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Karl Ameriks_Kant and the Historical Turn - Philosophy As Critical Interpretation.pdf

Karl Ameriks_Kant and the Histo…

上传者: anabanana 2012-06-25 评分 5 0 213 29 967 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Karl Ameriks_Kant and the Historical Turn - Philosophy As Critical Interpretationpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含KANTANDTHEHISTORICALTURNThispageintentionallyleftblankKantandtheHistorical符等。

KANTANDTHEHISTORICALTURNThispageintentionallyleftblankKantandtheHistoricalTurnPhilosophyasCriticalInterpretationKARLAMERIKSCLARENDONPRESSOXFORDGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity’sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAucklandCapeTownDaresSalaamHongKongKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityNairobiNewDelhiShanghaiTaipeiTorontoWithofficesinArgentinaAustriaBrazilChileCzechRepublicFranceGreeceGuatemalaHungaryItalyJapanPolandPortugalSingaporeSouthKoreaSwitzerlandThailandTurkeyUkraineVietnamOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYorkKarlAmeriksThemoralrightsoftheauthorshavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDataavailableTypesetbyLaserwordsPrivateLimited,Chennai,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainonacidfreepaperbyBiddlesLtd,King’sLynn,NorfolkISBN–––––––ISBN–––(Pbk)––––(Pbk)AcknowledgementsIthanktheeditorsofOxfordUniversityPress,andespeciallyPeterMomtchiloff,forinvaluableassistancewiththisvolumeForhelpfullastminuteassistanceIamindebtedtoThomasMulherinandMeganHaltemanForstimulationoncountlessphilosophicalpointsIamdeeplyindebtedtotheaudiencesatwhichversionsofthechaptersweredelivered,andespeciallytomycolleaguesatNotreDameandatanNEHSummerInstituteonNature,Art,andPoliticsafterKant:ReEvaluatingGermanRomanticism,heldatColoradoStateUniversityHelpfulfinancialassistancewasprovidedbyagrantfromtheEarhartFoundationandatimelyleavefromtheUniversityofNotreDameExceptforselectionsthathaveappearedbeforeonlyinaGermanversion,materialsfromthechaptersbelowhavebeenchangedonlytoaslightextent,primarilytoupdatereferencesandstandardizeformatIacknowledgepermissiontoreprintmaterialsfromthefollowingpublications:Chapter‘TextandContext:HermeneuticalProlegomenatoInterpretingaKantText’,inDieterSchoneckerandThomasZwenger(eds),KantverstehenUnderstandingKant(Darmstadt:WissenschaftlicheBuchgesellschaft,),–Chapter‘ApperzeptionundSubjektKantsLehrevomIch’,inDieterHHeidemannandKristinaEngelhard(eds),WarumKantheuteSystematischeBedeutungundRezeptionseinerPhilosophieinderGegenwart(Berlin:deGruyter,),–Chapter‘IdealismfromKanttoBerkeley’,inStephenGershandDermotMoran(eds),Eriugena,BerkeleyandtheIdealistTradition,(NotreDame,IN:UniversityofNotreDamePress,),pp–Chapter‘KantunddasProblemdermoralischenMotivation’,inKarlAmeriksandDieterSturma(eds),KantsEthik,(Paderborn:Mentis,),–‘KantandMotivationalExternalism’,inHeinerKlemme,ManfredKuhn,andDieterSchonecker(eds),MoralischeMotivationKantunddieAlternativen(Hamburg:Meiner,),forthcomingChapter‘ACommonsenseKant’ProceedingsandAddressesoftheAmericanPhilosophicalAssociation,(),–Chapter‘TheCritiqueofMetaphysics:TheStructureandFateofKant’sDialectic’,inPaulGuyer(ed),TheCambridgeCompaniontoKantandModernPhilosophy(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),–viAcknowledgementsChapter‘Reinhold’sFirstLettersonKant’,(ArchivodiFilosofia(),pp–and‘Introduction’,inKarlLeonhardReinhold,LettersontheKantianPhilosophy,edKarlAmeriks(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),ppix–xxxvChapter‘ReinholdonSystematicity,Popularityand‘‘TheHistoricalTurn’’’,inRolfAhlers(ed),SystemandContextEarlyRomanticandEarlyIdealisticConstellationsSystemundKontextFruhromantischeundFruhidealistischeKonstellationen,TheNewAthenaeum,(),–‘ReinholduberSystematik,Popularitatunddie‘‘HistorischeWende’’’,inMartinBondeliandAlessandroLazzari(eds),PhilosophieohneBeynamenSystem,FreiheitundGeschichteimDenkenKarlLeonhardReinholds(Basle:Schwabe,),–Chapter‘Hegel’sAesthetics:NewPerspectivesonitsResponsetoKantandRomanticism’,BulletinoftheHegelSocietyofGreatBritain,(),–Chapter‘TheLegacyofIdealisminthePhilosophyofFeuerbach,Marx,andKierkegaard’,inKarlAmeriks(ed),TheCambridgeCompaniontoGermanIdealism(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),–Chapter‘OnBeiser’sGermanIdealism’,Inquiry,(),–Chapter‘TheKeyRoleofSelbstgefuhlinPhilosophy’sAestheticandHistoricalTurns’,CriticalHorizons,(),–‘DieSchlusselrolledesSelbstgefuhlsinderasthetischenundhistorischenWendederPhilosophie’,inThomasGrundmannetal(eds),AnatomiederSubjektivitat(Frankfurt:Suhrkamp,),–Chapter‘KonstellationsforschungunddiekopernikanischeWende’,inMartinMulsowandMarceloStamm(eds),Konstellationsforschung(Munich:Suhrkamp,),–‘ResponsetoUlrichJohannesSchneider’,inJBSchneewind(ed),TeachingNewHistoriesofPhilosophy(Princeton:PrincetonCenterfortheStudyofHumanValues,),–,–ContentsIntroduction:OntheVeryNotionofaHistoricalTurninPhilosophyIKANTANDAFTERTextandContext:HermeneuticalProlegomenatoInterpretingaKantTextKantianApperceptionandtheNonCartesianSubjectIdealismfromKanttoBerkeleyKant,Hume,andtheProblemofMoralMotivationACommonSenseKantTheCritiqueofMetaphysics:TheStructureandFateofKant’sDialecticIIREINHOLDANDAFTERReinhold’sFirstLettersonKantReinholdonSystematicity,Popularity,andtheHistoricalTurnIIIHEGELANDAFTERHegel’sAesthetics:NewPerspectivesonitsResponsetoKantandRomanticismTheLegacyofIdealisminthePhilosophyofFeuerbach,Marx,andKierkegaardIVCONTEMPORARYINTERPRETATIONSOnBeiser’sGermanIdealismTheKeyRoleofSelbstgefuhlinPhilosophy’sAestheticandHistoricalTurnsHistoricalConstellationsandCopernicanContextsBibliographyofWorksCitedIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankIntroduction:OntheVeryNotionofaHistoricalTurninPhilosophyPlainlyput:theideaofscienceisresearchthatofphilosophyisinterpretationDeutungInthisremainsthegreat,perhapstheeternalparadox:philosophy,everandalwaysandwiththeclaimoftruth,mustproceedinterpretivelywithouteverpossessingakeytointerpretation:nothingmoreisgiventoitthanfleeting,disappearingtraceswithintheciphersRatselfigurenofwhatisandtheirwondrousentwiningsThehistoryofphilosophyisnothingotherthanthehistoryofsuchentwiningsThatiswhyitreachessofew‘results’,whyitmustalwaysbeginanew,andwhyitcannotdowithouttheslightestthreadwhichearliertimeshavespun,andwhichperhapscompletestheliteraturethatmighttransformtheciphersintoatextIBACKGROUNDAnOldDichotomyonHistoryThesteadygrowthofinterestinhistoricaldevelopment,andinthehistoricaldimensionofphilosophyinparticular,isaphenomenonthatcallsforexplanationEvenmorethantheexactsciences,philosophyhasgenerallystriventobeadisciplinethatescapesthecontingenciesoftime,oratleastthelimitationsofparticularhistoricalframeworksandempiricaldisciplinesThisistruenotonlyofancientandmedievalphilosophybutalsoofthemodernphilosophicalsystemsthatcamewiththeriseofthe‘newphysics’intheeraofGalileo,Descartes,andNewtonVerymuchthesamekindofcommitmenttoahistoricalproceduresandindubitablefirsttruthscanbefoundatthebeginningofeachofthemainphasesofmodernphilosophy:intheprogramsoftherationalistsandempiricists,oftheTheodorAdorno,GesammelteSchriften,edRolfTiedemann(Frankfurt:Suhrkamp,),iCitedinFredRush,‘ConceptualFoundationsofEarlyCriticalTheory’,inFredRush(ed),TheCambridgeCompaniontoCriticalTheory(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),IntroductionKantiansandthepostKantianGermanIdealists,andofthefirstpositivists,phenomenologists,andanalyticphilosophersInthesecondhalfoftheeighteenthcentury,however,therearoseaverydifferentperspective,ahistoricistpositionthatwasgeneratedinlargepartbyapopularinterestintheradicaldiversityofculturesandagrowingsenseofthelimitationsofmodernityThisperspectivebegantoaffectphilosophyinafundamentalwaythroughtheideathatthehistoryofthoughtistoodiversetoberegardedasexhibitingeitheralinearandquasiprovidentialpatternofprogressorastructurethatsimplyparallelssocialandgeographicaldifferences(whichmightmerelyreflectaneternalcycleoflimitedoptions)ThishistoricistperspectivewaslargelyshapedbytheworkoffiguressuchasJohannGottfriedHerder(–),whostressedthenotionofa‘spiritoftheage’andtheideathatphilosophyshouldbeginfromtherecognitionthathistorytakestheformofasequenceof‘spirits’,eachexpressingthethoughtofitsowndistinctiveeraAccordingtothisperspective,earlier‘ages’inhistoryareespeciallyvaluablepreciselybecausetheycanbeverymuchunlikecurrenttimesTheyarenottobeunderstood‘whiggishly’asmereanticipationsofthepresentage,andyetitisalsoimportanttorecognizethattheymayhaveinfluencedlaterthoughtinavarietyofunderappreciatedwaysOnthisview,themainvalueofphilosophyturnsouttolienotinthediscoveryof‘eternaltruths’orapathtowardaquasiscientificconvergenceononenaturalsystem,butintheappreciationanddisplayofasequentiallyrelatedmultiplicityofhighlyvariedandoftenincommensurableinsightsInprinciple,thedescriptivebeliefthatthereisawidevarietyinthehistoryofthoughtmightbeaccompaniedbyanormativebeliefinasetofunderlyingsubstantivestandardsthatcouldstillmakeitrelativelyeasytoexplainandevaluatephilosophicalchangesthroughoutthedifferentagesleadinguptoourowntimeInpractice,however,themodernphilosophicalemphasisonhistoryhascometobeunderstoodlargelyintermsofthehistoricistviewthatthemorewelearnaboutthepast,themoresensibleitseemstogiveupanyconfidencethattherearesubstantivestandardsbywhichwecanjudge(andbuildourownphilosophyonthebasisof)themostremarkableintellectualachievementsofearliercultureswithrespecttoeithertheirowntimeortheircomplex,andoftensubterranean,longtermeffectsEvenif,formanymodernreaders,writerssuchasLockeorVoltaire,forexample,mayseemobviouslysuperiortoOldTestament‘authors’or‘preSocraticphilosophers’,foratypicalhistoricistacomparisonlikethismaynotevenmakemuchsenseThisviewcanleadtoarelativisticattitudeacrosstheboardOurownfavoritephilosophy(asidefromitspurelyformalelements)canappeartobelittlemorethantheexpressionofaparticularage,anagethatisdependentonothersincountlesshiddenwaysandisbutoneof‘Idealism’willbecapitalizedinreferencesspecificallytothemovementofGermanIdealismsimilarly,‘Critical’inreferencestotheCriticalphilosophyofKant,and‘Romanticism’inreferencestoGermanRomanticismIntroductionnumerous‘equallyvalid’agesOnethenmightevenbegintowonderwhy,ifoneistobeconsistent,anyspecialweightshouldbegiventotheveryhistoricismthatlargelydefinesourownage’sperspectiveButevenifhistoricistscannotfindanArchimedeanpointfromwhichtoresolvethisquestion,theycanstillreplythattheycannothelpbutholdontotheirownhistoricism,foritissimplyafactthattheydonotseehowtheycancommitthemselvestoanypositivealternativeANewPostKantianOptionThepositionsonhistorynotedsofarmightseemtoexhaustthemainoptionsonthetablesincetheeighteenthcentury,includingtheeraofGermanphilosophyfromKantthroughHegelOnthisissue,thisperiodisinfactgenerallyapproachedintermsoftwodirectlyopposedpositions:theclassicalandlargelyahistoricaltradition,whichculminatesinKant’s(–)systemof‘purereason’,andthepostKantiantradition,whichisdefinedbyaninsistence(forexample,inSchelling,Hegel,andFriedrichSchlegel)onverycloseattentiontohistoryandthelimitationsofsocalledpurereasonThisstarkcontrast,however,coversoveranestofhighlyrelevantcomplicationsForexample,althoughamerelychronologicalperspectivemightseemtomakeKant(whowasHerder’steacher)theobviousstartingpointhere,theculminationofKant’sCriticalworkandmostofhiswritingsconcerninghistorywereinfactprecededinanimportantwaybyHerder’spublicationsKantenteredthecontroversyatarelativelylatedate,throughareviewinwhichheexpressedasharplynegativereactiontothefirstinstallmentofHerder’s‘nonscientific’IdeasforaPhilosophyoftheHistoryofMankind(),aworkthathadbeenprefiguredbyearlierwritingsbyHerdersuchas‘This,Too,aPhilosophyofHistory’()ThesepublicationsreflectthefactthatfromearlyonHerder’scareerwasremarkablyopentomanydifferenttraditionsFromKant’searlylecturesinKonigsberg(–),HerderlearnedthelargelyscholasticandahistoricalphilosophyoftheLeibniziantradition(asexpressedinthetextsofWolffandBaumgarten),buthisearlycareeralsorevealedtohimaverydifferentsideoftheworldUnlikeKant,Herderventuredtootherlands,andduringhisearlystayinRiga(–)Forareviewofthecontroversy,seeManfredKuehn,Kant:ABiography(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),–,andcf–,–,and–TheNovemberBerlinscheMonatschriftpublishedanarticlebyKantentitled‘IdearatherthanIdeasforaUniversalHistoryfromaCosmopolitanPointofView’,transinKantonHistory,edLewisWhiteBeck(Indianapolis:BobbsMerrill,),–Thecontroversybegan,however,afterKant’sreadingofHerder’sIdeasresultedinhisharshreviewsofthebookintheJanuaryandNovemberAllgemeineLiteraturZeitung(Jena),translatedas‘ReviewsofHerder’sIdeasforaPhilosophyoftheHistoryofMankind’,inKantonHistory,–Inananonymousarticle,‘SchreibendesPfarrerszu***andenHerausgeberdesTMubereineRecensionvonHerders‘‘IdeenzurGeschichtederPhilosophiederMenschheit’’’,DerTeutscheMerkur,(Feb),–,ReinholddefendedHerder(whohadpresidedathiswedding)againstKant’sfirstreview,butsoonthereafterheconvertedtoKant’sphilosophyIntroductionhewasdeeplyimpressedbytheastoundingvarietyoftheancientfolksongsofthelocalLatvianpopulationandbythephilosophicalsignificanceofthephenomenonoffolkcultureingeneralHemovedontobecomedirectlyfamiliarwithFrenchculture,andbythetimehehadbefriendedGoetheandsettledinWeimarhewasthoroughlysteepedinthecosmopolitanandhistoricalstrandofEnlightenmentthoughtexpressedinworkssuchasGottholdEphraimLessing’s(–)TheEducationoftheHumanRace()Thesepointsareareminderofasignificantfact,namelythatbythetimethatKant’sCritiqueofPureReasonfirstbecameasignificantinfluencerightafterReinhold’sLettersontheKantianPhilosophyof–butbeforethefirstwritingsofHegelandhisgenerationinthemidsGermanphilosophicalreaderswerealreadyfamiliarwithtwoverydifferentorientations:thelargelyahistoricalandsystematicorientationofmodernmetaphysicsfromDescartesandLeibnizthroughKant,andthenewhistoricistorientationarisingfromrelativistreadingsofworkbyLessing,Herder,andothersfascinatedbynewlydiscoveredcomplexitiesinthedevelopmentofclassicalandJudeoChristiancultureBoththeseorientationsleftsomemarkoneverygreatthinkerofthetimeKantwasinfluencednotonlybyNewtonandtheseeminglyapodicticresultsofthescientificrevolutionbutalsobyRousseau’swritings(forexample,Emile())ontheinterrelationofmorality,culture,andeducationAlthoughthenotionofaneternalandtransparentmorallaw‘within’purereasonitselfdefinesthemostfundamentallayerofKant’spracticalthought,influencessuchasRousseau’scallforanewworldofpoliticalfreedom,theriseoftheEnlightenmentinGermany,andtheenduringtraditionof‘salvationhistory’allcombinedtogiveKant’sfinalsystemashapethatresembledLessing’sinseveralwaysForboththinkers,thechiefinterestofhumanityrequiresforitsfulfillmentalongandpainfuldevelopmentthroughseveralspecificstagesofculture,morality,andreligionOntheonehand,thesestagesincreasinglysatisfytheinherentrationalpotentialofhumannatureontheotherhand,theiractualdevelopmentrequiresworkingthroughasequenceofeventsandconflictsthatcannotbefullyexperiencedorproperlyexplainedbyreasonaloneHegelandtheothermainfiguresintheGermanIdealisttraditionallpickeduponattractivefeaturescommontotheviewsofRousseau,Lessing,Herder,andKant,andtheyeachintheirownwayworkedoutaphilosophyorientedSeeJanAssman,MosestheEgyptian:TheMemoryofEgyptinWesternMonotheism(Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,)Assmaninvestigatesthegeneralnotionthat‘wearewhatweremember’,andhestresseseighteenthcenturyusesofhistory,especiallybyfiguressuchasReinhold,whoemphasizedtracesofrationalreligionevenintheearliestmysticalstrandsof‘Western’thoughtCfSabineRoehr,‘ReinholdsHybraischeMysterienoderdiealtestereligioseFreimaurey:EineApologiedesFreimauertums’,inMartinBondeliandAlessandroLazzari(eds),PhilosophieohneBeynamenSystem,FreiheitundGeschichteimDenkenKarlLeonhardReinholds(Basle:Schwabe,),–SeeHenryEAllison,LessingandtheEnlightenment:hisPhilosophyofReligionanditsRelationtoEighteenthCenturyThought(AnnArbor:UniversityofMichiganPress,),andAllenWWood,Kant(Malden,MAOxford:Blackwell,),chIntroductiontowardsthenotionofafulfillmentof‘reasoninhistory’Despitethecomplexitiesofthisnotion,however,andthemanydeepsimilaritiesinsomekindofcommitmenttoitinalltheGermanIdealistphilosophies,thereremainunderstandablegroundsforultimatel

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