpretation(Fig)ItalsoindicatesreportingandcriticalreviewparametersandlimitationsofLCAHowever,itdoesnotdescribetheLCAtechniqueindetail,nordoesitspecifyhowtoundertakeindividualphasesoftheLCAMoredetailisprovidedinISO(ISOb),whichtogetherwithISO:replacesotherformerLCArelatedstandards(ISO:,ISO:,ISO:andISO:)FurtherstandardsdealwithissuessuchasdatadocumentationformatsAdditionalguidestothestandardsseektoprovidemoredetailontheirapplicationinpractice(egGuinee)However,notallregionshaveadoptedtheupdatedstandardsatthetimeofwriting(egAustraliaandNewZealand,ASNZSISO)ForanyLCA,appropriateframingofthekey‘question’formspartofthedefinitionofthegoalandscope,includingsettingthefunctionalunitsofthestudyForexample,acomparativeGoalandscopedefinitionInventoryanalysisImpactassessmentInterpretationFigureOutlineofgenericlifecycleassessment(LCA)process(afterISO,a)•LifeCycleAssessmentppindd::PMLifeCycleAssessment:Principles,PracticeandProspectsLCAoftwocoffeemachinesmayindicatethatthemoredurable,heavilybuiltofthetwohasthehigherenvironmentalimpact,iftheproductcomparisonisbasedontheproductlevelIf,however,itisbasedonthefunctionallevel,wemayfindthatthemoredurableproducthasalifespanwhichenablesittoproducefivetimesasmanycupsofcoffeeoveritslifetimeNotwithstandinganyfunctionaldifferencesincoffeequality,aestheticquality,obsolescenceormaintenance,thisqualityalonemayreversetheoutcomeoftheLCAcomparison,simplybytakingasthefunctionalunit‘impactperproductionofcupsofcoffee’ratherthan‘impactpercoffeemach

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