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首页 美国宾夕法尼亚大学《2011年全球智库报告》

美国宾夕法尼亚大学《2011年全球智库报告》.pdf

美国宾夕法尼亚大学《2011年全球智库报告》

DZ 绝对之手遮天
2012-06-28 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《美国宾夕法尼亚大学《2011年全球智库报告》pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

��THEGLOBALGOTOTHINKTANKSREPORTTHELEADINGPUBLICPOLICYRESEARCHORGANIZATIONSINTHEWORLDFINALUNITEDNATIONSUNIVERSITYEDITIONJANUARY,JamesGMcGann,PhDDirectorThinkTanksandCivilSocietiesProgramInternationalRelationsProgramUniversityofPennsylvaniaPhiladelphia,PAUSA��TheThinkTanksandCivilSocietiesProgram“Helpingtobridgethegapbetweenknowledgeandpolicy”Researchingthetrendsandchallengesfacingthinktanks,policymakers,andpolicyorientedcivilsocietygroups…Sustaining,strengthening,andbuildingcapacityforthinktanksaroundtheworld…Maintainingthelargest,mostcomprehensiveglobaldatabaseofthinktanks…Allrequests,questions,andcommentsshouldbedirectedto:JamesGMcGann,PhDDirectorThinkTanksandCivilSocietiesProgramInternationalRelationsProgramUniversityofPennsylvaniaTelephone:()Email:jmcgannsasupennedu�Copyright:AllrightsreservedNopartofthisreportmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutwrittenpermissionfromtheUniversityofPennsylvania,ThinkTanksandCivilSocietiesProgram���TABLEOFCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTSINTRODUCTIONGLOBALTRENDSANDTRANSITIONSMETHODOLOGYANDTIMELINETHINKTANKSTATISTICSGLOBALGOTORANKINGSRESULTSTOPTHINKTANKSINTHEWORLDTOPTHINKTANKSBYREGIONTOPTHINKTANKSBYAREAOFRESEARCHTOPTHINKTANKSBYSPECIALACHIEVEMENTAPPENDICESBACKGROUNDONTHETHINKTANKSANDCIVILSOCIETIESPROGRAMTHERESEARCHTEAM��ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSFirstandforemost,Iwanttoexpressmydeepappreciationtoallthescholars,thinktankdirectors,journalists,policymakers,anddonorsfromeveryregionoftheworldwhotooktimeoutoftheirbusyschedulestoparticipateinthethinktankrankingsAspecialnoteofthanksgoestotheoverfunctionalareaandregionalspecialistswhoservedonthethirtyExpertPanelsthatprovidedvaluableinsightsandassistanceasIcompiledthefinalGlobalGoToThinkTankIndexIalsowanttothankmyresearchinternsfortheirhelpincollectingandanalyzingthedataforthisresearchprojectIwanttothankJamesBSharp,InternationalRelationsProgram,UniversityofPennsylvania,forupdatingthethinktankdataandpreparingallthechartsandgraphsSpecialthanksgoestoJillianRafferty,InternationalRelationsProgram,UniversityofPennsylvania,whoassembledandeditedthisyear’sreportSheputinlonghourstohelpimprovethequalityandappearanceoftheGlobalGoToThinkTankIndexReportFinally,IwanttothanktheUnitedNationsandtheUnitedNationsUniversityforhostingthebriefingandgloballaunchoftheGlobalGoToThinkTankIndexinNewYorkagainthisyear,andtheDiplomaticCouriermagazineforhostingtheWashington,DCbriefingandlaunchIampleasedtoannouncethattheThinkTanksandCivilSocietiesProgram,UniversityofPennsylvania,andtheDiplomaticCourierwillproduceaGlobalGoToThinkTankIndexiPadapplicationthatwillbereleasedinearly��INTRODUCTIONTheGlobalGoToThinkTankRankingsmarksthefiftheditionoftheannualreportAsinpreviousyears,theThinkTanksandCivilSocietiesProgram(TTCSP)attheUniversityofPennsylvania’sInternationalRelationsProgramhasreliedontheindexingcriteriaandprocessdevelopedbyJamesGMcGannforrankingthinktanksaroundtheworldTheProgram’sRankingsremainthefirstandmostcomprehensiverankingoftheworld’stopthinktanks,andarebasedonanannualglobalpeerandexpertsurveyofclosetoscholars,policymakers,journalists,andregionalandsubjectareaexpertsGiventherigorandscopeoftheprocess,theRankingsproducedhavebeendescribedastheinsider’sguidetotheglobalmarketplaceofideasAspartoftheprocess,all,thinktanksintheworldwerecontactedandencouragedtoparticipateinthenominationsprocessaswellasagroupofoverjournalists,policymakers,publicandprivatedonors,thinktanks,andregionalandsubjectareaspecialistsThisgroupofpeersandexpertsweresurveyedtonominateandthenrankpublicpolicyresearchcentersofexcellenceforAdditionally,theProgramhasassembledasetofExpertPanels,comprisingoverexpertmembersfromaroundtheworld,spanningthepoliticalspectrumanddrawingfromawidevarietyofdisciplinesandsectors,tohelpintherefiningandvalidationofthelistsgeneratedTheseexpertswereconsultedateverystageintheprocessThenominationsandrankingswerebasedonthedetailedsetofcriteriathatincludedthethinktanks’productionofrigorousandrelevantresearch,publications,andprogramsinoneormoresubstantiveareasofresearch(see“MethodologyandTimeline”forthecompletesetofnominationandrankingcriteria,and“Appendices”foradetailedexplicationoftherankingsprocess)TheGlobalGoToThinkTankRankings,thefirstofwhatwouldbecometheannualreports,waslaunchedinresponsetotheendlessrequestsDrMcGannreceivedfromjournalists,donors,scholars,andgovernmentofficialstoprovidealistoftheleadingthinktanksgloballyandinparticularcountriesorregionsoftheworldInitsinitialconception,theprojectsoughttoidentifysomeoftheleadingthinktanksgloballyinanefforttorespondtotheseinquiriesinasystematicfashionSince,theprocesshasbeenrefinedandstreamlined,andthenumberandscopeoftheinstitutionsandindividualsinvolvedinithasgrownsteadilyTheRankings’primaryobjectiveistorecognizesomeoftheworld’sleadingpublicpolicythinktanksandhighlightthenotablecontributionstheseinstitutionsaremakingtogovernmentsandcivilsocietiesworldwideOverjustsixyears,the“ThinkTankIndex”hasbecometheauthoritativesourceforthetoppublicpolicyinstitutionsintheworldAsinthepast,lastyear’sReportwaslaunchedattheUnitedNationsUniversityinNewYorkCityThisyear,theReportenjoysajointlaunchattheUnitedNationsUniversityandattheNationalPressClubinWashington,DCOvertwohundreddiplomats,foundations,andthinktanksattendedlastyear’slaunchattheUN,andupwardsoftwohundredprintandelectronicmediaoutletsfeaturedtheReport’sfindings��ThisReportiscomprisedoftheresultsof’sRankingsAlsoincludedintheReportisasummaryofthemajortrendsandissueswithrespecttothinktanksworldwide,astheyhavebeenidentifiedthroughtheannualsurveyofthinktanksandtheProgram’sinterviewswiththestaffofthinktanksandcivilsocietyorganizationsineveryregionoftheworldEachyear,weattempttorespondsystematicallytothecommentsandsuggestionswereceiveregardinghowwemightimprovethenominationandrankingprocessThisyear,theconsiderabletimewedevotedtothisresponsespurredanumberofsignificantchangesintheprocessAsintheprocess,thisyear’sRankingsreliedonanopennominationsprocess,followedbyareviewofthisprocessbyExpertPanelsWehaveacontinuingcommitmenttoincreasingthequalityandrepresentativenessoftheIndexeachandeveryyearweconductthesurveyInaddition,thisyear’sRankingsfeaturesanumberofnewormodifiedcategoriesInpreviousyears,therewasasingleregionalcategorytitled“TopThinkTanksinLatinAmerica”Thisyear’srankingssplitthatcategoryinto“TopThinkTanksinMexico,Canada,andtheCaribbean”and“TopThinkTanksinCentralandSouthAmerica”Additionally,thecategorytitled“ThinkTankswiththeBestUseoftheInternettoEngagethePublic”wasmodifiedtoinclude“orSocialMedia”inanefforttoreflecttherisingimportanceofsocialmediainpoliticalandcivilsocietymovementsFinally,the“TopThinkTankswithAnnualOperatingBudgetsofLessThan$MillionUSD”categorywasaddedinanattempttorecognizetheworkofsmallerthinktanksthatneverthelessproduceinfluentialresearchbutmightotherwisebeedgedouttherankingsbythinktankswithbiggerbudgetsandmoremanpowerThisnewcategoryfurthersoughttoaddressanhistoricissuefortherankings–theunderrepresentationofthinktanksfromoutsidetheGcountriesInparticular,thiscategory–and’sRankingsingeneral–soughttohighlightthepotentialriseofthinktanksinGcountriesoutsidetheGWehavealsoexpandedthenumberofthinktankslistedineachcategoryinordertohelphighlighttheworkofthinktanksinnonGcountriesThoughthisyear’sprocesshasenjoyedtheimprovementsoutlinedabove,IwouldberemisswereItofailtomentionafewqualificationsAsinpreviousyears–anddespitetheworkdonetomitigatethisissuethisyear–theRankingscontinuestounderrepresentcertainregionswithinthe“TopThinkTanks–Worldwide”categoryThislikelyisrelatedtotherelativelysmallnumberofthinktanksindevelopingcountries,theirunderdevelopedcapacity,andthelimitedresourcesavailabletotheseinstitutionsItisalsoafunctionoftherealitythatmorethansixtypercentoftheworld’sthinktanksarebasedinEuropeandNorthAmericaUnfortunately,therearesimplymoreandbetterfundedthinktanksintheGcountriesInaddition,thehistoricallydominantrolethesecountrieshaveplayedinworldpoliticsandtheinfluencetheytraditionallyexertoverpolitical,economic,andsocialthinkingcontributestotheprominenceoftheirthink��������������������������������������������������������TheGcountriesincludeCanada,France,Germany,Italy,Japan,theUnitedKingdom,andtheUnitedStates�TheremainingGmembersincludeAustralia,Argentina,Brazil,China,theEuropeanUnion,India,Indonesia,Mexico,Russia,SaudiArabia,SouthAfrica,SouthKorea,andTurkey���tanksThatsaid,Iwouldliketodirectyourattentiontotheregional,researcharea,andspecialachievementcategories,whichtogethermightprovideafullerpictureoftheworkofthinktanksgloballyTheplayingfieldisbeingleveled,however,byadvancesininformationbasedtechnologieswhicharebecomingcheaperandmorepowerful,thusenablingthinktanksintheGlobalSouthtohavegreaternational,regional,andglobalreachThougheachyear,ourbesteffortshavegoneintogeneratingarigorous,inclusive,andobjectiveprocess,werecognizetheimpossibilityofentirelyriddingtheselectionoftheworld’stopthinktanksfrombiasThepotentialpersonal,regional,ideological,anddisciplinarybiasesofthoseconsultedthroughouttheprocessmay,inevitably,havecreptintotheRankingsWhilesomehavesuggestedwhatwemovetoasmallgroupofexpertsorapanelofjournaliststomaketheselections,weareunwaveringinourcommitmenttoarigorousyetopenanddemocraticprocessWeareconfidentinthequalityandintegrityoftheRankingsgiventhesafeguardsinplace,whichincludetheopenandtransparentnatureoftheprocess,thecreationandprovisionofadetailedsetofnominationandselectioncriteria,andtheannuallyincreasingparticipationofthinktanksandexpertsfromeveryregionoftheworld,andparticularlyfromhistoricallyunderrepresentedcountriesintheSouthernhemisphereThemostsignificantchangehasbeentheongoinginvolvementtheexpertpanelistswhichhasdramaticallyimprovedthenominationsandrankingprocessTogether,thesemeasuresinsulatethenominationandselectionprocessfromanysignificantproblemsofbiasandmisrepresentationIwouldliketohighlighttheexclusionofthinktanksbasedintheUnitedStatesfromtheprincipalglobalranking,astheProgrambelievestheirinclusionwoulddistorttheglobalrankinggiventheextraordinaryworldwideprominenceandpreeminenceofUSthinktanksInsodoing,theRankingsareabletofurtherhighlightlesserknownthinktanksinregionsoutsideoftheUnitedStatesWealsowantunderscorethattheGlobalGoToThinkTankIndexisjustonemeasureofathinktank’sperformanceandimpactandisdesignedtobeusedinconjunctionwithothermetricstohelpidentifyandevaluatethinktankcentersofexcellenceineveryregionoftheworldAsafinalnote,Iwouldliketoremindyouthatthedatacollection,research,andanalysisforthisproject,asinpreviousyears,wasconductedwithoutthebenefitoffieldresearch,abudget,orastaff,insteadrelyingonagroupofinternsfromtheUniversityofPennsylvaniaandothercollegesinthePhiladelphiaareaDespitethelimitationsoftheRankings,weareconfidentthatthepeernominationandselectionprocessandtheworkoftheinternationalExpertPanelstogetherhaveenabledustocreatethemostauthoritativelistofhighperformancethinktanksintheworld��GLOBALTRENDSANDTRANSITIONSThereareanumberofmajorpolitical,economic,social,andtechnologicaltrendsthatareconvergingatthismomentinhistoryandthathaveaprofoundimpactongovernmentsandtheinstitutionsthatservethemItisessentialthatthinktanksunderstandthesetrendsandbeaheadofthemsothatweareallnotburiedbythemGiventhattoday’sworldisfasterpacedandmoredynamicthaneverbefore,andtheincreasinglycomplexandoverwhelmingamountofinformationthatisthereforeavailable,theriseoforganizationswhoseprimarygoalsincludethegenerationofresearchandtheprovisionofinformationshould,perhaps,comeasnogreatsurpriseIndeed,thinktankshaveenjoyedmassivegrowth–bothinnumberandintheirroleinglobalpolicymaking–overthelastdecadeAspolicymakershavecometorelyonthinktanksforthethoughtfulresearchandanalysisneededforthegenerationandimplementationofsuccessfulpolicyresponsestoglobalissues,thinktankshaveexpandedanddiversified,risingtomeetthechallengeofanincreasinginformedandglobalizedworldInthisway,thinktankshavesoughttofillthe“operationalgap,”asithasbeendescribed–policymakers’lackofaccesstotheinformationandtoolsneededtorespondtocontemporaryissuesTobesure,theinformationisavailable,perhapsinexcessItishere,inpart,thatthinktanksaresoimportant,filtering,sorting,andsynthesizinginformationthattheythenprovidetopolicymakersThinktanksaddressanotherkeygapintheglobalpolicymakingprocess:the“participatorygap,”whichreferstotheselfperceptionofindividualsandprivateorganizationsasexcludedfrompolicymakingTheeffectsofthisgapinpolicymakinghavebeenmadeclearbymeansoftheArabSpring,theOccupyWallStreetMovement,andthestrugglesinthestreetsofEurope–movementsthroughwhichglobalpopulismhasemergedtochallengetheestablishmentInmanycases,thinktankshaveplayedactiverolesinthesemovements–bothbehindandinfrontofthebarricadesThoughthinktanksarejustoneofawidevarietyofgroupsofcivilsocietyactors,theyhaveinmanywaysbecometherepresentativesofcivilsocietyinglobalpolicymakingAssuch,agivencountry’sthinktanksectorcanfunctionasabarometerforthestateofthatcountry’scivilsocietyArobustandinfluentialthinktanksectorwould,presumably,correspondtoarobustandactivecivilsocietyInshort,ifanalystsandcriticsassociatedwiththinktanksareallowedtooperatefreely,sotoo,inalllikelihood,cantherestofcivilsocietyTheroleoftheRankings,then,canbeseenastwopart,justasistheroleofthinktanksAspolicymakersingovernmentsthroughoutthedevelopedanddevelopingworldaddress��������������������������������������������������������ThorstenBenner,WolfgangReinicke,andJanWitte,“BeyondMultilateralism:GlobalPublicPolicyNetworks,”InternationalPoliticsandSociety,:SeealsoJamesGMcGann,“GlobalThinkTanks,PoliticsandGovernance,”Routledge,UnitedKingdom()andJamesGMcGann,“GlobalThinkTanks:CatalystsforIdeasandAction,”DiplomaticCourier,,No()�Ibid���theoperationalgap,seekingexpertisetoaidtheirdecisionmakingprocesses,theyturninevitablytothinktanksButgiventheexplosiveproliferationofthinktanksinthelastdecade–thisyear,TTCSPidentified,thinktanksoperatingincountries–policymakersarefacedwiththeadditionalquestionofwheretoturnforthatexpertiseTheRankingsandReportseektodirectpolicymakers–andwhoeverelsemightbenefitfromtheinformation,whethertheybejournalists,donors,orprivatecitizens–tothepreeminentinstitutionswhilesimultaneouslyencouragingthinktankstoaspiretotheidealcriteriaalongwhichthenominationandselectionprocessisconductedTheRankingsmightalsoassessboththesuccessofthinktanksinaddressingtheparticipatorygapandtherobustnessofcivilsocietynationally,regionally,andgloballyThinktanksnowoperateinavarietyofpoliticalsystems,engageinawiderangeofpolicyrelatedactivities,andsimplycompriseahighlydiversesetofinstitutionsofvariedorganizationalformsDespitethisvariety,however,allthinktanksfacethesamefundamentalchallenge:thestruggletomaintaintheirownindependenceandexistencesotheycancontinuetoprovideinformationandexpertisetothepolicymakingprocessThestrengthofthinktankspromotesthestrengthofcivilsociety,justasthestrengthofcivilsocietypromotesthestrengthofthinktanksAssuch,theRankings’identificationofstateswithparticularlyprominentandgloballyrecognizedthinktanksallowsforanestimationofthestrengthofstates’civilsocietiesThegreaterthenumberandprominenceofastate’sthinktanks,thestrongerthecivilsocietyand,presumably,thesmallertheeffectsoftheparticipationgapMoregenerally,thevalueoftheRankingsprocessliesinitsabilitytohighlighttheimportantcontributionsthatthinktanksmaketogovernmentsandcivilsocietiesaroundtheworld,particularlyintraditionallyunderrepresentedregionssuchasAfrica,SouthEastAsia,LatinAmerica,andtheMiddleEastWiththisgoalinmind,theanalysisofthisyear’sprocesshassoughttohighlightthegrowingimportanceofthinktanksinstateswithtraditionallylessinternationalpowerandinfluenceDuetothegrowthinthenumberandinfluenceofthinktanksoutsidethetraditionallypreeminentcountriesinacademicandpolicyresearch,thisyear,IwouldliketodrawyourattentiontotheincreasingroleandprominenceofthinktanksbasedinGmemberstatesthatarenotintheGGTHINKTANKSMemberGDP(PPP)PopulationThinkTanksArgentina$billion,Australia$billionBrazil$trillion,,Canada$trillion,,��������������������������������������������������������Aspreviouslynoted,theGmemberstatesincludeCanada,France,Germany,Italy,Japan,theUnitedKingdom,andtheUnitedStatesTheremainingmem

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