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首页 [动画书籍编剧书籍]

[动画书籍编剧书籍].pdf

[动画书籍编剧书籍]

licunfeng1986
2012-06-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《[动画书籍编剧书籍]pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

AnIntroductiontoWritingforElectronicMediaMusburgerFMinddiMusburgerFMinddi::AM::AMMusburgerFMinddiiMusburgerFMinddii::AM::AMAnIntroductiontoWritingforElectronicMediaScriptwritingEssentialsAcrosstheGenresRobertBMusburgerAMSTERDAM•BOSTON•HEIDELBERG•LONDONNEWYORK•OXFORD•PARIS•SANDIEGOSANFRANCISCO•SINGAPORE•SYDNEY•TOKYOFocalPressisanimprintofElsevierMusburgerFMinddiiiMusburgerFMinddiii::AM::AMAcquisitionsEditor:ElinorActipisPublishingServicesManager:GeorgeMorrisonProjectManager:PaulGottehrerAssistantEditor:DougShultsMarketingManager:ChristineDegonVeroulisFocalPressisanimprintofElsevierCorporateDrive,Suite,Burlington,MA,USALinacreHouse,JordanHill,OxfordOXDP,UKCopyright©,ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherPermissionsmaybesoughtdirectlyfromElsevier’sScienceTechnologyRightsDepartmentinOxford,UK:phone:(),fax:(),Email:permissionselseviercomYoumayalsocompleteyourrequestonlineviatheElsevierhomepage(http:elseviercom),byselecting“SupportContact”then“CopyrightandPermission”andthen“ObtainingPermissions”Recognizingtheimportanceofpreservingwhathasbeenwritten,ElsevierprintsitsbooksonacidfreepaperwheneverpossibleLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataMusburger,RobertBAnintroductiontowritingforelectronicmedia:scriptwritingessentialsacrossthegenresRobertBMusburgerpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNMassmedia–AuthorshipITitlePAM’–dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ISBN:ForinformationonallFocalPresspublicationsvisitourWebsiteatwwwbookselseviercomPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaMusburgerFMinddivMusburgerFMinddiv::AM::AMToPatfriend,companion,lover,wife,andeditorForsomanyyearsofhappywork,play,andlivinglifetoitsmaximumMusburgerFMinddvMusburgerFMinddv::AM::AMMusburgerFMinddviMusburgerFMinddvi::AM::AMContentsPrefacexiiiAcknowledgmentsxvGettingStarted:LoadingtheApplicationandSharpeningthePencilIntroductionBackgroundScriptVariationsMediaDifferencesBasicWritingSkillsLanguageofDiscriminationTheLawandCensorshipTheAudienceandDistributionSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesMediaProductionforWritersIntroductionWriter’sRelationshipwithProductionWhatIsProductionWhyProductionforWritersTheLanguageofProductionVideoProductionTechniquesAudioProductionTechniquesDigitalandWebProductionTechniquesSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesviiMusburgerFMinddviiMusburgerFMinddvii::AM::AMSpots:PublicServiceAnnouncements,ProgramPromotions,andCommercialsIntroductionBackgroundPublicServiceAnnouncementsPromotionalAnnouncementsCommercialAnnouncementsAudienceAnalysisEthicsTheLawWritingSpotCopyCopywritingCopyFormattingInstructionsforDualColumnFormatUsingMicrosoftWordInstructionsforSingleColumnFormatUsingMicrosoftWordProductionValuesSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesNewsIntroductionTheFourthEstatePrintNewswritingBasicsElectronicNewswritingBasicsNewswritingGuidelinesInterviewingKnowYourStylebookObjectivityandFairnessRadioNewswritingTelevisionNewswritingInternetNewswritingSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesviiiCONTENTSMusburgerFMinddviiiMusburgerFMinddviii::AM::AMDocumentariesIntroductionBackgroundTypesofDocumentariesScriptandProductionPatternsSponsoredDocumentaries,Biographies,andDocudramasDocudramasDocumentaryPreproductionProcessDocumentaryFormatsWritingaDocumentarySummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesInformationalProductionsIntroductionBackgroundWritingCorporateMediaScriptsWritingEducationalMediaScriptsSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesAnimationIntroductionBackgroundTheProductionProcessTheWritingProcessWritingTechniquesSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesGamesIntroductionBackgroundCONTENTSixMusburgerFMinddixMusburgerFMinddix::AM::AMTypesofGamesWritingGameScriptsScriptFormatsDevelopingPlotandActionLinesSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesDramaIntroductionBackgroundStagesofScriptwritingDramaticScriptFormatsSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesTheInternetIntroductionBackgroundTypesofInternetMessagesEMailWorldWideWebTypesofWebSitesECommerceStreamingMediaAudioStreamingVideoStreamingWritingfortheInternetEMail,ChatLines,andInstantMessagingNewsgroupsandBlogsInteractiveProducingInteractiveWritingElectronicCommerceInternetProblemsSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesxCONTENTSMusburgerFMinddxMusburgerFMinddx::AM::AMFutureIntroductionTheSearchNetworkingInternshipResumeCoverLetterPortfolioInterviewingFreelancingRepresentationSummaryBeSureToExercisesAdditionalSourcesAppendixAAppendixBAppeddixCGlossaryIndexxiCONTENTSxiMusburgerFMinddxiMusburgerFMinddxi::AM::AMMusburgerFMinddxiiMusburgerFMinddxii::AM::AMPrefaceRegardlessofthetechnicallevelofamediaproduction,analogordigital,electronicormotionpicture,atanearlypointintime,thebasicconceptandplanforaproductionmustberecordedinsomeformonareadablemediumThewriterisresponsibleforthatformbylayingthegroundwork,designingtheblueprint,andprovidingthemeansfortheproductioncrewandstafftoconvertanideatoacompletedproductionThistexthasbeenwrittenasanintroductiontothemethodsofcreatingscriptsforeightdifferentgenresofmediaproductions:spots,news,documentaries,informational,animation,games,dramatic,andInternetproductionsItisnotintendedtoprovidethemeansforafirsttimewritertoreachthelevelofwritingofanAcademyAwardwinningproduction,butitofferstheopportunitytosampletheeightgenresandtheirvariousdifferencesandsimilaritiesThissamplingintendstoleadthereadertoanunderstandingoftheprocessofmediawritingandtherealizationoftheimportanceoftherelationshipsbetweenthewriterandtheproductioncrewandstaffThetextoffersbriefexplanationsontheactualproductionprocessestobetterhelpthewriteracceptthechangestohisorherscriptthatmustoccurduringproductionandpostproductionactivitiesTohelpthewriterreachanawarenessofhowbothscriptformatsandscriptwritingforelectronicmediaproductionsreachedtheirpresentstate,thebackgroundofeachgenreofmediawritingplacesthepresentwritingroutineinperspectiveThereaderofthistextisofferedbasicgrammar,sentencestructure,andpageformattingusedinscriptwritingtodevelopthebasicskillsofpresentingprofessionallypreparedscriptsxiiiMusburgerFMinddxiiiMusburgerFMinddxiii::AM::AMSincethisisanintroductorytext,afinalchapterofferssuggestionsonpursuingacareerinmediawriting,preparingforinterviews,andwritingresumesTheauthorhopesthistextwillleadthereaderstofurtherexploreacareerinwritingbyexpandingtheireducationaloptionsandcontinuingtowriteTheonlywayanyonecanreachaprofessionallevelofwritingistowrite,write,andkeeponwritingRMusburgerSeattle,WAxivPREFACEMusburgerFMinddxivMusburgerFMinddxiv::AM::AMAcknowledgmentsAnauthorwouldhaveadifficulttimecompletinganymanuscriptwithoutsomeassistanceAsateacherandpractitioner,myassistancehascomefromhundredsofstudentsandcoworkers,someforpositiveresults,somefornegativeIcannotrecognizeeveryone,butafewthatcometomindamongstudentshavebeenGregoryGutenko,CharleyandNancyWelborn,KarenFoss,JoeTankersly,DavidGarfield,SarahFife,andDominicSachseAspecialthankstoMichaelCarrandDepWahDavisfortheirassistancewiththistextProfessionalsincludetheWormingtontwinsandMurrayNoltefromWDAFTVdaysHelpfromfacultycamefromSamScott,GaylordMarr,ElizabethCzechBeckerman,TomHoffer,NormMedoff,JenningsBryant,RayFielding,andTedStantonLarrieGalewarrantsspecialthanksforhisassistanceonthistextMyrelationshipstretchesforoveryearswitheditorsfromFocalPress,duringthattimeIhavehadthepleasureofworkingwithPhilipSutherland,MaryLee,andLilyRobertsForAmyJollymore,DougShults,andElinorActipiswhoguidedmetothefinalparagraphofthisbookMusburgerFMinddxvMusburgerFMinddxv::AM::AMMusburgerFMinddxviMusburgerFMinddxvi::AM::AMCHAPTERGettingStarted:LoadingtheApplicationandSharpeningthePencilThewaveofthefutureiscoming,andthereisnofightingitAnneMorrowLindbergh,IntroductionBeforeyousitdowntostartwritinganyformofscriptforanymedium,genre,ormethodofdistribution,youneedtoconsiderthecommonfactorsthatexistamongallmediaforms,despitetheirbasicdifferencesThischapterwillrevealasmanycommontraitsaspossibletoavoidrepeatingthesameinformationthroughoutthetextfromchaptertochapterSuchtopicsincludecorrectEnglishthatiswrittentobereadoutloud,writingforanaudience,andunderstandingthelawsandcensorshipaffectingwritersAtthesametime,youmayneedtorecognizethattherewillbeduplicationandrepetitionofsomematerialwhentheredundancyiscriticalforthatparticulartypeofwritingTopicsincludedinthischaptercoverthehistoryandtypesofscripts,accurateandconciseEnglish,languagediscrimination,lawandcensorship,andtheaudienceanddistributionBackgroundThewrittenformsusedtoinstructaproductioncrewtocarryoutthewriter’sdesiresdidnotblossomforthovernightScriptformatsevolvedovermanyyearsthroughthedevelopmentofavarietyofMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGSTARTEDentertainmentvenuesEvenwithinaspecificmedium,variationsofformatstyleevolvedasthetechnologyofthemediumchangedtomeetthecombinedneedsoftheproductionstaffaswellasthechallengesofthelatesttechnologyLivetheatricalperformancespresageallformsofmodernmediaYoumaylearnmuchfromthestudyoflivetheaterinadditiontorecognizingthefieldoftheatricalproductionasapredecessorofelectronicmediaIntheearliesttimeoflivepresentationsbyactors,theactordirectordeterminedthestoryline,dialogue,andactionInmanycases,nothingwaswritten,butstoriespassedfromonetroupetoanotherorbecamesimplerinthememoryoftheoriginatorWhenproductionsbecamemorecomplex,noteswerewrittenandpassedfromoneperforminggrouptoanotherFinally,actorsanddirectorswrotemoredetailedscriptstoguaranteethataplaywouldbeperformedasthewriterhadintendedAsthetheaterevolved,sodidthescriptsthatthedirectorsandactorsfollowedTheformatbecamerelativelystandardizedsothatwhoeverneededtoreadorfollowthescriptwouldbeabletounderstandwhatwasexpectedofthemasmembersofthecastorcrewThescriptwasthebibleforthedirector,listingallofthedialogueandwhospokethelines,aswellasthebasicsettingsandactionThedirectorhadtheprerogativeofmakingmodificationsastherehearsalprocessmovedforwardBut,beforerehearsalsstarted,theactorsneededthescripttolearntheirlinesandbasicblockingmovements,bothofwhichcouldbemodifiedbythedirectorBeforetheendofthethcentury,motionpicturesfollowedlivetheaterinpresentingdramaticproductions,aswellasdocumentariesandothergenresasthefielddevelopedTheoriginalfilmscriptsmimictheformatlayoutoftheatricalscriptsoncescriptsbecametheruleinfilmAswiththeaterdirectors,earlyfilmmakersshotfilmwithoutrecordedsyncsoundandsoneededlittleinthewayofawrittenscriptThedirectorwritertoldthecinematographerwheretoplacethecamera,andtheactorsweretoldwheretostandandmoveandwhatlinestomimicAsthecamerarolled,thedirectoryelleddirectionstotheactorsLittlepostproductionwasnecessarysincetheearlyfilmsoftenwereshotinoneortwolongtakesintheminutelongscenesMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGSTARTEDFigureAtypicalShakespearianeraplayscriptMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGSTARTEDFigureAscriptfromathcenturyplayMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGSTARTEDFADEIN:INTCLUBCAROFMOVINGTRAINDAYThedesertlandscapeofcentralArizonaflashesbyoutsidethewindowAdrunkenMANstaggersuptheaisleholdingacocktailglassHenoticesROBINBALLARD,adelicate,yearoldwoman,whostaresblanklyoutthewindowHeholdstheglassouttoherMAN(slurred)BuyyouadrinkprettyladyRobincontinuestostareoutthewindowROBIN(coldly)NoTheManpullsbackthedrinkMANWell,pardonmeHeturnsandwalksawayRobin’sreflectioninthewindowreturnshergaze(DISS)EXTUNIONSTATION,LOSANGELESDAYRobin,surroundedbyotherdisembarkingpassengers,franticallysearchesthecrowdedplatformShebrightensassherecognizedLAURENCHANDLER,abeautiful,yearold,selfpossessedwoman,walkingthroughthecrowdandwavesatherROBINMom!(callinglouder)Mom!LaurenspotsRobin,wavesandhurriestowardherThewomenembraceRobinstartstocryLAUREN(concerned)Baby,baby…What’sthematterROBINIIleftTom(CONT)FigureAmodernfilmscenescriptMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGSTARTEDRADIODRAMAFORMATSFX:CARTRYINGTOSTART,FINALLYKICKSOVERBARBARA:IfIcanjustkeepthisthinggoing…wait…there’slightsahead,thankGodforghosttownsIhopeitisn’tafilmsetSFX:COMESTOASTOPCARDOOROPENSANDENGINEDIES,CARROLLINGONGRAVELASITCLOSESFOOTSTEPSONGRAVELBARB:(HESITANTLY)Anyonehomehello…hellothere(TOHERSELF)Whyisitwhenyouneedaservicestationit’salwaysclosedTheyweren’tkiddingwhentheysaiditgetsdarkfastoncethesungoesdown(OUTLOUD)Hey,hello,anyonearoundSFX:FOOTSTEPSGETTINGLOUDERRATTLINGOFLOCKEDDOOR,HEAVYBARB:(STARTLED)Oh,hello,I’msorry…youscaredme,(NERVOUSLY)Mycarquitonme,itjuststoppedImean,theenginequitIdon’tthinkI’moutofgas,andit’sonlyacouplemonthsold,Idon’tknowwhat’swrongwithitSFX:DESERTNIGHTSOUNDS,FOOTSTEPSINGRAVELSLOWLYAPPROACHING:CAL:What’reyoudoin’outhereYourolemaninthecarFigureAtypicalradiodramascriptMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGSTARTEDWhensoundarrived,filmscriptsbecamereasonablystandardizedinasinglecolumnformatInindividualportionsofthescript,scenedescription,action,movement,dialogue,andthenameoftheactorwereset,eachwithvariationsinmarginsThatmadeiteasyforactorsandcrewtoconcentrateonthetheirpartsofthescriptShortlyaftertheturnofthethcentury,radiobecamearealityfordrama,news,and,ofcourse,commercialsThefirstradioscriptsresembledtheaterscripts,exceptinsteadofdescribingscenesandaction,instructionsforsoundeffectsandmusiccuescompletedthescriptDialoguewasmuchmoredetailedsinceradiodramais,inessence,aseriesofdialogueswithmusicandsoundeffectshelpingtobuildtheimaginationfactorRadio’sadvantageliesinrequiringtheaudiencetouseitsimaginationstofillinthevisualgapsThisallowsradiodramatoachievecomplicatedeffectsthat,untildigitalmediaarrived,wereimpossibletocreateineitherfilmorvideoItbecameobviousearlyinthedaysoftelevisionthatmotionpictureandradioscriptformatsdidnotworkwellforlivemultiplecameraproductionsAtypeofscriptdevelopedforaudiovideoproductionataboutthesametimeThetwocolumnformatplacedbothsoundandpictureelementsofthescriptontheirownspacesinthescriptThismadeiteasierandmoreaccurateforthecast,crew,anddirectortoisolatetheportionofthescriptcriticaltoeachThelefthandcolumn(atonetimethenetworksNBCandCBSdisagreedonthearrangement)nowlistsallvisuals,withcamerainstructions,cameraframing,shotselection,andtransitionsallenteredincapitallettersTherighthandcolumnlistsalloftheaudio,includingmusic,soundeffects,andnarrationordialogueAllcopytobereadbythetalentisenteredinuppercaseandlowercaseletters,andallotherinstructionsareincapsThissystemdevelopedtomakeiteasierfortalenttopickouttheircopyfromallotherinstructionsSomenewscastersprefertohavetheircopyenteredinallcapsunderthefalsebeliefthatcapsareeasiertoreadonapromptingdeviceReadabilitystudiesindicateuppercaseandlowercasecopyonprompterspreventsreadingerrorsandhelpsreadersaddmeaningtotheirdeliveryMostdramaticvideoproductionsareshotsinglecamerastyle,andsomecommercialsanddocumentariesadaptedthesinglecolumnMusburgerChinddMusburgerChindd::PM::PMGETTINGS

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