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首页 DMSystems - 3rd Ed

DMSystems - 3rd Ed.pdf

DMSystems - 3rd Ed

zylance78
2012-06-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《DMSystems - 3rd Edpdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

It'syourchoice!NewModularOrganization!RelationalModelSQLDDLInfonnationRetrievalandXMLDataManagementERModelConceptualDesignAppncatirmsemphasis:Acoursethatcoverstheprinciplesofdatabasesystemsandemphasizeshowtheyareusedindevelopingdataintensiveapplicationsf,~tY'W'Yl~t':,~'AcoursethathasastrongsystemsemphasisandassumesthatstudentshavegoodprogrammingskillsinCandCHybridcourse:Modularorganizationallowsyoutoteachthecoursewiththeemphasisyouwant:=Dependencies~~~IvIIIIVVIrIIIjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjDATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMSDATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMSThirdEditionRaghuRamakrishnanUniversityofWisconsinMadison,Wisconsin,USA•JohannesGehrkeCornellUniversityIthaca,NewYork,USABostonBurrRidge,ILDubuque,IAMadison,WINewYorkSanFranciscoStLouisBangkokBogotaCaracasKualaLumpurLisbonLondonMadridMexicoCityMilanMontrealNewDelhiSantiagoSeoulSingaporeSydneyTaipeiTorontoMcGrawHillHigherEducationtzALhvisionofTheMcGrawHillCompaniesDATABASEMANAGEMENTSYSTEMS,THIRDEDITIONInternationalEditionExclusiverightsbyMcGrawHillEducation(Asia),formanufactureandexportThisbookcannotbereexportedfromthecountrytowhichitissoldbyMcGrawHillTheInternationalEditionisnotavailableinNorthAmericaPublishedbyMcGrawHili,abusinessunitofTheMcGrawHiliCompanies,Inc,AvenueoftheAmericas,NewYork,NYCopyright©,,byTheMcGrawHillCompanies,IncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformorbyanymeans,orstoredinadatabaseorretrievalsystem,withoutthepriorwrittenconsentofTheMcGrawHillCompanies,Inc,including,butnotlimitedto,inanynetworkorotherelectronicstorageortransmission,orbroadcastfordistancelearningSomeancillaries,includingelectronicandprintcomponents,maynotbeavailabletocustomersoutsidetheUnitedStatesCTFBJELibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRamakrishnan,RaghuDatabasemanagementsystemsRaghuRamakrishnan,JohannesGehrke~rdedpcmIncludesindexISBNISBN(ISE)DatabasemanagementGehrke,JohannesIITitleQADRDcCIPWhenorderingthistitle,useISBNXPrintedinSingaporewwwmhhecomToApu,Ketan,andVivekwithloveToKeikoandElisaPREFACEPartIFOUNDATIONSCONTENTSXXIVOVERVIEWOFDATABASESYSTEMSManagingDataAHistoricalPerspectiveFileSystemsversusaDBMSAdvantagesofaDBMSDescribingandStoringDatainaDBMSTheRelationalModelLevelsofAbstractioninaDBMSDataIndependenceQueriesinaDBMSTransactionManagementConcurrentExecutionofTransactionsIncompleteTransactionsandSystemCrashesPointstoNoteStructureofaDBMSPeopleWhoWorkwithDatabasesReviewQuestionsINTRODUCTIONTODATABASEDESIGNDatabaseDesignandERDiagramsBeyondERDesignEntities,Attributes,andEntitySetsRelationshipsandRelationshipSetsAdditionalFeaturesoftheERModelKeyConstraintsParticipationConstraintsWeakEntitiesClassHierarchiesAggregationviiVlllDATABASE"NIANAGEMENTSYSTEivlSPreliminariesRelationalAlgebraSelectionandProjectionSetOperationsConceptualDesignWiththeERModelEntityversusAttributeEntityversusRelationshipBinaryversusTernaryRelationshipsAggregationversusTernaryRelationshipsConceptualDesignforLargeEnterprisesTheUnifiedModelingLanguageCaseStudy:TheInternetShopRequirementsAnalysisConceptualDesignReviewQuestionsTHERELATIONALMODELIntroductiontotheRelationalModelCreatingandModifyingRelationsUsingSQLIntegrityConstraintsoverRelationsKeyConstraints:ForeignKeyConstraintsGeneralConstraintsEnforcingIntegrityConstraintsTransactionsandConstraintsQueryingRelationalDataLogicalDatabaseDesign:ERtoRelationalEntitySetstoTablesRelationshipSets(withoutConstraints)toTablesTranslatingRelationshipSetswithKeyConstraintsTranslatingRelationshipSetswithParticipationConstraintsTranslatingWeakEntitySetscn'anslatingClassHierarchiesTranslatingERDiagramswithAggregationERtoRelational:AdditionalExamples:IntroductiontoViewsViews,DataIndependence,SecurityUpdatesonViews:DestroyingAlteringTablesandViews:CaseStudy:TheInternetStore:ReviewQuestionsRELATIONALALGEBRAANDCALCULUSContentslX~RenamingJoinsDivision'loreExamplesofAlgebraQueriesRelationalCalculusTupleRelationalCalculusDomainRelationalCalculusExpressivePowerofAlgebraandCalculusReviewQuestionsSQL:QUERIES,CONSTRAINTS,TRIGGERSOverviewChapterOrganizationTheFormofaBasicSQLQueryExamplesofBasicSQLQueriesExpressionsandStringsintheSELECTCommandUNION,INTERSECT,andEXCEPTNestedQueriesIntroductiontoNestedQueriesCorrelatedNestedQueriesSetComparisonOperatorsMoreExamplesofNestedQueriesAggregateOperatorsTheGROUPBYandHAVINGClausesMoreExamplesofAggregateQueriesValuesComparisonsUsingValuesLogicalConnectivesAND,OR,andNOTImpactSQLConstructsOuterJoinsDisallowingValuesComplexIntegrityConstraintsinSQLConstraintsoveraSingleTableDomainConstraintsandDistinctTypesAssertions:ICsoverSeveralTablesTriggersandActiveDatabasesExamplesofTriggersinSQLDesigningActiveDatabasesWhyTriggersCanBeHardtoUnderstandConstraintsversusTriggers:OtherUsesofTriggersReviewQuestions:xDATABASEJANAGEMENTSYSTEMSPartIIAPPLICATIONDEVELOPMENTDATABASEAPPLICATIONDEVELOPMENTAccessingDatabasesfromApplicationsEmbeddedSQLCursorsDynamicSQLAnIntroductiontoJDBCArchitectureJDBCClassesandInterfacesJDBCDriverManagementConnectionsExecutingSQLStatementsResultSetsExceptionsandWarningsExaminingDatabaseMetadataSQLJWritingSQLJCodeStoredProceduresCreatingaSimpleStoredProcedureCallingStoredProceduresSQLPSMCaseStudy:TheInternetBookShopReviewQuestionsINTERNETAPPLICATIONSIntroductionInternetConceptsUniformResourceIdentifiersTheHypertextTransferProtocol(HTTP)HTMLDocumentsXMLDocumentsIntroductiontoXMLXMLDTDsDomainSpecificDTDsTheThreeTierApplicationArchitectureSingleTierandClientServerArchitecturesThreeTierArchitecturesAdvantagesoftheThreeTierArchitectureThePresentationLayerHTrvlLFormsJavaScriptStyleSheetsContents:»:iTheMiddleTierCGI:TheCommonGatewayInterfaceApplicationServersServletsJavaServerPagesMaintainingStateCaseStudy:TheInternetBookShopReviewQuestionsPartIIISTORAGEANDINDEXINGDataonExternalStorageFileOrganizationsandIndexingClusteredIndexesPrimaryandSecondaryIndexesIndexDataStructuresHashBasedIndexingTreeBasedIndexingComparisonofFileOrganizationsCostModelHeapFilesSortedFilesClusteredFilesHeapFilewithUnclusteredTreeIndexHeapFileWithUnclusteredHashIndexComparisonofIOCostsIndexesandPerformanceTuningImpactoftheWorkloadClusteredIndexOrganizationCompositeSearchKeysIndexSpecificationinSQL:ReviewQuestionsOVERVIEWOFSTORAGEANDINDEXINGSTORINGDATA:DISKSANDFILESTheMemoryHierarchyMagneticDisksPerformanceImplicationsofDiskStructureRedundantArraysofIndependentDisksDataStripingRedundancyLevelsofRedundancyChoiceofRAIDLevelsXllDATABASE~IANAGE'vIENTSYSTEMSDiskSpaceManagementKeepingTrackofFreeBlocksUsingasFileSystemstoilranageDiskSpaceBufferManagerBufferReplacementPoliciesBufferManagementinDBMSversusOSFilesofRecordsImplementingHeapFilesPageFormatsFixedLengthRecordsVariableLengthRecordsRecordFormatsFixedLengthRecordsVariableLengthRecordsReviewQuestionsTREESTRUCTUREDINDEXINGIntuitionForTreeIndexesIndexedSequentialAccessMethod(ISAM)OverflowPages,LockingConsiderationsBTrees:ADynamicIndexStructureFormatofaNodeSearchInsertDeleteDuplicatesBTreesinPracticeKeyCompressionBulkLoadingaBTl'eeTheOrderConceptTheEffectofInsertsandDeletesonRidsReviewQuestionsHASHBASEDINDEXINGStaticHashingNotationandConventionsExtendibleHCkshingLine~rHashingExtendiblevsLinearHa"lhingnReviewQuestionsPartIVQUERYEVALUATION:ContentsOVERVIEWOFQUERYEVALUATIONTheSystemCatalogInformationintheCatalogIntroductiontoOperatorEvaluationThreeCommonTechniquesAccessPathsAlgorithmsforRelationalOperationsSelectionProjectionJoinOtherOperationsIntroductiontoQueryOptimizationQueryEvaluationPlansMultioperatorQueries:PipelinedEvaluationTheIteratorInterfaceAlternativePlans:AMotivatingExamplePushingSelectionsUsingIndexesWhataTypicalOptimizerDoesAlternativePlansConsideredEstimatingtheCostofaPlanReviewQuestionsEXTERNALSORTINGWhenDoesaDBMSSortDataASimpleTwoWayMergeSortExternalMergeSortMinimizingtheNumberofRunsMinimizingIOCostversusNumberofIOsBlockedIODoubleBufferingUsingBTreesforSortingClusteredIndex:UnclusteredIndexReviewQuestionsEVALUATINGRELATIONALOPERATORSThe'SelectionOperationNoIndex,UnsortedDataNoIndex,SortedData:BTreeIndexHashIndex,EqualitySelectionGeneralSelectionConditions:::XIVDATABASE~ANAGEMENTSYSTEMSCNFandIndexMatchingEvaluatingSelectionswithoutDisjunctionSelectionswithDisjunctionTheProjectionOperationProjectionBasedonSortingProjectionBasedonHashingSortingVersusHashingforProjectionsUseofIndexesforProjectionsTheJoinOperationNestedLoopsJoinSortMergeJoinHashJoinGeneralJoinConditionsTheSetOperationsSortingforUnionandDifferenceHashingforUnionandDifferenceAggregateOperationsImplementingAggregationbyUsinganIndexTheImpactofBufferingReviewQuestionsATYPICALRELATIONALQUERYOPTIMIZERTranslatingSQLQueriesintoAlgebraDecompositionofaQueryintoBlocksAQueryBlockasaRelationalAlgebraExpressionEstimatingtheCostofaPlanEstimatingResultSizesRelationalAlgebraEquivalencesSelectionsProjectionsCrossProductsandJoinsSelects,Projects,andJoinsOtherEquivalencesEnumerationofAlternativePlansSingleRelationQueriesMultipleRelationQueriesISNestedSubqueriesTheSystemROptimizerOtherApproachestoQueryOptimizationSReviewQuestionsPartVTRANSACTIONMANAGEMENTContentsXfVOVERVIEWOFTRANSACTIONMANAGEMENTTheACIDPropertiesConsistencyandIsolationAtomicityandDurabilityTransactionsandSchedulesConcurrentExecutionofTransactionsrvlotivationforConcurrentExecutionSerializabilityAnomaliesDuetoInterleavedExecutionSchedulesInvolvingAbortedTransactionsLockBasedConcurrencyControlStrictTwoPhaseLocking(StrictPL)DeadlocksPerformanceofLockingTransactionSupportinSQLCreatingandTerminatingTransactionsWhatShouldWeLockTransactionCharacteristicsinSQLIntroductiontoCrashRecoveryStealingFramesandForcingPagesRecoveryRelatedStepsduringNormalExecutionOverviewofARIESAtomicity:ImplementingRollbackReviewQuestionsCONCURRENCYCONTROLPL,Serializability,andRecoverabilityViewSerializabilityIntroductiontoLockManagementImplementingLockandUnlockRequestsLockConversionsDealingWithDeadlocksDeadlockPreventionSpecializedLockingTechniquesDynamicDatabasesandthePhantomProblemConcurrencyControlinBTreesMultipleGranularityLockingConClurencyControlwithoutLockingOptimisticConcurrencyControlTimestampBasedConcurrencyControlMultiversionConcurrencyControlRevievQuestions:XVIDATABASErvlANAGEMENTSYSTEMSCRASHRECOVERYIntroductiontoARIESTheLogOtherRecoveryRelatedStructuresTheWriteAheadLogProtocolCheckpointingRecoveringfromaSystemCrashAnalysisPhaseRedoPhaseUndoPhaseMediaRecoveryOtherApproachesandInteractionwithConcurrencyControlReviewQuestionsPartVIDATABASEDESIGNANDTUNINGSCHEMAREFINEMENTANDNORMALFORMSIntroductiontoSchemaRefinementProblemsCausedbyRedundancyDecompositionsProblemsRelatedtoDecompositionFunctionalDependenciesReasoningaboutFDsClosureofaSetofFDsAttributeClosureNormalFormsBoyceCoddNormalFormThirdNormalFormPropertiesofDecompositionsLosslessJoinDecompositionDependencyPreservingDecompositionNormalizationDecompositionintoBCNFDecompositionintoNFSchemaRefinementinDatabaseDesignConstraintsonanEntitySetConstraintsonaRelationshipSetIdentifyingAttributesofEntitiesIdentifyingEntitySets:OtherKindsofDependencies:MultivaluedDependencies:FourthNormalForm::JoinDependencies(:ContentsXVllFifthNormalForm:InclusionDependenciesCaseStudy:TheInternetShopReviewQuestionsPHYSICALDATABASEDESIGNANDTUNINGIntroductiontoPhysicalDatabaseDesignDatabaseWorkloadsPhysicalDesignandTuningDecisionsNeedforDatabaseTuningGuidelinesforIndexSelectionBasicExamplesofIndexSelectionClusteringandIndexingCoclusteringTwoRelationsIndexesthatEnableIndexOnlyPlansToolstoAssistinIndexSelectionAutomaticIndexSelectionHowDoIndexTuningWizardsWorkOverviewofDatabaseTuningTuningIndexesTuningtheConceptualSchemaTuningQueriesandViewsChoicesinTuningtheConceptualSchemaSettlingforaWeakerNormalFormDenormalizationChoiceofDecompositionVerticalPartitioningofBCNFRelationsHorizontalDecompositionChoicesinTuningQueriesandViewsImpactofConcurrencyReducingLockDurationsReducingHotSpotsCaseStudy:TheInternetShopmingtheDatab~'ieDBMSBenchmarkingWellKnownDBMSBenchmarksUsingaBenchmarkReviewQuestionsSECURITYANDAUTHORIZATIONIntroductiontoDatab~"eSecurityAccessControlDiscretionaryAccessControlxviiiDATABASE~IANAGEMENTSYSTEMSGrantandRevokeonViewsandIntegrityConstraintsMandatoryAccessControlMultilevelRelationsandPolyinstantiationCovertChannels,DoDSecurityLevelsSecurityforInternetApplicationsEncryptionCertifyingServers:TheSSLProtocolDigitalSignaturesAdditionalIssuesRelatedtoSecurityRoleoftheDatabaseAdministratorSecurityinStatisticalDatabasesDesignCaseStudy:TheInternetStoreReviewQuestionsPartVIIADDITIONALTOPICSPARALLELANDDISTRIBUTEDDATABASESIntroductionArchitecturesforParallelDatabasesParallelQueryEvaluationDataPartitioningParallelizingSequentialOperatorEvaluationCodeParallelizingIndividualOperationsBulkLoadingandScanningSortingJoinsParallelQueryOptimizationIntroductiontoDistributedDatabasesTypesofDistributedDatabasesDistributedDBMSArchitecturesClientServerSystemsCollaboratingServerSystemsMidcllewareSystemsStoringDatainaDistributedDBMSFragmentationReplicationDistributedCatalogManagementNamingObjectsCatalogStructureDistributedDataIndependenceDistributedQueryProcessingNonjoinQueriesinaDistributedDBMSJoinsinaDistributedDBMS

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