关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 The Mind of a Mnemonist.pdf

The Mind of a Mnemonist.pdf

The Mind of a Mnemonist.pdf

上传者: 特才 2012-06-25 评分1 评论0 下载156 收藏0 阅读量436 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《The Mind of a Mnemonistpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含ALittleBookaboutaVastMemoryTHEMINDOFAMNEMONISTARLuriaTRANSLATEDFROMTHERUSS符等。

ALittleBookaboutaVastMemoryTHEMINDOFAMNEMONISTARLuriaTRANSLATEDFROMTHERUSSIANbyLynnSolotaroffWithaForewordbyJeromeSBrunerBASICBOOKS,INC,PUBLISHERSNewYorkLondonThetimehascome,thewalrussaid,totalkofmanythingsLEWISCARROLLThroughtheLookingGlassTogetherwithlittleAlicewewillslippastthesmooth,coldsurfaceofthelookingglassandfindourselvesinawonderland,whereeverythingisatoncesofamiliarandrecognizable,yetsostrangeanduncommonFOREWORDJeromeSBrunerThisbookisanextraordinarytributetoAleksandrRomanovichLuriaTherichnessofclinicalinsight,theacuityoftheobservations,andthefullnessoftheoverallpictureofhismnemonistareallextraordinaryLuriatellsusthatheistreatingthe"case"asastudyofasyndrome,atypeofstudyinwhichheisespeciallyskilled,asweknowfromhisfineworkonvariouspatternsofbrainlesionsWhatemergesisaperceptivestudynotonlyofmemoryorganizationbutalsoofthemannerinwhichmemoryisimbeddedinapatternoflifeAsacontributiontotheclinicalliteratureonmemorypathology,thisbookwillsurelyrankasaclassicThoughthetitleofthisbooksuggestsastudyofgreatfeatsofmemory,itisinfactabookaboutthefailureofoneaspectofmemoryandthehypertroviiFOREWORDviiiphyofanotherForthemnemonist,S,whosecaseisstudiedinsuchexquisitedetailinthesepages,isamanwhosememoryisamemoryofparticulars,particularsthatarerichinimagery,thematicelaboation,andaffectButitisamemorythatispeculiarlylackinginoneimportantfeature:thecapacitytoconvertencounterswiththeparticularintoinstancesofthegeneral,enablingonetoformgeneralconceptseventhoughtheparticularsarelostItisthislattertypeof"memorywithoutrecord"thatseemssopoorlydevelopedinthismanSeveralnotablethingsaboutthedisordersofthismnemonistareespeciallyfascinatingfromapsychologicalpointofviewForonething,thesheerpersistenceofikonicmemoryissogreatthatonewonderswhetherthereissomefailureintheswiftmetabolismofshorttermmemoryHis"immediate"imageshaunthimforhours,typesofimagesthatinmuchrecentworkonshorttermmemoryarefoundtofadetoapointwhereinformationretrievalfromthemisnotpossibleafterasecondorsoAlongwiththistraitthereisalsoanonselectivityabouthismemory,suchthatwhatremainsbehindisakindofjunkheapofimpressionsOrperhapsthismnemonicdisarrayresultsfromtheevidentfailuretoorganizeand"regularize"whatisrememberedintothekindsofschematathatBartlettdescribedForewordixinsuchdetailinhisclassicRememberingCuriouslyenough,andtypically,ourmnemonisthasgreatdifficultyorganizingdisparateencountersintermsofinvariantfeaturesthatcharacterizethemThegiftofpersistent,concretememoryappearstomakeforhighlyconcretethinking,akindofthinkinginimagesthatisveryreminiscentofyoungchildrenwhosethoughtprocessesmycolleaguesandIhavebeenstudying(eg,inStudiesinCognitiveGrowth,)S'sgroupingofobjectsandwordsarethematic,associative,boundinaflowofedgerelatedimages,almostwithafeelingofnaivepoetry"Azhukthat'sadentedpieceinthepottyIt'sapieceofryebreadAndintheeveningwhenyouturnonthelight,that'salsoazhuk,fortheentireroomisn'tlitup,justasmallarea,whileeverythingelseremainsdark,azhukWartsarealsoazhukNowIseethemsittingmebeforeamirrorThere'snoise,laughterTherearemyeyesstaringatmefromthemirrordarkthey'realsoazhuk"SothemnemonisttriestodefineachildhoodphraseherecallsatoneofhissessionsButthoughtheaccounthasakindofnaivepoetry,itismisleadingtothinkofthegiftofpoetryaswithinthisman'sreachInfact,hehasgreatdifficultyinunderstandingsomepoemsofPasternakthatwereusedfortestingHecannotgetbehindtheFOREWORDxsurfaceimagesheseemstobecaughtwiththesuperficialmeaningsofwordsandcannotdealwiththeirintendedmetaphorSopowerfulishisimagerythatthismancaneasilydrivehispulseupbyimaginingrunningHeisfloodedanddisturbedbytheimagesandimpressionsofchildhood,and,whenhewasachild,hisimageryofschoolwouldbecomeso"real"thathewouldlieabedratherthangetoutfromunderthequiltandgetreadyItisinterestingthat,givenhismodeofremembering,thereseemstobenochildhoodamnesia,andhismemoriesfromtheearliestperiodcancausehimacutemalaiseandchagrinThroughout,thereisachildlikequalityintheprotocols,protocolsthatarerichbeyondanythingIhaveeverencounteredinthepsychologicalliteratureonmemorydisordersS'slifeinsomedeeplytouchingwayisafailureHewaitedforsomethingtohappentohim,somegreatthingIntheconductofhislife,too,therewasapassivereceptiveattitude,almostprecludingorganizedstrivingInplaceofthemoreabstractandconstructionalattitudeofplanning,therewaswaitingInwritingthisforeword,IcannotforgoonepersonalremarkIamamongthosewhohavebeenfortunateenoughtohaveexaminedpatientswithProfessorLuriaattheBudenkoNeurologicalHosForewordxipitalinMoscowItisanexperiencenevertobeforgotten,forhissubtlecapacityforbringingimportantmaterialtolightbyingeniousquestionsandnovelproceduresistrulyremarkableItwasnolesssointhe's,whenthisstudybeganWhatisevidentinthisearlywork,asinhismostrecentwork,isProfessorLuria'sabilitytocombinetheclinicalwisdomofthefinephysicianwiththetheoreticalacumenofthescientificpsychologistMaythesetalentsbemorewidelyspreadamongusinthefuturePerhapsthisbookwillencourageotherslikeitCambridge,MassOctober,PREFACEIspentthissummeroffinthecountry,awayfromthecityThroughtheopenwindowsIcouldheartheleavesrustlingonthetreesandcatchthefragrantsmellofgrassOnmydesklaysomeold,yellowednotesfromwhichIputtogetherthisbriefaccountofastrangeindividual:aJewishboywho,havingfailedasamusicianandasajournalist,hadbecomeamnemonist,metwithmanyprominentpeople,yetremainedasomewhatanchorlessperson,livingwiththeexpectationthatatanymomentsomethingparticularlyfinewastocomehiswayHetaughtmeandmyfriendsagreatdeal,anditisonlyrightthatthisbookbededicatedtohismemoryARLSummerCONTENTSIntroductionTheBeginningoftheResearchHisMemoryTHEINITIALFACTSSYNESTHESIAWORDSANDIMAGESDIFFICULTIESEIDOTECHNIQUETHEARTOFFORGETTINGHisWorldPEOPLEANDTHINGSWORDSHisMindHISSTRONGPOINTSHISWEAKPOINTSHisControlofBehaviorTHEOBJECTIVEDATAAFEWWORDSABOUTMAGICHisPersonalityTHEMINDOFAMNEMONISTIntroductionThisbriefaccountofaman'svastmemoryhasquiteahistorybehinditForalmostthirtyyearstheauthorhadanopportunitysystematicallytoobserveamanwhoseremarkablememorywasoneofthekeenesttheliteratureonthesubjecthaseverdescribedDuringthistimetheenormousamountofmaterialwhichwasassembledmadeitpossiblenotonlytoexplorethemainpatternsanddevicesoftheman'smemory(whichforallpracticalpurposeswasinexhaustible),buttodelineatethedistinctpersonalityfeaturesthisextraordinarypersonrevealedTHEMINDOFAMNEMONISTUnlikeotherpsychologistswhohavedoneresearchonpeoplewithanexceptionalgiftformemory,theauthordidnotconfinehimselftomeasuringthecapacityandstabilityofthesubject'smemory,ortodescribingthedevicesusedbythelattertorecallandreproducematerialHewasfarmoreinterestedinstudyingcertainotherissues:Whateffectdoesaremarkablecapacityformemoryhaveonothermajoraspectsofpersonality,onanindividual'shabitsofthoughtandimagination,onhisbehaviorandpersonalitydevelopmentWhatchangesoccurinaperson'sinnerworld,inhisrelationshipswithothers,inhisverylifestylewhenoneelementofhispsychicmakeup,hismemory,developstosuchanuncommondegreethatitbeginstoaltereveryotheraspectofhisactivitySuchanapproachtothestudyofpsychicphenomenaishardlytypicalofscientificpsychology,whichdealsforthemostpartwithsensationandperception,attentionandmemory,thinkingandemotion,butonlyrarelyconsidershowtheentirestructureofanindividual'spersonalitymayhingeonthedevelopmentofoneofthesefeaturesofpsychicactivityNonetheless,thisapproachhasbeeninuseforsometimeItistheacceptedmethodinclinicalmedicine,wherethethoughtfulphysicianisneverinterestedmerelyinthecourseofadiseasehehapIntroductionpenstobestudyingatthemoment,buttriestodeterminewhateffectadisturbanceofoneparticularprocesshasonotherorganicprocesseshowchangesinthelatter(whichultimatelyhaveonerootcause)altertheactivityoftheentireorganism,thusgivingrisetothetotalpictureofdisease,towhatmedicinecommonlytermsasyndromeThestudyofsyndromes,however,neednotberestrictedtoclinicalmedicineBythesametoken,onecananalyzehowanunusuallydevelopedfeatureofpsychicmakeupproduceschanges,whicharecausallyrelatedtoit,intheentirestructureofpsychiclife,inthetotalpersonalityInthelatterinstance,too,wewouldbedealingwith"syndromes"havingonecausalfactor,exceptthatthesewouldbepsychologicalratherthanclinicalsyndromesItispreciselywiththeemergenceofsuchasyndrome,oneproducedbyanexceptionalmemory,thatthisbookisconcernedTheauthorhopesthatbyreadingitpsychologistsmaybepromptedtoinvestigateanddescribeotherpsychologicalsyndromes:thedistinctpersonalityfeatureswhichemergewhenthereisheighteneddevelopmentofanindividual'ssensitivityorimagination,hispowerofobservationorcapacityforabstractthought,orthewillpowerheexertsinthepursuitofaparticularideaThiswouldmarkthebeginningofaconcreteTHEMINDOFAMNEMONIST(butnonethelessscientificallyvalid)psychologyThatananalysisofanexceptionalmemory,oftheroleitplayedinshapinganindividual'spsychicmakeup,shouldinitiatethistypeofresearchhascertaindistinctadvantagesMemorystudies,whichhadbeenatastandstillforsomanyyears,haveonceagainbecomeasubjectofvitalresearch,leadingtorapidgrowthinourknowledgeofthisparticularphenomenonThisprogressisboundupwiththedevelopmentofanewbranchoftechnology,bionics,whichhasforcedustotakeacloserlookateverypossibleindicationofhowthehumanmemoryoperates:thedevicesitusesasabasisforthemental"notes"peopletakeontheirimpressionsofthingsthe"readings"themindtakesofmemorytracesthathavebeenretainedAtthesametime,recentworkonmemoryisrelatedtoadvancesinourknowledgemadepossiblethroughcurrenttheoriesofthebrain,itsphysiologicalandbiochemicalstructureNevertheless,inthisbookwewillnotbedrawingeitheroninformationacquiredinthesefieldsoronthevastliteratureavailableonmemoryThisbookisdevotedtothestudyofoneman,andtheauthorwillventurenofurtherthanwhatobservationsonthisremarkable"experimentofnature"themselvesprovidedTheBeginningoftheResearchTheactualbeginningofthisaccountdatesbacktothe's,whenIhadonlyrecentlybeguntodoworkinpsychologyItwasthenthatamancametomylaboratorywhoaskedmetotesthismemoryAtthetimetheman(letusdesignatehimS)wasanewspaperreporterwhohadcometomylaboratoryatthesuggestionofthepaper'seditorEachmorningtheeditorwouldmeetwiththestaffandhandoutassignmentsforthedaylistsofplaceshewantedcovered,informationtobeobtainedineachThelistofaddressesandinstructionswasusuallyfairlylong,andtheeditornotedwithsomesurprisethatSnevertookanynotesTHEMINDOFAMNEMONISTHewasabouttoreproachthereporterforbeinginattentivewhen,athisurging,SrepeatedtheentireassignmentwordforwordCurioustolearnmoreabouthowthemanoperated,theeditorbeganquestioningSabouthismemoryButSmerelycounteredwithamazement:Wastherereallyanythingunusualabouthisrememberingeverythinghe'dbeentoldWasn'tthatthewayotherpeopleoperatedTheideathathepossessedcertainparticularqualitiesofmemorywhichdistinguishedhimfromothersstruckhimasincomprehensibleTheeditorsenthimtothepsychologylaboratorytohavesomestudiesdoneonhismemory,andthusitwasthatIfoundmyselfconfrontedwiththemanAtthetimeSwasjustunderthirtyTheinformationIgotonhisfamilybackgroundwasthathisfatherownedabookstore,thathismother,anelderlyJewishwoman,wasquitewellread,andthatofhisnumerousbrothersandsisters(allofthemconventional,wellbalancedtypes)someweregiftedindividualsTherewasnoincidenceofmentalillnessinthefamilyShadgrownupinasmallJewishcommunityandhadattendedelementaryschoolthereLater,whenitwasdiscoveredthathehadmusicalability,hewasenrolledinamusicschool,wherehestudiedinthehopethathemightsomedaybecomeaprofessionalviolinistHowever,afteraneardiseaseTheBeginningoftheResearchhadlefthishearingsomewhatimpaired,herealizedhecouldhardlyexpecttohaveasuccessfulcareerasamusicianDuringthetimehespentlookingforthesortofworkthatwouldbestsuithimhehappenedtovisitthenewspaper,wherehesubsequentlybeganworkasareporterShadnoclearideawhathewantedoutoflife,andhisplanswerefairlyindefiniteTheimpressionhegavewasofaratherponderousandattimestimidpersonwhowaspuzzledathavingbeensenttothepsychologylaboratoryAsImentioned,hewasn'tawareofanypeculiaritiesinhimselfandcouldn'tconceiveoftheideathathismemorydifferedinsomewayfromotherpeople'sHepassedonhiseditor'srequesttomewithsomedegreeofconfusionandwaitedcuriouslytoseewhat,ifanything,theresearchmightturnupThusbeganarelationshipofalmostthirtyyears,filledwithexperiments,discussions,andcorrespondenceWhenIbeganmystudyofSitwaswithmuchthesamedegreeofcuriositypsychologistsgenerallyhaveattheoutsetofresearch,hardlywiththehopethattheexperimentswouldofferanythingofparticularnoteHowever,theresultsofthefirsttestswereenoughtochangemyattitudeandtoleaveme,theexperimenter,ratherthanmysubject,bothembarrassedandperplexedIgaveSaseriesofwords,thennumbers,thenTHEMINDOFAMNEMONISTletters,readingthemtohimslowlyorpresentingtheminwrittenformHereadorlistenedattentivelyandthenrepeatedthematerialexactlyasithadbeenpresentedIincreasedthenumberofelementsineachseries,givinghimasmanyasthirty,fifty,orevenseventywordsornumbers,butthis,too,presentednoproblemforhimHedidnotneedtocommitanyofthematerialtomemoryifIgavehimaseriesofwordsornumbers,whichIreadslowlyanddistinctly,hewouldlistenattentively,sometimesaskmetostopandenunciateawordmoreclearly,or,ifindoubtwhetherhehadheardawordcorrectly,wouldaskmetorepeatitUsuallyduringanexperimenthewouldclosehiseyesorstareintospace,fixinghisgazeononepointwhentheexperimentwasover,hewouldaskthatwepausewhilehewentoverthematerialinhismindtoseeifhehadretaineditThereupon,withoutanothermoment'spause,hewouldreproducetheseriesthathadbeenreadtohimTheexperimentindicatedthathecouldreproduceaseriesinreverseorderfromtheendtothebeginningjustassimplyasfromstarttofinishthathecouldreadilytellmewhichwordfollowedanotherinaseries,orreproducethewordwhichhappenedtoprecedeoneI'dnameHewouldpauseforaminute,asthoughsearchingfortheTheBeginningoftheResearchword,butimmediatelyafterwouldbeabletoanswermyquestionsandgenerallymadenomistakesItwasofnoconsequencetohimwhethertheseriesIgavehimcontainedmeaningfulwordsornonsensesyllables,numbersorsoundswhethertheywerepresentedorallyorinwritingAllherequiredwasthattherebeathreetofoursecondpausebetweeneachelementintheseries,andhehadnodifficultyreproducingwhateverIgavehimAstheexperimenter,IsoonfoundmyselfinastatevergingonutterconfusionAnincreaseinthelengthofaseriesledtononoticeableincreaseindifficultyforS,andIsimplyhadtoadmitthatthecapacityofhismemoryhadnodistinctlimitsthatIhadbeenunabletoperformwhatonewouldthinkwasthesimplesttaskapsychologistcando:measurethecapacityofanindividual'smemoryIarrangedasecondandthenathirdsessionwithSthesewerefollowedbyaseriesofsessions,someofthemdaysandweeksapart,othersseparatedbyaperiodofseveralyearsButtheselatersessionsonlyfurthercomplicatedmypositionasexperimenter,foritappearedthattherewasnolimiteithertothecapacityofS'smemoryortothedurabilityofthetracesheretainedExperimentsindicatedthathehadnodifficultyreproducinganylengthyseriesofwordswhatever,THEMINDOFAMNEMONISTeventhoughthesehadoriginallybeenpresentedtohimaweek,amonth,ayear,orevenmanyyearsearlierInfact,someoftheseexperimentsdesignedtotesthisretentionwereperformed(withouthisbeinggivenanywarning)fifteenorsixteenyearsafterthesessioninwhichhehadoriginallyrecalledthewordsYetinvariablytheyweresuccessfulDuringthesetestsessionsSwouldsitwithhiseyesclosed,pause,thencomment:"Yes,yesThiswasaseriesyougavemeoncewhenwewereinyourapartmentYouweresittingatthetableandIintherockingchairYouwerewearingagraysuitandyoulookedatmelikethisNow,then,Icanseeyousaying"AndwiththathewouldreelofftheseriespreciselyasIhadgivenittohimattheearliersessionIfonetakesintoaccountthatShadbythenbecomeawellknownmnemonist,whohadtorememberhundredsandthousandsofseries,thefeatseemsevenmoreremarkableAllthismeantthatIhadtoaltermyplanandconcentratelessonanyattempttomeasuretheman'smemorythanonsomewaytoprovideaqualitativeanalysisofit,todescribethepsychologicalaspectsofitsstructureSubsequentlyIundertooktoexploreanotherproblem,asIsaid,todoaclosestudyofthepeculiaritiesthatseemedanTheBeginningoftheResearchinherentpartofthepsychologyofthisexceptionalmnemonistIdevotedthebalanceofmyresearchtothesetwotasks,theresultsofwhichIwilltrytopresentsystematicallyhere,thoughmanyyearshavepassedsincemyworkwithSHisMemoryThisstudyofS'smemorywasbeguninthemid's,whenhewasstillworkingasanewspaperreporterItcontinuedformanyyears,duringwhichSchangedjobsseveraltimes,finallybecomingaprofessionalmnemonistwhogaveperformancesofmemoryfeatsAlthoughtheproceduresSused

职业精品

安置房买卖合同范本.doc

拆迁安置房买卖合同范本.docx

资金入股开小吃店合同.docx

新员工试用期转正审批表(通用).doc

上传我的资料

精彩专题

相关资料换一换

  • Time and Mind - …

  • The Origin of Mi…

  • Paideia The Idea…

  • inside the mind …

  • Contemplation-of…

  • A.History.of.Ira…

  • the body has a m…

  • Notebook of the …

  • The Philosophy o…

  • A.R.Luria-The Mi…

资料评价:

/ 168
所需积分:0 立即下载

意见
反馈

返回
顶部