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China Gender the World Bank 2000.pdf

China Gender the World Bank 200…

上传者: huangxy 2012-06-17 评分 5 0 128 17 580 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《China Gender the World Bank 2000pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域,主题内容包含CHINACOUNTRYGENDERREVIEWWORLDBANKPreparedbyElaineZuckermanwithAlfBlikberga符等。

CHINACOUNTRYGENDERREVIEWWORLDBANKPreparedbyElaineZuckermanwithAlfBlikbergandMenglinCaofortheEastAsiaandPacificRegionandtheGenderMethodsThematicGroupPovertyReductionandEconomicManagementNetworkCHINACOUNTRYGENDERREVIEWCountryGenderReviews(CGRs)TheBankseekstointegrategenderanalysisintoWorldBankEconomicandSectorWork(ESW),CountryAssistanceStrategies(CASs)andprojects(WorldBanka)becauseevidencehasmountedthatcountriesthatdiscriminateonthebasisofgendertendtohavegreaterpoverty,slowereconomicgrowth,weakergovernanceandalowerqualityoflifeConversely,genderequalityisconducivetopovertyreductionandeconomicgrowth(WorldBanka)Therefore,theBankispreparingCountryGenderReviewswhichidentifyandanalyzeprioritygenderissuesconstrainingdevelopmentTheywillbeavailableforESW,CASandprojecttaskmanagersandstaffwhooftenlackresourcestoresearchgenderconcerns(Zuckerman)Introductionince,theChineseCommunistParty(CCP)hassoughttochangetheunequalrelationshipbetweenmenandwomenandtoprovidelegalprotectionforwomenInmanyways,women’sstatushasimprovedoverthelastyearsSomeofthemostperniciousmanifestationsofgenderinequalitysuchasbindingwomen’sfeethavebeeneradicatedWomenhavebeenprovidedaccesstoeducationandthepoliticalprocess,longdeniedthemButdeeplyentrenchedpatriarchalcustoms,suchasthepreferenceforaboychildandinferiortreatmentofgirlsinruralfamilies,persistOtherbackwardgenderpracticesthoughttohavebeeneradicatedduringtheMaoerahavebeenreemergingduringthetransitionfromastatetoamarketeconomy,includingfemaleinfanticide,traffickinginyounggirlsandprostitutionAtthesametime,thetransitiontoamarketeconomyhaspermittedwomentobecomesuccessfulentrepreneursTherearemanycomplexitiestoChina’sgendersituationChina’slawsguaranteeingandpromotinggenderequalityareenlightenedbyanystandardsandcouldserveasabenchmarkforothercountriesstrivingforgenderequalityUnderChineselaw,equalrightsforwomenandmenareguaranteedinaccesstoemployment,equalpay,compulsoryeducation,politicalparticipation,property,marriageandhealthTraffickingandkidnappingwomenandprostitutionareprohibitedAffirmativeactionprogramsexisttorealizegenderequalityButitiseasiertoenactlawsthantoimplementthemThisreportaddressesthegenderimplicationsoftheselegalissuesandofaccesstothelabormarket,educationandhealthservices,vulnerabilitytoviolenceandpoliticalparticipationTheseweretheissuesidentifiedbystakeholdersasthethorniestgendergapsinChinatodayTheseprioritiesidentifiedbystakeholdersdonotconstituteacomprehensivelistofissueswithgenderimplicationsinChinaandtheyarenotinapriorityordersincetheyareallimportantSMethodologyThisreport,adeskstudy,isbasedonthefollowingelements:StakeholderconsultationChinagenderspecialists,especiallyincountry,includingleadersoftheAllChinaWomen’sFederation(ACWF),nongovernmentalorganizations(NGOs),women’sstudiescentersandotherswereeachaskedtoidentifyaboutahalfdozenmostcriticalgenderprioritiesThentheBankEastAsiaandPacificRegion(EAP)gendercoordinator,theBeijingcountryofficeGenderSpecialist,andstaffofthePovertyReductionandEconomicManagement,GenderandDevelopmentGroup(PRMGE)andotherunitswereconsultedaboutthestakeholders’prioritiesBankstaffendorsedthestakeholders’prioritiesandrequestedthattheframeworkfortheCGRanalysisbethetransitionfromastatetoamarketeconomyDatacollectionExtensivesexdisaggregateddatawerecollected,reflectedtosomeextentintheCGRgraphsanddatacontainedinthereportWealsocompiledasetofmoreextensiveChinaGenderStatisticsandpreparedadditionalChinaGenderGraphsavailableintheBackgroundDocumentslistedattheendoftheCGRDatawerecollectedfromgovernment,civilsociety,internationalagencyandacademicpublicationsandstudiesThebulkofthedataconsistofofficialstatistics,whichevengovernmentofficialsclaimareoftenunreliableTherearelargegapsinthesexdisaggregateddataavailableForexample,consumptionandwelfaredatahavenotbeencollectedintermsofintrahouseholddistributionsoitisimpossibletoknowifmenorwomenandgirlsorboysreceivemoreorlesseducation,nutritionandhealthcarePovertyinChinahasbeenmeasureddowntothecountylevel,rarelydowntothehouseholdlevelandhardlywithinthehouseholdwherethemostmeaningfulsexdisaggregatedindividualdatawouldexistAtEAP’ssuggestion,genderinformationwassoughtinnewspaperstocomplementofficialstatisticsItisrecommendedthatfuturegenderdatacollectionattemptstoredresstheintrahouseholddatagapLiteratureresearchLibraryandwebpublicationsanddocumentspreparedfortheBeijingPlusFiveSymposiumwerereviewedDetailedanalysesofeachoftheprioritygenderissuesdiscussedbelowareavailableintheBackgroundDocumentslistedattheCGRendInaddition,storiesdocumentinggenderissuesfromthepresswerecollectedprovideaqualitativecomplementtothequantitativedatacollectedExamplesarepresentedinboxesBankportfolioanalysisAportfolioanalysisassessedtheextentofgenderintegrationintheChinaCAS,ESWandasampleofprojectsTheCGRcontainsasummaryofthisanalysisThedetailedportfolioanalysisisavailableintheBackgroundDocumentslistedattheCGRendChinaisavastmultifacetedcountryGivenlimitedresources,thisreviewdiscussednationaltrendsandprovidesafewlocalexamplesbutitcouldnotcapturethemanydifferentregionalandminoritynationalitynuancescoexistinginChinaItisrecommendedthatthenextphaseoftheChinaCGRworkencompassfieldworktocollectandpresentsomelocalgendervariationsFieldworkisalsoimportanttocomplementthisreport’squantitativedatawithqualitativedatacollectedininterviewsandfocusgroupsFieldworkwouldbroadentheparticipatorynatureofthereportbyincludingviewsofthemostimportantstakeholders,theultimatebeneficiariesofgovernmentandBankinterventionsDeeperstakeholderparticipationwhichfieldworkpermitsisrecommendedforallCGRsTheEAPregionrequestedthattheChinaCGRbearoundpagestofacilitateitsusebycountryofficers,taskteamleadersandotherclientsMoredetailedinformationaboutgenderissuesinChinaisavailableintheBackgroundDocumentslistedattheendofthereportAfulllistofstakeholdersconsultediscontainedintheBackgroundDocumentsavailableathttp:worldbankorggendercgrAllbackgroundmaterialsareavailableelectronicallyathttp:worldbankorggendercgrPovertyandGenderInthelasttwentyyears,Chinahasexperiencedatremendousdeclineinoverallpoverty(WorldBankc)butlittleisknownaboutitsgenderdifferentiatedeffectsGenerally,povertyreductionandeconomicdevelopmenttendtoreducegenderdisparities(WorldBanka)IfthisgeneralprincipleappliestoChina,thenitsgendergapsshouldbenarrowingDuringthesands,GDPgrowthexceededpercentannuallyIndeed,spurredbyrapideconomicgrowthandmarketliberalization,millionsofChinesewereliftedoutofpovertyHowextensiveisChinesepoverty,whereisitconcentratedandarewomenoverrepresentedamongChina’spoorItiseasiertoanswerthefirsttwoquestionsthanthethirdAlthoughthereisnoconsensusontheextentofpoverty,thetwomainviewsagreethatithasdecreaseddramaticallyoverthelastyearsInruralareas,wherepercentofthepopulationresidesandmostofthepoorareconcentrated,governmentstatisticssuggestthatpovertydeclinedfrompercentofthepopulationintolessthanpercentbytheendof,whileWorldBankmeasurementsindicatethatpovertydeclinedtopercentduringthisperiodAllstudiesconcurthatpovertyisincreasinglyconcentratedintheWesternprovinces,especiallyintheremotermountainouscounties,townshipsandvillages(WorldBankcNybergRozelle)WhereaslessthanhalfofChina’spoorlivedintheWesternregioninthelates,bythemids,theproportionreachedmorethantwothirds(WorldBankc)EthnicminoritiescomposeadisproportionatenumberofthepoorAlthoughtheyrepresentlessthanpercentofthetotalpopulation,theyaccountforsomepercentoftheabsolutepoorwholiveinthedeepestpovertyWithfewexceptions,mostarguethatwomenarenotoverrepresentedamongChina’spoor(NybergRozelleWorldBankc)However,sparseornodatasubstantiatethispositionExistingChinesepovertydataatbestdisaggregatetothehouseholdlevelbutmorecommonlyonlytothecountylevelTheassumptionthathouseholdspoolincomeandallocateresourcesforconsumption,productionandinvestmentequitablyobscuresdifferencesinincomedistributionbetweenmalesandfemaleswithinthehousehold(WorldBanka)TotrulymeasurethegenderdimensionsofpovertyrequiressexdisaggregatedwelfaremeasuressuchasnutritionintakeInChinaandinmostcountries,itisdifficulttoestimatethenumberofindividualmenandwomenlivinginpovertyforlackofthesedataAlthoughsexdisaggregatedconsumptionandwelfaredataarelacking,thereisevidencethatilliteracyandlackofeducationareconcentratedamongChinesewomenandgirlsinpoorcounties(WorldBankb)Inmanyofthepoorestvillages,nearlyallgirlsandabouthalfoftheboysdonotattendschoolandremainilliterate(WorldBankc)Thereisalsoevidencethatgirlsinpoorareasobtainlesshealthcareandlessnutritiousfoodsthanboys(Zia)Moreover,China’sfemalesuiciderate,thehighestintheworldfivetimestheworldaveragemainlyreflectsthedeepmiserypoorruralwomensufferSincepovertyismultifaceted,basedonelementsincludingpoorhealth,illiteracy,loweducationlevels,lowincomeandsocialandpsychologicalinsecurity,itappearsthatChinesewomenmightbeoverrepresentedamongthepoorToverifyornegatethishypothesis,itisrecommendedthatfuturehouseholdsurveys,totheextentfeasible,collectsexdisaggregateddataTownshipshavepopulationsover,withmorethanpercentofthemnonagriculturalorpopulationsover,withmorethanpercentofthemnonagriculturalChinahassome,countiescoveringruralpopulationslivingoutsideofcitiesandtowns(DivisionofAdministrativeAreasinChina)Minorityautonomouscountiesaccountedforthreequartersofallnationallydesignatedpoorcountieswithannualpercapitaincomesbelowyuan(US$)andmorethanfourfifthsofnationallydesignatedpoorcountieswithannualpercapitaincomeunderyuan(US$)EvenifChinesewomenormenarenotdisproportionatelyrepresentedamongthepoor,sincepovertyisexperienceddifferentlybymenandwomen,effectivepovertyreductionstrategiesmustbebasedonthedifferentconstraintsandneedsofmenandwomenTheremainderofthispaperexaminestheprioritygendergapsidentifiedforthisreviewbystakeholdersChina’spovertyreductionstrategiesandBanksupportedoperationsshouldaddressthesepovertyrelatedgenderpriorityissuesLaborMarketsChinahasachievedgreaterfemaleparticipationandgenderequalityintheworkplacethanhavemanyothercountriesWomencurrentlycomprisepercentoftheworkforce,upfrompercentin(ChinaDaily,May,UnitedNations)Womenreceivedpercentofthepaymenreceivedintheruralindustrialsectorinandpercentofmen’spayinthestatesectorin(WorldBankb)However,theincomegaphasbeenincreasingsincethenwithdeepeninglabormarketliberalizationBy,womenearnedpercentofmen’spayandbyonlypercent(Graph)MenhaveconsistentlyoccupiedmostmanagerialandhigherskilledpositionsTheshareoffemaleadministratorsandmanagerswasunderpercentin(UNDP)Aslabormarketshaveliberalizedduringthelastyearsoftransitionfromastatetoamarketeconomy,therehavebeendeeplyfeltgenderdifferentiatedeffectsincluding:AcompetitivelabormarkethasreplacedtheMaoera“ironricebowl”thatprovidedlifetimeemploymentwithguaranteedwelfarebenefitsincludinghousing,healthcare,education,generous,earlypensionsandamenitiesConformingtoglobaltrends,thetransitionhasspurredcontractual,temporaryandinformalsectorjobslackingsocialprotectionStateaffirmativeactionpolicieshaverecededwhiletraditionalgenderstereotypesandvalueshavereemergedincludingincreasinggenderdiscriminationinthelabormarketDuringthetransition,womenhavehadahardertimethanmenobtainingandkeepingjobsJobadsoftenspecifymenoryoung,attractivewomenalthoughsuchjobdiscriminationflauntstheWomen’sLaw(seeLegalProtectionbelow)Officialstatisticsindicatethatin,somefemaleswerelaidoffforeverymaleslaidoff(Graph)Migrationinsearchforbetterpayingjobs,virtuallyprohibitedduringtheMaoera,tookoffduringthesmarketopeningBythes,closetomillionruralpeoplehadmigratedtothecitiesforjobs,abouttwothirdsofthemmenandonethirdwomen(Graph)Today,theestimatedmigrantpopulationexceedsmillion(WashingtonTimes,July,)RecentlytherateoffemaleoutChineseworkersinStateownedenterprisesreceivedamenitiessuchassoap,toiletpaperandeventheatertickets,whichworkunitsdistributedtoemployeesonarotationbasisMigrationcontrolswereenforcedthroughtheResidencePermitsystemFood,housingandotherbasicneedscouldonlybeobtainedinthelocalitystampedinone’sResidencePermitGraphUrbanWomenWorkers'AverageWageasofUrbanMenWorkers,byEmploymentandEducationLevel,PrimaryorbelowUniversityorabovePrivateownershipemployeesSOE'sEmployeesAggregatetotalSource:ChinaInformationNews,February,GraphReasonsforUrbanUnemployment,(male=,female=)LayoffsGraduatesfailtofindjobsWorkunitbankruptcyResignedordismissedOthermalefemaleSource:ChinaStatisticalYearbook,migrationsurpassedthatofmalesalthoughtheabsolutenumberofmalemigrantsexceedsthatoffemales(NybergRozelle)Malemigrantstendtoworkinconstructionandheavyindustrywhilefemalemigrantspredominateinservicesandlightmanufacturingincludingdomesticwork,textiles,foodprocessing,electronicsandotherlaborintensiveindustries(Huang)Thefemalejobsareusuallyfilledbyruralwomenwhoworkintownshipandvillageenterprises(TVEs)orruralunmarriedgirlswhoworkincoastal,exportorientedindustriesforacoupleofyearsandthenreturnhome(UNDPb)Agricultureisbecomingfeminizedbecauseheavyruralmalemigrationtocitiesleaveswomeninchargeofthefamilyfarm(JuddKerrUNDPb)Malemigrantsearnsignificantlymorethandowomenfarmers,wideningtheearningsgapbetweenthetwogenders(Kerr)However,womenleftonthefarmarenotnecessarilypoorerthanmigrantmensincehusbandssendsubstantialremittancesbackhomeButwomen’sheavieragriculturalworkloadhasexacerbatedthetensionsbetweenwomen’sproductiveandreproductiverolesandisconsideredoneofthecausesofChinesewomen’sextraordinarilyhighsuiciderate(SeeViolencebelowChinaDaily,May,)IntheMaoera,alljobswereassignedbythegovernmentIncontrast,todaywomenandmencompeteforthesamejobsinthepublicandprivatesectorsandbothcanbecomeentrepreneursInthecompetitivelabormarket,womenaredisadvantagedbylesseducation,fewerskillsandlowersocialstatusthanmen(Croll)Still,womenconstitutedpercentoftheselfemployedandpercentofownersofprivateandindividualbusinessesby(UNDPb)Althoughwomencomposealmostpercentoftheselfemployedandhalfoffarmers,theyhavemuchlessaccesstocreditthanmen(RahmanCabralDu)MenborrowmostformalsectorcreditanduntilrecentlyborrowedthemajorityofinformalsectorloansToday,incontrast,twothirdsofinformalcreditborrowersarewomen(Tsai)Microcreditprogramstargetedtowomensofarconsistofscatteredsmallscalepilots(JiangaDu)Womenbearthebruntoflayoffsindownsizedandshutteredstateownedenterprises(SOEs)Itisestimatedthatwomenconstitutebetweenpercentofthoselaidoff(HumanRightsinChinaaKerr)Forexample,inheavilyindustrializedLiaoningProvince,percentofthenearlyonemillionlayoffswerewomen(ChinaWomen’sNews,April,)SomemillionSOEworkerswerelaidoffinandanothermillionareexpectedtolosetheirjobsin(WashingtonPost,March,)EducationEmploymentandincometendtobecommensuratewitheducation,“abilities”andskillsThetraditionalChineseviewthatwomendonotbelongintheworkplaceiscapturedintheoldChinesesaying,“Forawomantobewithoutabilityisavirtue”(Croll)Tooverturnsuchthinking,inthelasthalfcenturytheChinesegovernmenthaspromotededucationforalltodevelopeveryone’sabilitiesIthasfinancedcontinuousantiilliteracycampaignsandrequiredparentstoenrollallsonsanddaughtersinschoolTheRegulationforEliminatingIlliteracy,theLawofCompulsoryEducation,andtheEducationLaw,allemphasizegenderequalityTherehasbeenmarkedprogressinreducingilliteracyandraisingschoolenrolmentandcompletionlevelsInterviewwithMichaelGoldbergofCGAP,May,GraphNoofRuralLaborMigrantstoCitiesandMaleFemaleComposition(millions)'s'sSource:CWRC,amalefemaletotalruralmigrantsIlliteracyhasnotyetbeeneliminatedItismostlyaruralproblemanditaffectswomenmorethanmenSomepercentofChina’smillionilliteratesorsemiilliteratesarewomen(ChinaWomen’sNews,April,)ButilliteracyisbeingreducedamongyoungercohortsWhereaspercentofChinesewomenoverwereilliteratein,underpercentofwomenoverwereilliterateinThiscomparedtopercentilliteratemenoveryearsin(WISTATandGraph)Schoolenrolment

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