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首页 Robert T. Clewis_The Kantian Sublime and the Re…

Robert T. Clewis_The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedom.pdf

Robert T. Clewis_The Kantian Su…

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简介:本文档为《Robert T. Clewis_The Kantian Sublime and the Revelation of Freedompdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ThispageintentionallyleftblankTHEKANTIANSUBLIMEANDTHEREVELATIONOFFREEDOMIn符等。

ThispageintentionallyleftblankTHEKANTIANSUBLIMEANDTHEREVELATIONOFFREEDOMInthisbookRobertRClewisshowshowcertaincrucialconceptsinKant’saestheticsandpracticalphilosophy–thesublime,enthusiasm,freedom,empiricalandintellectualinterests,theideaofarepublic–fittogetheranddeepenourunderstandingofKant’sphilosophyHeexaminesthewaysinwhichdifferentkindsofsublimityrevealfreedomandindirectlycontributetomorality,anddiscusseshowKant’saccountofnaturalsublimitysuggeststhatwehaveanindirectdutywithregardtonatureUnlikemanyotherstudiesofthesethemes,thisbookexaminesboththepreCriticalObservationsandtheremarksthatKantwroteinhiscopyoftheObservationsFinally,ClewistakesseriouslyKant’sclaimthatenthusiasmisaestheticallysublime,andshowshowthisclarifiesKant’sviewsoftheFrenchRevolutionHisbookwillappealtoallwhoareinterestedinKant’sphilosophyrobertrclewisisAssistantProfessorofPhilosophyatGwyneddMercyCollegeTHEKANTIANSUBLIMEANDTHEREVELATIONOFFREEDOMROBERTRCLEWISCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNRobertRClewisInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgeBook(EBL)hardbackperElisaConversely,eventhatwhichwecallsublimeinnatureoutsideusorevenwithinourselves(eg,certainaffects)isrepresentedonlyasapowerofthemindtosoarabovecertainobstaclesofsensibilitybymeansofmoralprinciples,andtherebytobecomeinterestingIshouldliketodwellalittleonthelastpointTheideaofthegoodwithaffectiscalledenthusiasmThisstateofmindseemstobesublime,somuchsothatitiscommonlymaintainedthatwithoutitnothinggreatcanbeaccomplishedNow,however,everyaffectisblind,eitherinthechoiceofitsend,or,evenifthisendisgivenbyreason,initsimplementationforitisthatmovementofthemindthatmakesitincapableofengaginginfreeconsiderationofprinciples,inordertodetermineitselfinaccordancewiththemThusitcannotinanywaymeritasatisfactionofreasonNevertheless,enthusiasmisaestheticallysublime,becauseitisastretchingofthepowersthroughideas,whichgivethemindamomentumthatactsfarmorepowerfullyandpersistentlythantheimpetusgivenbysensoryrepresentationsKant,CritiqueofthePowerofJudgment(KritikderUrteilskraft:)ThecolorofthesublimeisredKant,CritiqueofthePowerofJudgment(KritikderUrteilskraft:)ContentsPrefaceandacknowledgmentspageixAbbreviationsandnotesonKant’stextsxiIntroductionTheObservationsandtheRemarksTheObservationsThreeformsofthesublime,andthegrotesqueVirtueTheRemarks:historyandbackgroundFoursensesoffreedomEnthusiasm:thepassionofthesublimeConclusionThejudgmentofthesublimePreliminaryissuesThemathematicalandthedynamicalsublimeAthirdkind:themoralsublimeDependentandfreesublimityThemonstrousandthecolossalSublimityelicitedbyartMoralfeelingandthesublimeThemoralfeelingofrespectSublimityaspresupposingfreedomSublimityassupportingmoralityVarioussensesofinterestanddisinterestednessInterestFirstorderandsecondorderinterestsEmpiricalandmorallybasedinterestsConclusionviiAestheticenthusiasmEnthusiasminthecorpusAffectEnthusiasmasmorallyambiguousEnthusiasmasanaestheticfeelingofsublimity“Withoutenthusiasmnothinggreatcanbeaccomplished”Conclusion:KantianenthusiasmandtherevelationoffreedomEnthusiasmfortheideaofarepublicThechargeagainstKantMeansandendsFreedomandtheideaofarepublicTheconsistencyofKant’spositionConclusionSummarySublimity’sbasisinfreedomThetransitiontofreedomAppendix:OntheRemarksAppendix:SomefeaturesofthefeelingsdiscussedinthisbookAppendix:ClassificationofwhatelicitssublimityBibliographyIndexviiiContentsPrefaceandacknowledgmentsIwouldliketothankSAGEPublicationsforallowingmetouseinchaptersomeofthematerialfoundin“Kant’sConsistencyregardingtheRegimeChangeinFrance,”PhilosophyandSocialCriticism,()():–ItismypleasuretoacknowledgethemanypeoplewhohavecontributedtothewritingandcompletionofthisbookIsincerelyregretthatthereisspacetomentiononlyafewoftheindividualswhohaveinfluencedthisprojectSusanShellandRichardKearneyreadearlydraftsofselectedchaptersandofferedinvaluableadvicethroughoutitsvariousstagesThisbookcouldnothavebeenwrittenwithoutSusanShell,whofirstshapedmyunderstandingofKant’sBemerkungeninden“BeobachtungenuberdasGefuhldesSchonenundErhabenen”RichardKearneyselflesslyofferedhisadviceandassistancefromthebeginningofmyworkontheproject,andhiscommentsonanearlychapteronenthusiasmencouragedmetoexpandthechapterintothisbookHenryEAllisonconstructivelyinfluencedmyKantinterpretationwhenIwasagraduatestudentinBostonIwouldliketothankhimforhishonestcriticismsandencouragementAsanassistantprofessorinthePhiladelphiaarea,IhavebenefitedfromauditinggraduatephilosophycoursesgivenbyPaulGuyerandbyNoelCarrollPaulGuyer’swritingshaveinformedmywayofconceivingofsublimityasafeelingoffreedom,andIwouldliketothankhimforspeakingwithmeaboutmyprojectandforsharinghisknowledgeofeighteenthcenturyaestheticsNoelCarrollhashelpedmethinkmorecriticallyaboutKant’snotionsofinterestanddisinterestedness,andhasenabledmetoreadKantwithcontemporaryaestheticissuesinthebackgroundNumerousinstitutionsandfoundationshavegenerouslysupportedthisprojectKrzysztofMichalskiandthestaffattheInstitutfurdieWissenschaftenvomMenschenhavebeenincrediblykindtomeeverixsincemystaythereinNorbertFischerandHermannSchnackertzwelcomedmetotheKatholischeUniversitatEichstattIngolstadtin–OtfriedHoffekindlyhostedmeasavisitingscholarattheUniversitatTubingeninIwouldliketothankManfredFrankforwelcomingmetohisreadinggroupduringthattimeTheBradleyFoundation,KatholischeUniversitatEichstattStiftung,theBostonCollegePhilosophyDepartment,andtheErnestFortinFoundationprovidedsomefundingintheearlystagesofthemanuscript,andtheBoschFoundationgenerouslyprovidedfinancialassistanceinthesummerofFortheirinsightsandassistance,IthankPatrickByrne,RichardCobbStevens,AlfredoFerrarin,JeanLucMarion,RobMiner,DavidRasmussen,WilliamJRichardson,EileenSweeney,andJacquesTaminiauxaswellasRalphKennedy,WinchiatLee,CharlesLewis,JosefineNauckhoff,ByronWells,andRalphWoodIwouldliketothanktheWakeForestUniversityphilosophydepartmentforinvitingmetopresentanddiscussanearlyversionofchapterIamgratefultomyfriendsandcolleaguesatGwyneddMercyCollege,PA,fortheirsupportasIresearchedthisbookMichaelClintonkeptmehonestabouttakingKanttooseriously,andDonaldDuclowpushedmetoevaluatetheentireKantianprojectThestaffatLourdesLibrarywasveryhelpfulinpreparingthemanuscriptThisprojecthasbenefitedinvariouswaysfromdiscussionswithAndrewBickford,JimBoettcher,JasonBroverman,CoreyDyck,ChristineGottsteinStrobl,DavidKim,ClaudiaNeudecker,BrianTreanor,AndrewValins,andJosephWestfallIamindebtedtoHilaryGaskin,TomO’Reilly,andGillianDaddatCambridgeUniversityPress,andtothePress’sanonymousreaders,fortheirencouragement,advice,andhelpintheproductionofthisbookIwouldliketothankKateMertesforpreparingtheindexIwouldliketoexpressgratitudetothoseindividualswhoreadpartsordraftsofthemanuscriptReidarMaliksreadadraftofchapter,andPeterLamarquegraciouslycommentedonanearlyversionofchapterUygarAbaciandDanHeiderreadalatedraftofthemanuscriptIamindebtedtothereviewersofpartsordraftsofthismanuscriptNeedlesstosay,alloftheerrorsandinfelicitiesthatremainareentirelymyownIamespeciallythankfultohavereceivedthesupportofmywonderfulfamilyIgratefullydedicatethisbooktomywife,ElisaxPrefaceandacknowledgmentsAbbreviationsandnotesonKant’stextsExceptforthereferencestotheCritiqueofPureReason,referencestoKantaretothevolume:pagenumberofKantsgesammelteSchriften(KGS),publishedbytheDeutsche(formerlyKoniglichPreußische)AkademiederWissenschaften,vols(Berlin:WalterdeGruyter,–)ThereferencestotheCritiqueofPureReasonaretotheAandBpaginationofthefirstandsecondeditions,respectivelyReferencestotheRemarksaretothevolume:pagenumberoftheKGSfollowedbythepagenumberintheRischmulleredition(Bemerkungeninden“BeobachtungenuberdasGefuhldesSchonenundErhabenen,”edMarieRischmullerHamburg:FelixMeinerVerlag,)TranslationsfromtheRemarksaremyown,asaretranslationsfromworksforwhichnoEnglishtranslationislistedbelowReferencestotheObservationsaretothevolume:pagenumberoftheKGSfollowedbythepageintheGoldthwaittranslationfromwhichIquote(ObservationsontheFeelingoftheBeautifulandtheSublime,transJohnGoldthwaitBerkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,)TheabbreviationsbelowareusedtociteKant’stextsanytextsnotabbreviatedbelowarecitedonlybytheKGSvolume:pagenumberEnglishtranslationsthatareusedincitationsarelistedbelowItshouldbenoted,however,thatIhaveoccasionallymodifiedthesetranslationsTranslationsthatwereconsultedbutnotcitedfromcanbefoundinthebibliographyFinally,itshouldbepointedoutthatboldfontisusedthroughoutthisbooktoreproduceKant’soriginalemphasisAMAnthropologieMrongoviusAPAnthropologieParowApHAnthropologieinpragmatischerHinsichtAnthropologyfromaPragmaticPointofView,transVictorLyleDowdellCarbondale:SouthernIllinoisUniversityPress,FIErsteEinleitungindieKritikderUrteilskraftCritiqueofthePowerofJudgment,transPaulGuyerandEricMatthewsCambridgeUniversityPress,xiGGrundlegungzurMetaphysikderSittenGroundworkoftheMetaphysicsofMorals,transMaryGregor,inPracticalPhilosophyCambridgeUniversityPress,GTPUberdenGebrauchteleologischerPrincipieninderPhilosophieIAGIdeezueinerallgemeinenGeschichteinweltburgerlicherAbsichtIdeaforaUniversalHistorywithaCosmopolitanIntent,transTedHumphrey,inPerpetualPeaceandOtherEssaysIndianapolis:Hackett,IDDemundisensibilisatqueintelligibilisformaetprincipiisInauguralDissertationJLJascheLogikJascheLogic,transJMYoung,inLecturesonLogicCambridgeUniversityPress,KpVKritikderPraktischenVernunftCritiqueofPracticalReason,transMaryGregor,inPracticalPhilosophyCambridgeUniversityPress,KrVKritikderReinenVernunftCritiqueofPureReason,transPaulGuyerandAllenWoodCambridgeUniversityPress,KUKritikderUrteilskraftCritiqueofthePowerofJudgment,transPaulGuyerandEricMatthewsCambridgeUniversityPress,MMenschenkundeMAMutmaßlicherAnfangderMenschengeschichteMSDieMetaphysikderSittenTheMetaphysicsofMorals,transMaryGregor,inPracticalPhilosophyCambridgeUniversityPress,ObsBeobachtungenuberdasGefuhldesSchonenundErhabenenObservationsontheFeelingoftheBeautifulandSublime,transJohnGoldthwaitBerkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,PPZumewigenFrieden:EinphilosophischerEntwurfTowardPerpetualPeace:APhilosophicalProject,transMaryGregor,inPracticalPhilosophyCambridgeUniversityPress,PPHPraktischePhilosophieHerderRDieReligioninnerhalbderGrenzenderbloßenVernunftReligionwithintheBoundariesofMereReason,transGeorgediGiovanni,inReligionandRationalTheologyCambridgeUniversityPress,ReflReflexionenRemBemerkungeninden“BeobachtungenuberdasGefuhldesSchonenundErhabenen”xiiAbbreviationsandnotesonKant’stextsSFDerStreitderFakultatenTheConflictoftheFaculties,transMaryGregorandRobertAnchor,inReligionandRationalTheologyCambridgeUniversityPress,TPUberdenGemeinspruch:DasmaginderTheorierichtigsein,taugtabernichtfurdiePraxisOntheCommonSaying:ThatMayBeCorrectinTheory,ButItIsofNoUseinPractice,transMaryGregor,inPracticalPhilosophyCambridgeUniversityPress,VKVersuchuberdieKrankheitendesKopfesAbbreviationsandnotesonKant’stextsxiiiIntroductionIn,approximatelysevenyearsafterKantpublishedtheCritiqueofthePowerofJudgment,theGrandPrixdeRomeinhistorypaintingwasawardedtoLouisAndreGabrielBouchetforillustratingthedeathofCatoofUtica(–bce)CatotheYounger,orMarcusPorciusCatoUticensis,wasrenownedintheeighteenthcenturyforhavingstabbedandkilledhimselfuponlearningthattheRepublicwaslosttoCaesarAsinspectionofthepaintingreveals,BouchetpresentsuswithadefiantCato,fullofscornandunafraidofdeathHelookslikeamanwhoisfree,andwhoknowsitIn,KantdescribesCatoasanexemplarofenthusiasmLikeBouchet,KantcharacterizesCatoasasymboloffreedomEnthusiasm(EnthusiasmorEnthusiasmus,notSchwarmerei),thepreCriticaltheorymaintains,isthepassionofthesublimeEnthusiasmtakesprinciplesthataregoodinthemselves,suchasfreedom,toanexcessivedegreeKantevengoessofarastosaythatwithoutenthusiasmnothinggreatcanbeachievedAtthesametime,KantcondemnsCato’ssuicideastakingagoodprinciple,freedom,andapplyingitinthewrongwayOfcourse,itispreciselythefeaturesofCato’ssuicideitselfthatsoforcefullydemonstrateCato’sfreedomCatodefiantlyshowsthatheisfreeeventotakehisownlifeandthustoriseabovehissensibleinterests,abovealltheinterestinselfpreservationHisdemonstrationoffreedomispartiallywhat,forKant,makesCato’sactademonstrationofsublimeenthusiasmIntheCritiqueofthePowerofJudgment(),KantmodifieshisearlierviewsregardingenthusiasmKantnolongerclaimsthatenthusiasmisnecessaryforachievingsomethinggreatInstead,heholdsthatPierreBouillonandPierreNarcisseGuerinalsodepictedCatoandwontheprizeinthefirstcompetitiontobeheldsincethecontestwasdiscontinuedduringtheRevolutionUnlikethepaintingsoftheothertwowinners,Bouchet’sTheDeathofCatoofUticadepictsadefiantyetsereneCatoPhilippeGrunchec,TheGrandPrixdeRome:PaintingsfromtheEcoledesBeauxArts,–(Washington,DC:InternationalExhibitionsFoundation,),penthusiasmisonlysublimefromanaestheticpointofview,oraestheticallysublime,becauseitshowsthesuperiorityofthemindtosensibilityandsensibleinterests(KU:)Enthusiasmrevealshumanfreedom,but,asaesthetic,itdoesnothelpustoachieveanyends–atleastnotdirectlyAspectator’saestheticallysublimeenthusiasmthusdiffersfromCato’sagentorientedenthusiasmIn,Kantreturnstotheconceptofenthusiasminashortessay,“AnOldQuestionRaisedAgain:IstheHumanRaceConstantlyProgressing”publishedinTheConflictoftheFacultiesinThus,KantwasthinkingandwritingaboutenthusiasmatapproximatelythesametimethattheGrandPrixdeRomewasawardedtoBouchetAsinthepreCriticaltheory,theenthusiasmdescribedin“AnOldQuestion”concernsthefateofarepublic,namely,thefirstFrenchRepublicHowever,Kant’saccountofenthusiasmin“AnOldQuestion”differssubstantiallyfromthepreCriticalaccountEnthusiasmisnow(asinthethirdCritique)whataspectatorfeels,anaestheticresponse,notwhatdrivesanagenttoachieveagoalorendEnthusiasmisasignofhumanprogressandthemoralcharacterofhumanity,notanecessaryconditionforachievingmorallygood(orotherwisegreat)actsFinally,in“AnOldQuestion”Kantdescribesenthusiasmintermsofthesublime,callingita“grandeurofsoul”(SF:)HeseemstohintattheconnectionsbetweenenthusiasmandthesublimethathemadeintheCritiqueofthePowerofJudgmentThisbookexaminesKant’sviewsregardingthesublime,enthusiasm,andfreedomIamparticularlyinterestedinhowthesublimecanrevealhumanfreedomandinhowenthusiasmcanbeconsideredtobeaformofthesublimeintheCriticalsense,sinceKant’stextsimplythatitcanbesoconceivedAlthoughinthefirstchapterIdiscusstheviewsthatKantheldinthemids,thebookfocuseslargelyonKant’sCriticalaccountIdonotattempttofillinwhathappenedinKant’sdevelopmentbetweenthemiddleofthesandthewritingsofthesThistaskwouldrequiremetogobeyondmypresentknowledgeofKantaswellasnecessitatemorepagesthancanbecontainedinthisbook“AnOldQuestion”wasapparentlywrittenin,butitwaspublishedininTheConflictoftheFacultiesKant’sinterestinenthusiasmfortheendsoftheFrenchRevolutionthusapparentlycarriedoninto,evenifasoberandevenpessimisticassessmentofthelikelyoutcomeoftheRevolutionprobablydatesfromSeeConflict,Editor’sintroduction,pp–Otherversionsofwhatwastobecome“AnOldQuestion”canbefoundin:–:–:–:–andinatext(the“KrakauerFragment”)called“EinReinschriftsfragmentzuKantsStreitderFakultaten,”edKWeyandandGLehmann,inKantStudien,(–):–Onthesetexts,seePeterFenves,APeculiarFate:MetaphysicsandWorldHistoryinKant(IthacaandLondon:CornellUniversityPress,),nTheKantianSublimeandtheRevelationofFreedomToputitanotherway,thepresentworkexamineshow,accordingtoKant,pureaestheticjudgmentsofthesublimemightcontributeindirectlytotherealizationoftheendsofmoralityinthenaturalorderIusetheword“indirect”advisedly:anaestheticjudgmentofthesublimecannotdirectlyactualizemoralitybymakingamoralwillefficaciousintheworldMoreover,theroleplayedbythesublimeisnotidenticaltothatplayedbythefee

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