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Model for Term Paper

我爱你 2012-06-26 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Model for Term Paperdoc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含Name:黄晶Class:StudentNumber:StudyontheNamesofthePlanetsIIntroductionAstrono符等。

Name:黄晶Class:StudentNumber:StudyontheNamesofthePlanetsIIntroductionAstronomyisanoldscienceItsnomenclatureisoftenderivedfromtraditionandhistoryratherthanfromwhatmighttodayseemmoresensibleThenamesoftheobjectsinthesolarsystemareparticularlysoThenamesoftheplanetsthatwestillusetodayarederivedfromthenamesgiventothesecelestialbodiesbyancientcivilizationsWesternerscallthemMercury,Venus,theEarth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,NeptuneIncontrast,ChinesepeoplenamethemWood,Metal,theEarthEarth,FireandWater,Uranus,Neptune(thelasttwonameswerediscoveredbyWesternastronomers)WhydothesameobjectshavetotallydifferentnamesindifferentculturesVariousculturalfactorshaveresultedindifferentlanguageformsItisimportanttounderstandandhandletherelationshipbetweencultureandlanguageIIWesternViewontheNamesofthePlanetsGreekmythologyhasgreatinfluenceonwesterncultureItInfluencesonlanguage,literature,musicalworks,andsoonOneofthemostprominentareastowhichclassicalnameshavelongbeentransferredisastronomyTheplanetseventuallyreceivednamesdrawnfromGreekmythologyThenamesoftheplanetsofourSolarSystemare,countingfromtheSun:Mercury,Venus,theEarth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,NeptuneAllofthosenamesexceptforEarthandUranusareofgodsandgoddessesfromRomanmythology,andUranusisagodfromGreekmythologyThefiveplanetseasilyvisiblewiththeunaidedeye(Mercury,Venus,Mars,Jupiter,andSaturn)havebeenobservedforallhumanhistoryasfaraswecantell,andtheywerecalleddifferentthingsbydifferentculturesInAdrian’seye,thenamesoftheplanetscamefromtheEastHementionedinhisbookWho’swhoinclassicalmythology:“TheGreekswerenotthefirsttonametheconstellationsandplanets,butforthemostpartborrowedthenamesfromtheeastfromtheancientEgyptians,Phoenicians,AssyriansandBabyloniansandthentranslatedandadaptedthemastheydidthenamesofmanyofthemythologicalcharactersTheRomanstranslatedtheGreeknames”InGreekmythology,godslookmorehumanlike,outpouringtheirlaicalnaturalemotion,suchaslove,hate,anger,desire,envyetcThegodsandtheheroesinancientGreekmythemphasizehonorTheypursuetheindividualvalue,evendoharmtothehumanbeingAtthattime,AncientGreekcivilizationextendsbacktotheheroicperiodrecordedbyHomerintheIliadandtheOdyssey,anditisonlywiththesecondwaveofGreekcivilizationthatastrologyarrivedintheGreekpeninsularInthearticleComparisonandContrastbetweenAncientGreekandChineseMythologies,theauthorclaimedthatancientGreece’scivilizationhadcloserelationshipwiththelowproductivityofthattimeandwasgreatlyaffectedbytheenvironmentSotheimagesinGreekmythologieslookmorehumanlike,outpouringtheirlaicalnaturalemotionFromtheGreekmythologies,wecanseethewesternmainstreamintheirthoughtsemphasizeambition,individualism,rationality,power,andlibertyThearticleAstrologyResourceholdsthattheearlyGreekphilosopherswereastronomersratherthanastrologers,forastrologywasvirtuallyunknowntothem,butstepbysteptheybuiltuptheintellectualstructurewhichwastobecombinedwithMesopotamiandivinationtoproducemodernastrologyItmaybearguedthatastrologybecamethemostpopularmethodofdivinationinthewesternworldpreciselybecauseitinheritedtheintellectualdepthsofGreekphilosophyWesternphilosophyprovesitsextraordinaryconnectionbetweennaturalscienceandphilosophyIndeed,wecanseethatphilosophyfromtheWestbroughtmuchdeeperconceptsuponuniverse,naturalforceandusedtheseobjectiveitemstoexplainhuman,formingasharpcontrastwithEasternPhilosophyThisperhapsbecomesitsveracityWesternPhilosophyreflectsmanynaturalsciencecharacteristicswhichareshowninthepreviousclassicalschemes,suchasastronomyFrancoisJullien,acontemporaryFrenchphilosopher,notedinEssenceorNaturethatthetwophilosophicalthreadsstartedtodivergearoundthetimeofAncientGreece,andthatWesternthinkersdesperatelyattemptedtoemit“definitions”inordertodrawthelimitsofeachconceptHowancientGreeksandChineseviewedtheworldinphilosophydependedonhowtheydefinedthebasicelementalcharacteristicsthatmakeuptheworldEmpedocles,afifthcenturyBCEGreekphilosopher,originatedthetermsFire,Earth,Air,andWaterHeexplainedthenatureoftheuniverseasaninteractionoftwoopposingprinciplescalledloveandstrifemanipulatingthefourelementsHestatedthatthesefourelementswereallequal,ofthesameage,thateachrulesitsownprovinceandeachpossessesitsownindividualcharacterDifferentmixturesoftheseelementsproducedthedifferentnaturesofthingsInaword,scholarsinthewestadvocatethegreatinfluenceofGreekmythologyOfcourse,Greekmythologyinfluencedthenamingofmanyobjectsinthenightsky,notjusttheplanetsTheplanetsallbearnamesfromRomanmythologywhichreflecttheircharacteristicsTheyviewGreekphilosophyastherootofthescienceIIIEasternViewontheNamesoftheplanetsOnthecontrary,intraditionalChinesephilosophy,naturalphenomenacanbeclassifiedintotheWuXing(Chinese:五行),ortheFiveElements,alsotranslatedasfivephases,fivemovementsorfivestepsThefundamentalcomponentsoftheUniverseare:Wood,Fire,Earth,MetalandWaterTheFiveElementtheoryviewstheUniverseanditsfunctioningasbeingcyclicalandinteractiveItwasemployedinmanyfieldsofearlyChinesethought,includingseeminglydisparatefieldssuchasgeomancyorFengshui,astrology,traditionalChinesemedicine,music,militarystrategyandmartialartsTheancientChineseastronomerscalledthefivemajorplanetsbythenamesoftheelementstheywereassociatedwith:VenuscorrespondstoMetal(gold)JupitertoWoodMercurytoWaterMarstoFireSaturntoEarthProfessorLiangNingsenghasconveyedsuchviewas“Thefiveelementsmixingfive”istheimportantcomponentofChineseancientcivilizationitisfoundationandmarrowofChineseancientphilosophythoughttooItsbasicmeaningofcultureandscientificvaluehadalreadypermeatedeachfieldofChineseancientcivilizationIthasextremelyimportantscientificvalueandextremelyimportantinfluenceondevelopmentofChineseancientcivilizationTheChineseconceptionof“element”isthereforequitedifferenttotheWesternoneTheWesternelementswereseenasthebasicbuildingblocksofmatterTheChinese“elements”,bycontrast,wereseenaseverchangingandmovingforcesorenergiesonetranslationofxingissimply“thefivechanges”ThedoctrineoffivephasesdescribestwoCyclesofBalance,ageneratingorcreation(生,shēng)cycleandanovercomingordestruction(克,kè)cycleofinteractionsbetweenthephasesGeneratingmeansthatWoodfeedsFireFirecreatesEarth(ash)EarthbearsMetalMetalcollectsWaterWaternourishesWoodOvercomingincludesthatwoodpartsearthearthabsorbswaterwaterquenchesfirefiremeltsmetalandmetalchopswoodChenQizhianalyzesthatthetheoryofYinYangandFiveElementswhichiscommonlytranslatedasfiveelementswhichoriginatedfromtheTaoismschoolofnaturallawintheperiodbeforeQinDynastyTheconceptsofYinandYangrelateswithbothsunshineandSpacetimeTheobjectivefoundationofthetheoryofYinYangisthatthevariationofsunshineintensitychangeswithvariationofspacetimeTheideaoffivedirectionsisforerunnerofthetheoryoffiveXingTheFiveElementsembodiesfivecategoriesofdifferentprogramsTheestablishmentoftheoryofYinYangandFiveElementscloselyrelateswiththedevelopmentofancientChineseastronomyTheSpacetimeiskeystoneofthetheoryofYinYangandfiveXingTheFiveElementsbelongstotheYinYangwhenthetheoryofFiveElementscombineswiththetheoryofYinYangThewoodseemsalittleYANGthefiveseemsagrandYangthemetalseemsalittleYinthewaterseemsagrandYintheearthistheintermediarybetweenYangandYinTheFiveElementscanalsobecalledthePronounoffivedirectionsandfourseasonsFiveelementsandPhilosophyofAncientChineseTechnologyconveytheideathatthedevelopmentoftheancientChinesesciencehadbeenaffectedbythetheoryofYingYangandFiveElementsInaddition,thetheoryofYinYangandFiveElementsisusedforreferencebytheforeignandnationalscientistsandphilosophersnowadaysandatmoderntimesItisworthytocriticallyinheritthetheoryofYinYangandFiveElementsFromtheabovementionedviews,itisknownthatthefivemajorplanetsareassociatedwithandnamedafterthefiveelementsTheFiveElementsplayanimportantpartinChineseastrologyandtheChineseformofgeomancyknownasFengshuiAlthoughtherelativegeographicalisolationandstrictpolityaffectedthedevelopmentofastrologyinancientChina,ChineseastronomershavemadeagreatcontributiontoastrologyandscienceIVConclusionInbrief,theoriginoftheplanetnamescomesfromdifferentculturalbackgroundsanddifferentphilosophytheoriesWesternastronomersnamedtheplanetsaftertheclassicalnamesofmythologywhileChinesescientistsnamedthemaftertheChinesephilosophyofFiveElements(Chinese:五行),whichmayalsoshedlightontheculturaldifferencesbetweentheWestandtheEastPAGE

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