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外文文献及译文.doc

外文文献及译文.doc

上传者: 快乐心情 2012-06-20 评分 5 0 108 15 493 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《外文文献及译文doc》,可适用于市场营销领域,主题内容包含本科毕业论文外文文献及译文文献、资料题目:NewProductPricingStrategies文献、资料来源:著作文献、资料发表(出版)日期:院(符等。

本科毕业论文外文文献及译文文献、资料题目:NewProductPricingStrategies文献、资料来源:著作文献、资料发表(出版)日期:院(部):商学院专业:工商管理班级:工商姓名:学号:指导教师:翻译日期:外文文献:PrinciplesofMarketingNewProductPricingStrategiesPricingstrategiesusuallychangeastheproductpassesthroughitslifecycleTheintroductorystageisespeciallychallengingWecandistinguishbetweenpricingaproductthatimitatesexistingproductsandpricinganinnovativeproductthatispatentprotectedAcompanythatplanstodevelopanimitativenewproductfacesaproductpositioningproblemItmustdecidewheretopositiontheproductversuspositioningstrategiesFirstthecompanymightdecidetouseapremiumpricingcompetingproductsintermsofqualityandpriceFigureshowsfourpossiblestrategyproducingahighqualityproductandchargingthehighestpriceAttheotherextremeitmightdecideonaneconomypricingstrategyproducingalowerqualityproductbutchargingalowpriceThesestrategiescancoexistinthesamemarketaslongasthemarketconsistsofatleasttwogroupsofbuyersthosewhoseekqualityandthosewhoseekpriceThusTagHeueroffersveryhighqualitysportswatchesathighpriceswhereasCasiooffersdigitalwatchesatalmostthrowawaypricesCompaniesbringingoutaninnovativepatentprotectedproductfacethechallengeofsettingpricesforthefirsttimeTheycanchoosebetweentwostrategies:marketshimmingpricingandmarketpenetrationpricing()MarketSkimmingPricingManycompaniesthatinventnewproductsinitiallysethighpricesto'skim'revenueslayerbylayerfromthemarketIntelisaprimeuserofthisstrategycalledmarketskimmingpricingWhenIntelfirstintroducesanewcomputerchipitchargesthehighestpriceitcangiventhebenefitsofthenewchipovercompetingchipsItsetsapricethatmakesitjustworthwhileforsomesegmentsofthemarkettoadoptcomputerscontainingthechipAsinitialsalesslowdownandascompetitorsthreatentointroducesimilarchipsIntellowersthepricetodrawinthenestpricesensitivelayerofcustomers()MarketPenetrationPricingRatherthansettingahighinitialpricetoskimoffsmallbutprofitablemarketsegmentssomecompaniesusemarketpenetrationpricingTheysetalowinitialpriceinordertopenetratethemarketquicklyanddeeplytoattractalargenumberofbuyersquicklyandwinalargemarketshareThehighsalesvolumeresultsinfallingcostsallowingthecompanytocutitspriceevenfurtherForexampleDellandDanusedpenetrationpricingtosellhighqualitycomputerproductsthroughlowercostmailorderchannelsTheirsalessoaredwhenIBMCompaqAppleandothercompetitorssellingthroughretailstorescouldnotmatchtheirpricesTheBankofScotlandandWinterthurofSwitzerlandusedtheirDirectLinePrivilegeandChurchillsubsidiariestograbprofitsandshareinthemotorinsurancemarketbysellingdirecttoconsumersatmarketpenetratingpricesThehighvolumeresultsinlowercoststhatinturnallowthediscounterstokeeppriceslowSeveralconditionsfavoursettingalowpriceFirstthemarketmustbehighlypricesensitivesothatalowpriceproducesmoremarketgrowthSecondproductionanddistributioncostsmustfallassalesvolumeincreasesFinallythelowpricemusthelpkeepoutthecompetitionotherwisethepriceadvantagemayheonlytemporaryForexampleDellfaceddifficulttimeswhenIBMandCompaqestablishedtheirowndirectdistributionchannelsProductMixPricingStrategiesThestrategyforsettingaproduct'spriceoftenhastohechangedwhentheproductispartofaproductmixInthiscasethefirmlooksforasetofpricesthatmaximizestheprofitsonthetotalproductmixPricingisdifficultbecausethevariousproductshaverelateddemandandcostsandfacedifferentdegreesofcompetition()ProductLinePricingCompaniesusuallydevelopproductlinesratherthansingleproductsForexampleMerloni'ssellsIndesitAristonandSeholtewithpriceand–statusascendinginthatorderTherearcfullrangesofIndesittoAristonappliancesfromwashingmachinestofreezerscoveringthefirsttwopricehandswhileScholtesellsexpensivebuiltinkitchenequipmentKodakoffersnotjustonetypeoffilmhutanassortmentincludingregularKodakfilmhigherpricedKodakRoyalGoldfilmforspecialoccasionsandalowerpricedseasonalfilmcalledRuntimethatcompeteswithstorebrandsEachofthesebrandsisavailableinavarietyofsizesandfilmspeedsInproductlinepricingmanagementmustdecidionthepricestepstosetbetweenthevariousproductsinalineThepricestepsshouldtakeintoaccountcostdifferencesbetweentheproductsinthelinecustomerevaluationsoftheirdifferentfeaturesandcompetitors'pricesIfthepricedifferencebetweentwosuccessiveproductsissmallbuyerswillusuallybuythemoreadvancedproductThiswillincreasecompanyprofitsifthecostdifferenceissmallerthanthepricedifferenceIfthepricedifferenceislargehowevercustomerswillgenerallybuythelessadvancedproducts()OptionalProductPricingManycompaniesuseoptionalproduetpricingofferingtoselloptionaloraccessoryproductsalongwiththeirmainproductForexampleaearbuyermaychoosetoorderpowerwindowscruisecontrolandaradiowithaCDplayerPricingtheseoptionsisastickyproblemCarcompanieshavetodecidewhichitemstoincludeinthebasepriceandwhichtoofferasoptionsBMWsbasiccarscomefamouslyunderequippedTypicallytheiisaboutDMbutthecustomerthenhastopayextraforaradio(pricesvary)electricwindows(DM)sunroof(DM!)andsecuritysystem(DM)ThebasicmodelisstrippedofsomanycomfortsandconveniencesthatmostbuyersrejectitThepayforextrasorbuyabetterequippedversionMorerecentlyhoweverAmericanandEuropeancarmakershavebeenforcedtofollowtheexampleoftheJapanesecarmakersandincludeinthebasicpricemanyusefulitemspreviouslysoldonlyasoptionsTheadvertisedpricenowoftenrepresentsawellequippedcar()CapLiveProductPricingCompaniesthatmakeproductsthatmustbeusedalongwithamainproductareusingcaptiveproductpricingExamplesofcaptiveproductsarerazorscamerafilmandcomputersoftwareProducersofthemainproducts(razorscamerasandcomputers)oftenpricethemlowandsethighmarkupsonthesuppliesThusPolaroidpricesitscameraslowbecauseitmakesitsmoneyonthefilmitsellsAndGillettesellslowpricedrazorsbutmakesmoneyonthereplacementbladesCameramakersthatdonotsellfilmhavetopricetheirmainproductshigherinordertomakethesameoverallprofit()ByProductPricingInproducingproeessedmeatspetroleumproductschemicalsandotherproductsthereareoftenbyproductsIfthebyproductshavenovalueandifgettingridofthemiscostlythiswillaffectthepricingofthemainproductUsingbyproductpricingthemanufacturerwillseekamarketforthesebyproductsandshouldacceptanypricethatcoversmorethanthecostofstoringanddeliveringthemThispracticeallowsthesellertoreducethemainproduct'spricetomakeItmorecompetitiveByproductscaneventurnouttobeprofitableForexamplemanylumbermillshavebeguntosellbarkchipsandsawdustprofitablyasdecorativemulchforhomeandcommerciallandscapingSometimescompaniesdon'trealizehowvaluabletheirbyproductsareForexamplemostZoosdon'trealizethatoneoftheirbyproducts–theiroccupants'manurecanbeanexcellentsourceofadditionalrevenueButtheZooDooCompostCompanyhashelpedmanyzoosunderstandthecostsandopportunitiesinvolvedwiththesebyproductsZooDolicensesitsnametozoosandreceivesroyaltiesonmanuresales'Manyzoosdon'tevenknowhowmuchmanuretheyareproducingorthecostofdisposingofit'explainspresidentandfounderFierceLedbetterZoosareoftensopleasedwithanysavingstheycanfindondisposalthattheydon'tthinktomoveintoactivebyproductsalesHoweversalesofthefragrantbyproductcanbesubstantialSofarnoveltysaleshavebeenthelargestwithtinycontainersofZooDoo(andeven'LoveLoveMeDoo'valentines)availableinzoostoresandadditionalretailoutletsForthelongtermmarketZooDoolookstoorganicgardenerswhobuytopoundsofmanureatatimeZooDooisalreadyplanninga'DungoftheMonth'clubtoreachtheselucrativebyproductmarkets()ProductBundlePricingUsingproductbundlepricingsellersoftencombineseveraloftheirproductsandofferthebundleatareducedpriceThustheatresandsportsteamssellseasonticketsatlessthanthecostofsingleticketshotelssellspeciallypricedpackagesthatincluderoommealsandentertainmentcomputermakersineludeattractivesofwarepackageswiththeirpersonalcomputersPricebundlingcanpromotethesalesofproductsthatconsumersmightnototherwisebuybutthecombinedpricemustbelowenoughtogetthemtobuythebundle"InothercasesproductbundlepricingisusedtosellmorethanthecustomerreallywantsObtainingatickettoanexclusivesportseventisdifficultbutWorldCupfootballfinalsticketsareavailabletopeoplewillingtobuythembundledwithasupersonicConcordeflightPriceAdjustmentStrategiesCompaniesusuallyadjusttheirbasicpricestoaccountforvariouscustomerdifferencesandchangingsituationsSevenpriceadjustmentstrategics:discountandallowancepricingsegmentedpricingpsychologicalpricingpromotionalpricingvaluepricinggeographicalpricingandinternationalpricing()DiscountandAllowancePricingMostcompaniesadjusttheirbasicpricetorewardcustomersforcertainresponsessuchasearlypaymentofbillsvolumepurchasesandoffseasonbuyingThesepriceadjustmentscalleddiscountsandallowancescantakemanyformsAcashdiscountisapricereductiontobuyerswhopaytheirbillspromptlyAtypicalexampleis'net'whichmeansthatalthoughpaymentisduewithindaysthebuyercandeductpercentifthehillispaidwithindaysThediscountmustbegrantedtoallbuyersmeetingthesetermsSuchdiscountsarecustomaryinmanyindustriesandhelptoimprovethesellers'cashsituationandreducebaddebtsandcreditcollectioncostsAquantitydiscountisapricereductiontobuyerswhobuylargevolumesAtypicalexamplemightbe'Kperunitforlessthanunits$perunitforormoreunits'Winemerchantsoftengive'twelveforthepriceofeleven'andMakrothetradewarehouseautomaticallygivesdiscountsonanyproductboughtinbulkDiscountsprovideanincentivetothecustomertobuymorefromonegivensellerratherthanfrommanydifferentsourcesAquantitypremiumissometimeschargedtopeoplebuyinghighervolumesInJapanitoftencostsmoreperitemtobuyatwelvepackofbeerorsushithansmallerquantitiesbecausethelargerpacksaremoregiftableandthereforelesspricesensitiveQuantitysurchargescanalsooecurwhendieproductbeingboughtisinshortsupplyorinsetsforexampleseveralseatstogetherata'soldout'rockconcertorsportseventandsomesmallrestaurantschargeapremiumtolargegroupsSimilarlyinbuyingantiquesitcostsmoretobuysixcompleteplacesettingsofcutlerythanasingleitemInthiscasethepricewillcontinuetoincreasewithvolumeeightplacesettingscostingmorethansixandtwelveplacesettingscostingmorethaneightQuantitypremiumsaremorecommonthanpeopleimagineandthatiswhytheyworkConsumersexpectpricestodeereasewithvolumeandsodonotcheckunitpricesThisallowsretailerstoslipinhighmarginitemsQuantitysurchargeincreaseswiththevarietyandcomplexityofpacksizesandinsomemarketsoverpercentofrangesincludesomequantitysurchargingAtradediscount(alsocalledafunctionaldiscount)isofferedbythesellertotradechannelmembersthatperformcertainfunctionssuchassellingstoringandrecordkeepingManufacturersmayofferdifferentfunctionaldiscountstodifferenttradechannelsbecauseofthevaryingservicestheyperformbutmanufacturersmustofferthesamefunctionaldiscountswithineachtradechannelAseasonaldiscountisapricediscounttobuyerswhobuymerchandiseorservicesoutofseasonForexamplelawnandgardenequipmentmanufacturerswillofferseasonaldiscountstoretailersduringtheautumnandwintertoencourageearlyorderinginanticipationoftheheavyspringandsummersellingseasonsHotels,motelsandairlineswillofferseasonaldiscountsintheirslowersellingperiodsSeasonaldiscountsallowthesellertokeepproductionsteadyduringtheentireyearAllowancesareanothertypeofreductionfromthelistpriceForexampletradeinallowancesarepricereductionsgivenforturninginanolditemwhenbuyinganewoneTradeinallowancesaremostcommoninthecarindustrybutarealsogivenforotherdurablegoodsPromotionalallowancesarepaymentsorpricereductionstorewarddealersforparticipatinginadvertisingandsalessupportprogrammes()SegmentedPricingCompanieswilloftenadjusttheirbasicpricestoallowfordifferencesincustomersproductsandlocationsInsegmentedpricingthecompanysellsaproductorserviceattwoormorepriceseventhoughthedifferenceinpricesisnotbasedondifferencesincostsSegmentedpricingtakesseveralforms:*CustomersegmentpricingDifferentcustomerspaydifferentpricesforthesameproductorserviceMuseumsforexamplewillchargealoweradmissionforyoungpeopletheunwagedstudentsandseniorcitizensInmanypartsoftheworldtouristspaymoretoseemuseumsshowsandnationalmonumentsthandolocals*ProductformpricingDifferentversionsoftheproductarepriceddifferentlybutnotaccordingtodifferencesintheircostsForinstancetheDutchcompanySkilpricesitsHelectricdrillatDFwhichisDFmorethanthepriceofitsHTheHismorepowerfulandhasmorefeaturesyetthisextrapowerandfeaturescostonlyafewmoreguilderstobuildin*LocationpricingDifferentlocationsarepriceddifferentlyeventhoughthecostofofferingeachlocationisthesameForinstancetheatresvarytheirscatpricesbecauseofaudiencepreferencesforcertainlocationsandEUuniversitieschargehighertuitionfeesfornonEUstudents*TimepricingPricesvarybytheseasonthemonththedayandeventhehourPublicutilitiesvarytheirpricestocommercialusersbytimeofdayandweekendversusweekdayThetelephonecompanyofferslower'offpeak'chargesandresortsgiveseasonaldiscountsForsegmentedpricingtobeaneffectivestrategycertainconditionsmustexistThemarketmustbesegmentableandthesegmentsmustshowdifferentdegreesofdemandMembersofthesegmentpayingthelowerpriceshouldnotbeablytoturnaroundandreselltheproducttothesegmentpayingthehigherpriceCompetitorsshouldnotbeabletoundersellthefirminthesegmentbeingchargedthehigherpriceNorshouldthecostsofsegmentingandwatchingthemarketexceedtheextrarevenueobtainedfromthepricedifferenceThepracticeshouldnotleadtocustomerresentmentandillwillFinallythesegmentedpricingmusthelegal()PromotionalPricingWithpromotionalpricingcompanieswilltemporarilypricetheirproductsbelowlistpriceandsometimesevenbelowcostPromotionalpricingtakesseveralformsSupermarketsanddepartmentstoreswillpriceafewproductsastossleaderstoattractcustomerstothestoreinthehopethattheywillbuyotheritemsatnormalmarkupsKellerswillalsousespecialeventpricingincertainseasonstodrawinmorecustomersThuslinensarepromotionallypricedeveryJanuarytoattractwearyChristmasshoppersbackintothestoresManufacturerswillsometimesoffercashrebatestoconsumerswhobuytheproductfromdealerswithinaspecifiedtimethemanufacturersendstherebatedirectlytothecustomerRebateshaverecentlybeenpopularwithcarmakersandproducersofdurablegoodsandsmallappliancesSomemanufacturersofferlowinterestfinancinglongerwarrantiesorfreemaintenancetoreducetheconsumer'sprice'ThispracticehasrecentlybecomeafavouriteofthecarindustryOrthesellermaysimplyofferdiscountsfromnormalpricestoincreasesalesandreduceinventoriesPricingstrategiesandtacticsformanimportantelementofacompany'smarketingmixInsettingpricescompaniesmustcarefullyconsideragreatmanyinternalandexternalfactorsbeforechoosingapricethatwillgivethemthegreatestcompetitiveadvantageinselectedtargetmarketsHowevercompaniesarenotusuallyfreetochargewhateverpricestheywishSeverallawsrestrictpricingpracticesandanumberofethicalconsiderationsaffectpricingdecisionsPricingstrategiesandtacticsalsodependuponthewaythatwepayforthingsIncreasinglywhatwespenddoesnotdependonhowmuchmoneywehaveonusorhowmuchweearnedthatweekThesedaysourmoneyisrarelysomethingwesecorfeelitistheelectronictransmissionofdatabetweenfilesAlsoascurrencyisbecominganincreasinglysmallpartofourlivesbarteriscomingbackininternationalandinterpersonaldealingMarketingHighlighttellsmoreabouthowmoneyischanging中文译文:市场营销原理第一节新产品定价策略定价策略在产品生命周期的不同阶段常常要改变尤其是产品的新生期极具挑战性。让我们来比较两种产品的定价一种是模仿现有产品的新产品另一种是有专利保护的创新产品。公司如果模仿市场上已经有的产品就面临产品定位问题它必须决定如何给产品定位以便在价格和质量上与对手竞争。首先公司可能采取高附加值定价策略生产高质量的产品定很高的价格。在另一个极端它可能使用经济定价策略生产质量低一些的产品定价较低。只要市场上有两个购买者群体一个追求质量一个追求价格这些策略就可以同时在市场上存在。劳力士公司(Rolex)生产质量非常高的手表价格也非常高泰麦克斯公司(Timex)生产质量低一些的产品价格也比较容易被接受。推出有专利保护的创新产品的公司面对第一次为产品定价的挑战他们可以在两种策略中做出选择:撇脂式定价法或渗透式定价法。一、撇脂式定价法许多公司发明了新产品开始时都使用撇脂式定价法以便一步步地在市场上争取收入。英特尔公司(Intel)就使用这种撇脂式定价策略(MarketSkimmingPricing)。当英特尔公司推出一种新的计算机芯片时它使用最高的价格帮助新的芯片压倒市场上原有的芯片。它制定的价格瞄准一些子市场这些子市场上的计算机需要这种新的芯片。当新产品销售的速度降下来时或当竞争者即将推出类似芯片时英特尔公司降低价格吸引市场上那些对价格十分敏感的消费者。撇脂式定价法只在一定条件下有意义。首先产品的质量和形象必须与产品价格一致有相当多的顾客接受这种价格下的产品。其次生产较少量的产品的成本不能太高以致抵消定高价所带来的好处。最后竞争者没有可能很容易地进入市场以同样价格参加竞争。二、渗透式定价法一些公司使用渗透式定价法(MarketPenetratingPricing)。不像撇脂式定价法那样制定高价格瞄准能产生高额利润的小型子市场使用渗透式定价法人们制定很低的价格迅速渗透进入市场迅速吸引消费者快速占有很大的市场份额。销售量大可以减少成本公司有可能进一步降低价格。例如德尔公司(Dell)和盖特卫公司(Gateway)使用渗透式定价方法为高质量计算机产品定价再通过低成本邮寄渠道分销。当IBM公司、康柏公司、苹果公司和其他竞争者通过零售商店销售计算机不能达到很低的价格时它们两家的销售上去了。荷姆公司(HomeDepot)、沃尔玛公司(WarMart)和其他折扣零售商店也使用渗透式定价法定低价以便增加销售量。大的销售量反过来又保证了价格的进一步降低。有几种条件对制定低价格有利。首先市场必须对价格十分敏感能在低价格下迅速增长。第二生产和分销成本必须随销售量的增加而下降。最后低价格要能阻止竞争否则的话低价格可能只是暂时的。例如当IBM公司和康柏公司建立了自己的分销渠道后德尔公司和盖特卫公司的处境就很困难了。第二节产品组合定价策略当产品是产品组合的一部分时产品的定价策略就需要改变。在这种情况下企业寻求一组价格能够使整个产品组合的利润最大。由于各个产品的需求成本以及面对的竞争程度各不相同所以定价的难度较大。一、产品系列定价公司通常会开发一个产品系列而不是一个单一产品。例如斯耐波公司(Snapper)制造许多不同的割草机从价格为美元、美元、美元简单的手推式到美元左右可以骑上去开的那种都有。系列中每个成功的割草机都有特点。柯达公司生产不止一种胶卷而是一个系列包括普通柯达牌胶卷特殊情况使用的KodakRoyalGold牌胶卷和低价格的称作“快乐时光牌(Funtime)”的季节性胶卷为的是和经销商品牌胶卷竞争。柯达公司的这些品牌产品的规格和感光速度都不一样。在产品系列定价(ProductLinePricing)的过程中管理部门必须决定系列中不同产品的价格差别。价格差别要考虑系列产品中的成本差别、消费者对不同产品特色的看法以及竞争者的价格。如果两个成功产品的价格差别小购买者通常会买性能先进的产品。如果成本差别比价格差别要小这种情况下会增加公司的利润。如果价格差别大消费者一般会买不怎么先进的产品。二、备选产品的定价许多公司销售与主体产品配套的备选产品或附加产品时使用备选产品的定价方法(OptionalProductPricing)。例如一位汽车购买者可能选择电动窗、油门锁定键、带激光机的音响等。为这些备选产品定价是很棘手的问题汽车公司必须决定哪些产品包括在汽车基础价格里哪些作为备选产品。近些年来通用汽车公司一般的价格策略是对每辆万美元的基本车型做广告吸引大家到展览中心展室大部分空间都摆着安装了各种备选

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