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CK-12FOUNDATIONCK-12UnderstandingBiodiversitySayThankstotheAuthorsClickhttp://www.ck12.org/saythanks(Nosigninrequired)WilkinToaccessacustomizableversionofthisbook,aswellasotherinteractivecontent,visitwww.ck12.orgCK-12Foundationisanon-profitorganizationwithamissiontoreducethecostoftextbookmate-rialsfortheK-12marketbothintheU.S.andworldwide.Usinganopen-content,web-basedcollaborativemodeltermedtheFlexBook,CK-12intendstopioneerthegenerationanddistributionofhigh-qualityeducationalcontentthatwillservebothascoretextaswellasprovideanadaptiveenvironmentforlearning,poweredthroughtheFlexBookPlatform.Copyright2011CK-12Foundation,www.ck12.orgThenames“CK-12”and“CK12”andassociatedlogosandtheterms“FlexBook,”and“FlexBookPlatform,”(collectively“CK-12Marks”)aretrademarksandservicemarksofCK-12Foundationandareprotectedbyfederal,state,andinternationallaws.Anyformofreproductionofthisbookinanyformatormedium,inwholeorinsectionsmustincludethereferralattributionlinkhttp://www.ck12.org/saythanks(placedinavisiblelocation)inadditiontothefollowingterms.Exceptasotherwisenoted,allCK-12Content(includingCK-12CurriculumMaterial)ismadeavailabletoUsersinaccordancewiththeCreativeCommonsAttribution/Non-Commercial/ShareAlike3.0Unported(CC-BY-NC-SA)License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/),asamendedandupdatedbyCreativeCommonsfromtimetotime(the“CCLicense”),whichisincorporatedhereinbythisreference.Completetermscanbefoundathttp://www.ck12.org/terms.Printed:May29,2012AuthorDouglasWilkinContributorsTracyBarbaro,JeffHolmes,MarieStuderEditorDouglasWilkiniwww.ck12.orgContents1UnderstandingBiodiversity:CallforContributions12UnderstandingBiodiversity:InformationforContributors33UnderstandingBiodiversity:TheEncyclopediaofLife83.1TheEncyclopediaofLife......................................83.2TheBiodiversityHeritageLibrary................................124UnderstandingBiodiversity:AnIntroduction144.1Biodiversity.............................................145UnderstandingBiodiversity:GlobalClimateChange225.1GlobalClimateChangeandBiodiversity.............................226UnderstandingBiodiversity:Bacteria287UnderstandingBiodiversity:Archaea298UnderstandingBiodiversity:Protists309UnderstandingBiodiversity:Fungi319.1Saccharomycescerevisiae......................................3210UnderstandingBiodiversity:Plants36www.ck12.orgii10.1Pisumsativum...........................................3711UnderstandingBiodiversity:Animals4211.1Loxodontaafricana.........................................4311.2Phascolarctoscinereus.......................................4811.3Delphinapterusleucas.......................................5311.4Lemurcatta.............................................5512UnderstandingBiodiversity:Expeditions5813ListofContributors6114UnderstandingBiodiversityTemplate6414.1Species................................................6514.2Biology...............................................6514.3References..............................................6514.4Attribution.............................................65iiiwww.ck12.orgwww.ck12.orgivChapter1UnderstandingBiodiversity:CallforContributionsACK-12&EncyclopediaofLifePublicationUnderstandingBiodiversityisanon-linerepositoryofbiodiversityinformationintendedforthesecondary-levellifesciencestudent.Therepositorywillbecompiledwithindividualspeciespageswhichcontaininformationrelevanttothesecondaryscienceclassroom,includingcellbiology,genetics,evolution,ecology,andphysiology.WeinvitesecondarystudentstobecomecontributingauthorstothisFlexBook.Submitproposalsforcontributionsviaemailtoinfo@ck12.org.Place[SCIENCE]UnderstandingBiodiversityproposalinthe1www.ck12.orgsubjectline,andincludethenameofthespeciesforyoursubmission.AftersubmissionofaproposalanduponagreementwithUnderstandingBiodiversityeditors,studentsaretousetheUnderstandingBiodiversitytemplatetocompileinformationfortheirselectedspecies.Studentsmayuseanyavailableresourcetocompiletheirinformation,includingEOLresources.Weaskthatstudentsidentifyrelevantinformationasoutlinedinthetemplate,realizingthatsomecategorieswillbemoreextensiveforcertainspecies,andthatothercategoriesmaycontainlittleornoinformation.Materialshouldbesubmittedbyemailtoinfo@ck12.org.Place[SCIENCE]UnderstandingBiodiversitysubmissioninthesubjectline.SeetheUnderstandingBiodiversityFlexBookontheCK-12website(http://www.ck12.org)foradditionalinformation.Pleaseemailquestionsto:info@ck12.org.ImageSourcesOpeningimagecopyrightbyGuanta,2010.UsedunderlicensefromShutterstock.com.www.ck12.org2Chapter2UnderstandingBiodiversity:InformationforContributorsACK-12&EncyclopediaofLifePublicationUnderstandingBiodiversityisaCK-12FoundationandEncyclopediaofLifecollaborativeon-linepublica-tion.UnderstandingBiodiversityisarepositoryofspeciesinformationrelevantforthesecondarylevellifescienceclassroom.Thisinformationincludesthecellbiology,genetics,evolution,ecology,andphysiologyofindividualspecies.Expeditionsrelevanttothebiodiversityliteraturewillalsobefeatured.Weinvitesecondarylevelstudentstosubmitspeciespagesoforganismsstudiedinthemiddleschoolandhighschoolclassrooms.Expeditionpagesmayalsobesubmitted.3www.ck12.orgPleasesubmitproposalsforcontributionsviaemailtoinfo@ck12.org.Place[SCIENCE]UnderstandingBiodiversityproposalinthesubjectline.TheUnderstandingBiodiversityChaptersInitially,themajorityofUnderstandingBiodiversitywillbedividedintosevenchapters-onechapterforeachkingdomandonechapterdevotedtoexpeditions.Therearealsointroductorychapters,discussingbiodiversity,globalclimatechangeandtheEncyclopediaofLife.Astherepositoryofinformationgrows,thesixkingdomchaptersmaybedividedintoasix-volumeset,withadditionaldivisionsasnecessary.However,UnderstandingBiodiversitywillbemaintainedon-line,thusthesizeofthechaptersisnotrestrictive.TheUnderstandingBiodiversitySpeciesPageAsmentionedabove,UnderstandingBiodiversityisarepositoryofspeciesinformationrelevantforthesecondarylevellifescienceclassroom:cellbiology,genetics,evolution,ecology,andphysiology.Thisinformationwillbepresentedthroughindividualspeciespages.Aspeciespageisessentiallyanindividualsectionofachapter.Eachspeciespagewillcontainasmuchrelevantinformationasfeasible.Informationwillinclude,butnotbelimitedto,1.SpeciesNameandCommonName2.BriefDescriptionoftheOrganism3.BriefDescriptionoftheHabitat4.BiologyoftheSpecies(a)CellBiology(b)Genetics(c)Evolution(d)Ecology(e)Physiology5.EditHistory6.Attribution(a)Authors(b)Affiliations7.ReferencesSeetheSaccharomycescerevisiae(Baker’sYeast)speciespageforanexample.Expeditionpageswillcontainasmuchrelevantinformationasfeasible.Informationwillinclude,butnotbelimitedto,1.Expeditionname(a)BriefDescriptionofExpedition2.TheExpeditionLeader3.BiologyoftheExpedition(a)DescriptionofSignificantFindings4.EditHistorywww.ck12.org45.Attribution(a)Authors(b)Affiliations6.ReferencesPotentialUnderstandingBiodiversitySpecies1.Bacteria(a)Escherichiacoli(b)Pseudomonasaeruginosa(c)Staphylococcusaureus2.Archaea(a)Halobacteriumsalinarum(b)Methanobrevibactersmithii3.Protists(a)Giardialamblia(b)Parameciumcaudatum(c)Trypanosomabrucei4.Fungi(a)Agaricusbisporus(ButtonMushroom)(b)Lobariapulmonaria(Lichen)(c)Penicilliumchrysogenum(Penicillin)(d)Penicilliumroqueforti(BlueCheese)5.Plants(a)Dionaeamuscipula(VenusFlytrap)(b)Equisetumarvense(HorsetailFern)(c)Ginkgobiloba(GinkgoTree)(d)Pisumsativum(PeaPlant)(e)Rhizophoramangle(MangroveTree)(f)Sequoiasempervirens(RedwoodTree)6.Animals(a)Aquilachrysaetos(GoldenEagle)(b)Bubovirginianus(GreatHornedOwl)(c)Didelphisvirginiana(VirginiaOpossum)(d)Elephasmaximus(AsianElephant)(e)Gorillagorilla(WesternGorilla)(f)Loxodontaafricana(AfricanElephant)(g)Sepiabandensis(DwarfCuttlefish)PotentialUnderstandingBiodiversityExpeditions1.Amundsen’sSouthPoleExpedition2.Peary’sConqueringoftheNorthpole3.Cortés’ConquestofMexico4.Przhevalsky’sDiscoveryofCentralandEastAsia5www.ck12.org5.vonJacquin’sExpeditiontotheCaribbean6.Livingstone’sExplorationofAfrica7.deAndrade’sExplorationofTibet8.Hudson’sVoyages9.Humboldt’sExpeditions10.diMulazzo’sNorthandSouthAmericaExploration11.Nordenskiöld’sNortheastPassage12.Amundsen’sNorthwestpassage13.Scott’sSouthPoleExpeditions14.daGama’sSeaRoutetoIndia15.deMagalhães’sVoyageofCircumnavigation16.Darwin’sVoyageoftheBeagle17.Cartier’sVoyagestotheNewWorldTheUnderstandingBiodiversityTemplateWehaveprovidedatemplatetoassistauthorsinpreparingtheircontributions.Thetemplateshouldbeinsertedintoawordprogram,andasmuchrelevantinformationcompiledasfeasible.Materialshouldbeasthoroughaspossible,usingappropriategrade-levellanguageandvocabulary.ThetemplateisavailableintheUnderstandingBiodiversityFlexBookontheCK-12website(http://www.ck12.org).AuthorshipContributorsshouldincludetheirname(s)andschoolaffiliationsforinclusionintheListofContributors.AppropriateattributionswillbedeterminedbytheUnderstandingBiodiversityeditors.Atthistime,authorshipislimitedtosecondary-levelstudents.TheReviewProcessTheUnderstandingBiodiversityreviewprocesswillinvolveseveralstages.Initialreviewshouldbebytheinstructorofthesubmittingstudents.Secondary-levelreviewwillbeprovidedbytheUnderstandingBiodiversityeditors.Atthistime,thepublicationmaybereturnedtothecontributingstudent(s)withcommentsformodification,orthecontri-butionmaybesubmittedforpeer-review.Itistheintentionthatpublishedworkissubjecttoascientificpeer-reviewprocess.Furthermore,atthediscretionoftheeditors,workmaybepublishedpriortothepeer-reviewprocess,howeversuchworkwillbenotedaspublishedpriortopeer-review.Uponacceptance,materialswillbepublishedtotheUnderstandingBiodiversitysiteinatimelymanner.Contributingauthorswillbeabletositetheircontributionsimmediatelyafterpublication.ContributionsRefertoUnderstandingBiodiversity:CallforContributionsforinformationonsubmittingmaterialforpublication.ImageSourceswww.ck12.org6OpeningimagecopyrightbyGuanta,2010.UsedunderlicensefromShutterstock.com.7www.ck12.orgChapter3UnderstandingBiodiversity:TheEncyclopediaofLife3.1TheEncyclopediaofLifeFigure3.1:(WatchYoutubeVideo)http://www.ck12.org/flexbook/embed/view/1501TheEncyclopediaofLife(EOL;http://www.eol.org/,http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NwfGA4cxJQ)isafree,onlinecollaborativeencyclopediaintendedtodocumentallofthe1.9+millionlivingspeciesknowntoscience.Itisaggregatedorcompiledfromexistingscientificdatabases,andfromcontributionsbyex-pertsandnon-expertsworld-wide.Itsgoalistobuildone“infinitelyexpandable”pageforeachspecies,includingvideos,sound,images,graphics,andtext.Asthediscoveryofnewspeciesisexpectedtocon-tinue(thecurrentrateisabout20,000newspeciesidentifiedperyear),EOLwillgrowcontinuously.Astaxonomyfindsnewwaystoincludespeciesidentifiedbymoleculartechniques,therateofnewspecieswww.ck12.org8additionswillincrease-inparticularwithrespecttothemicrobialworldof(eu)bacteria,archaebacteria,andviruses.EOLwentliveonFebruary26,2008with30,000entriesandcurrentlyhas752,993entries.UnderstandingBiodiversityismadeavailabletothehighschoolstudentthroughCK-12andEOL’scollab-oration,primarilyEOL’sLearning+Educationgroup,basedintheMuseumofComparativeZoologyatHarvardUniversity(http://education.eol.org/).UnderstandingBiodiversity,isanexpandinglibraryofbiodiversityinformationaimedatthehighschoolbiologyclassroom.IndividualUnderstandingBiodiver-sityspeciespageswillprovideinformationforeachspeciesrelevanttothehighschoolbiologycurriculum:cellbiology,genetics,evolution,ecology,andphysiology.IfyouwouldliketosubmitaspeciespagetoUnderstandingBiodiversity,emailyourproposalforcontributionstoinfo@ck12.org.TheEOLhasdevelopedweb-basedtoolsandservicesthatprovidevisitorsenhancedcapabilitytouseEOLcontentfortheirownpurposesandtocontributetothesiteandbecomepartofagrowinginternationalcommunityinterestedinbiodiversity.Someofthosetoolsandservicesarelistedbelow.NameLinkhttp://www.eol.org/content/page/namelinkNameLinkisaserviceprovidedbyEOLtoquicklyidentifyinformationassociatedwithtaxonnamesandtoprovidecommonspeciesnames.Studentscansubmitawebpageaddressandhavethetaxonnameswithinthepageautomaticallyidentifiedandlinkuptoprojectswhichhaveinformationaboutthosenames.Thecommonnamesappearwithinthewebpageoron-linearticle.NameLinkcanbeusedtoidentifyadditionalinformationregardingmanyspecies.Forexample,insertthefollowingURLintotheURLinsertionboxontheNameLinkpage,andexploretheinformationgeneratedbythistool:ABiolinearticleandabstract:http://www.mass.gov/dfwele/dfw/nhesp/species_info/mesa_list/mesa_list.htm.EducationLifeDeskhttp://www.edulifedesks.org/Registerathttp://www.edulifedesks.org/tojointheCK-12Biologygroup.9www.ck12.orgALifeDeskisanonlineenvironmentthatprovidesacollaborativespaceforcreating,editing,andpublish-ingwebpagesofspeciesinformation.ThegoalofusingaLifeDesk,inmanycases,istogeneratecontenttopublishtotheEOL,includingtextandimages.TryusingaLifeDeskinavarietyofways.Forexample,individuallyorinasmallgroup,researchandwriteoruploadimagesfordifferentsections(e.g.,Habitat,ConservationStatus,Ecology,etc)ofaspeciespage.Alternatively,studentscanworkonthesamesectionsofdifferentspeciespagesandthencomparetheirresearchfindingsaboutthedifferentorganisms.BecauseLifeDesksareon-line,studentsfromdifferentschoolsorindifferentlocationscancollaborateonprojects.WhenpublishedtoEOL,studentsorclassesgetcreditedforthecontributionstheymaketothisauthenticproject.However,thereisnorequirementtopublishcontent,soLifeDeskscanbeeasilyusedforclassprojectsthatarenotvisibletoexternalaudiences.LifeDeskshaveaworkflowsystemthatallowsgroupstosetassignmentsandalerteachotherwheneditshavebeenmadeorreviewofworkisrequired.Thisallowsstudentsindependenceoutsideoftheclassroomtoworkonprojectsandcommunicatewiththeirinstructors.ExampleofstudentcreatedcontentpublishedtoEOLusinganEducationLifeDesk:http://eol.org/pages/790463/overview.www.ck12.org10FieldGuideshttp://education.eol.org/ideas/tools/fieldguideFieldGuidespullselectedcontentfromEOLspeciespagesintoaformatthatiseasiertoviewanduseforparticularprojects.Ratherthansortingthroughall1.9millionspeciespagesandalloftheTableofContentsinformation,userswillseeinformationforjusttheorganismsandinformationtheyselect.Usersareabletocustomizeandeditthecontentintheirfieldguide.Fieldguidescanbemadepublicandprintoptionsareavailableforuseinavarietyofcontexts.TrycreatingafieldguidefortheorganismsfoundinyourschoolyardorfortheorganismsdiscussedinanotherchapterofthisFlexBookthatyouarestudying.SeewhatinformationisfoundinEOLandwhatismissing.IsthereanythingyoucancontributetoEOL,suchasanimageorsomeclassresearchinformation?AddingImagesandVideoYoucancontributeimagesoforganismstoEOLthroughpopularmediasharingsiteslikeFlickrorWiki-mediaCommonshttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page.TheEncyclopediaofLifeImagesFlickrgroupalreadyhasover60,000imagesandshortvideoclips,andourmembersareaddingnewonesdaily.BasicFlickraccountsarefreeandit’seasytotagyourimagesforEOLuse.Seethegrouppageforinstructions:http://www.flickr.com/groups/encyclopedia_of_life.EOLharveststhegrouppooleverycoupleofdays,soyourimagesandvideoswillshowupquicklyonEOLpagesand/orfieldguides.UploadingimagestoEOLsupportslearningofbasictechnologyskills,propercitingofelectronicresourcesandfamiliarizationwithscientificandcommonnamesfororganisms,allwhilehelpingtobuildaglobalresource.ShortvideoscanalsobeuploadedtoFlickr.Forlongervideos,pleaseuseEOL’sgrouponVimeo.http://vimeo.com/groups/encyclopediaoflifeBioBlitzeshttp://education.eol.org/bioblitzABioBlitzisasnapshot-alimited-time,limited-spacespeciesinventoryoftheorganismsthatliveinanarea.BioBlitzesletpeoplegetinvolvedinthenaturalenvironment,increasingtheirawarenessofandunderstandingfortheenvironment.BioBlitzesareconductedtolearnmoreaboutanarea’sbiodiversity(whatdifferentlifeformslivehere?),distribution(wheredotheylive?),andabundance(howmanyofthemarethere?).BioBlitzescanbeasourceofnewinformationthatcanbesharedwithlocalconservationmanagementgroupsaswellastheEOL.StudentscanorganizeBioBlitzesintheirschoolyardsorneighborhoodparks.Partnerwithscientistsfromlocalconservationgroupsoruniversitiestohelpwithidentificationofspeciesortryyourbestandseehowmanydifferentspeciesyoucanfind.PutyoureventontheBioBlitzWorldwidemaphttp://education.eol.org/bioblitz/worldwide,uploadyourimagestoEOL,andmakeafieldguideofthespeciesyouandyourclassmatesidentified.EOLPodcastshttp://education.eol.org/podcast11www.ck12.orgTheaudioseriesOneSpeciesataTimeisatributetolifeonEarthhttp://education.eol.org/podcast/one-species-time.Eachepisodeisastory,amystery,ariddle,oranexplorationofadifferentcreaturepulsing,fluttering,surging,respiring,andgallopingonthisplanet.Biodiversityiscenterstage,fromscurryinginvasivebeetlesinOregonhttp://education.eol.org/podcast/beetles-and-mothstothethreatenedcedartreesofLebanonhttp://education.eol.org/podcast/cedar-lebanontoEdiacaranfaunahttp://education.eol.org/podcast/ediacaranfrom580millionyearsago.ThereareassociatedExtrasandaMeettheScientists

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