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CK-12 FOUNDATION CK-12 Understanding Biodiversity Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) Wilkin To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit www.ck12.org CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook mate- rials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, web-based collaborative model termed the FlexBook, CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning, powered through the FlexBook Platform. Copyright 2011 CK-12 Foundation, www.ck12.org The names “CK-12” and “CK12” and associated logos and the terms “FlexBook,” and “FlexBook Platform,” (collectively “CK-12 Marks”) are trademarks and service marks of CK-12 Foundation and are protected by federal, state, and international laws. Any form of reproduction of this book in any format or medium, in whole or in sections must include the referral attribution link http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (placed in a visible location) in addition to the following terms. Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution/Non-Commercial/Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC-BY-NC-SA) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Commons from time to time (the “CC License”), which is incorporated herein by this reference. Complete terms can be found at http://www.ck12.org/terms. Printed: May 29, 2012 Author Douglas Wilkin Contributors Tracy Barbaro, Jeff Holmes, Marie Studer Editor Douglas Wilkin i www.ck12.org Contents 1 Understanding Biodiversity: Call for Contributions 1 2 Understanding Biodiversity: Information for Contributors 3 3 Understanding Biodiversity: The Encyclopedia of Life 8 3.1 The Encyclopedia of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 The Biodiversity Heritage Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 Understanding Biodiversity: An Introduction 14 4.1 Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5 Understanding Biodiversity: Global Climate Change 22 5.1 Global Climate Change and Biodiversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 6 Understanding Biodiversity: Bacteria 28 7 Understanding Biodiversity: Archaea 29 8 Understanding Biodiversity: Protists 30 9 Understanding Biodiversity: Fungi 31 9.1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 10 Understanding Biodiversity: Plants 36 www.ck12.org ii 10.1 Pisum sativum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 11 Understanding Biodiversity: Animals 42 11.1 Loxodonta africana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 11.2 Phascolarctos cinereus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 11.3 Delphinapterus leucas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 11.4 Lemur catta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 12 Understanding Biodiversity: Expeditions 58 13 List of Contributors 61 14 Understanding Biodiversity Template 64 14.1 Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 14.2 Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 14.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 14.4 Attribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 iii www.ck12.org www.ck12.org iv Chapter 1 Understanding Biodiversity: Call for Contributions A CK-12 & Encyclopedia of Life Publication Understanding Biodiversity is an on-line repository of biodiversity information intended for the secondary- level life science student. The repository will be compiled with individual species pages which contain information relevant to the secondary science classroom, including cell biology, genetics, evolution, ecology, and physiology. We invite secondary students to become contributing authors to this FlexBook. Submit proposals for contributions via email to info@ck12.org. Place [SCIENCE] Understanding Biodiversity proposal in the 1 www.ck12.org subject line, and include the name of the species for your submission. After submission of a proposal and upon agreement with Understanding Biodiversity editors, students are to use the Understanding Biodiversity template to compile information for their selected species. Students may use any available resource to compile their information, including EOL resources. We ask that students identify relevant information as outlined in the template, realizing that some categories will be more extensive for certain species, and that other categories may contain little or no information. Material should be submitted by email to info@ck12.org. Place [SCIENCE] Understanding Biodiversity submission in the subject line. See the Understanding Biodiversity FlexBook on the CK-12 website (http://www.ck12.org) for additional information. Please email questions to: info@ck12.org. Image Sources Opening image copyright by Guanta, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com. www.ck12.org 2 Chapter 2 Understanding Biodiversity: Information for Contributors A CK-12 & Encyclopedia of Life Publication Understanding Biodiversity is a CK-12 Foundation and Encyclopedia of Life collaborative on-line publica- tion. Understanding Biodiversity is a repository of species information relevant for the secondary level life science classroom. This information includes the cell biology, genetics, evolution, ecology, and physiology of individual species. Expeditions relevant to the biodiversity literature will also be featured. We invite secondary level students to submit species pages of organisms studied in the middle school and high school classrooms. Expedition pages may also be submitted. 3 www.ck12.org Please submit proposals for contributions via email to info@ck12.org. Place [SCIENCE] Understanding Biodiversity proposal in the subject line. The Understanding Biodiversity Chapters Initially, the majority of Understanding Biodiversity will be divided into seven chapters - one chapter for each kingdom and one chapter devoted to expeditions. There are also introductory chapters, discussing biodiversity, global climate change and the Encyclopedia of Life. As the repository of information grows, the six kingdom chapters may be divided into a six-volume set, with additional divisions as necessary. However, Understanding Biodiversity will be maintained on-line, thus the size of the chapters is not restrictive. The Understanding Biodiversity Species Page As mentioned above, Understanding Biodiversity is a repository of species information relevant for the secondary level life science classroom: cell biology, genetics, evolution, ecology, and physiology. This information will be presented through individual species pages. A species page is essentially an individual section of a chapter. Each species page will contain as much relevant information as feasible. Information will include, but not be limited to, 1. Species Name and Common Name 2. Brief Description of the Organism 3. Brief Description of the Habitat 4. Biology of the Species (a) Cell Biology (b) Genetics (c) Evolution (d) Ecology (e) Physiology 5. Edit History 6. Attribution (a) Authors (b) Affiliations 7. References See the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s Yeast) species page for an example. Expedition pages will contain as much relevant information as feasible. Information will include, but not be limited to, 1. Expedition name (a) Brief Description of Expedition 2. The Expedition Leader 3. Biology of the Expedition (a) Description of Significant Findings 4. Edit History www.ck12.org 4 5. Attribution (a) Authors (b) Affiliations 6. References Potential Understanding Biodiversity Species 1. Bacteria (a) Escherichia coli (b) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (c) Staphylococcus aureus 2. Archaea (a) Halobacterium salinarum (b) Methanobrevibacter smithii 3. Protists (a) Giardia lamblia (b) Paramecium caudatum (c) Trypanosoma brucei 4. Fungi (a) Agaricus bisporus (Button Mushroom) (b) Lobaria pulmonaria (Lichen) (c) Penicillium chrysogenum (Penicillin) (d) Penicillium roqueforti (Blue Cheese) 5. Plants (a) Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) (b) Equisetum arvense (Horsetail Fern) (c) Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo Tree) (d) Pisum sativum (Pea Plant) (e) Rhizophora mangle (Mangrove Tree) (f) Sequoia sempervirens (Redwood Tree) 6. Animals (a) Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) (b) Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl) (c) Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum) (d) Elephas maximus (Asian Elephant) (e) Gorilla gorilla (Western Gorilla) (f) Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) (g) Sepia bandensis (Dwarf Cuttlefish) Potential Understanding Biodiversity Expeditions 1. Amundsen’s South Pole Expedition 2. Peary’s Conquering of the North pole 3. Cortés’ Conquest of Mexico 4. Przhevalsky’s Discovery of Central and East Asia 5 www.ck12.org 5. von Jacquin’s Expedition to the Caribbean 6. Livingstone’s Exploration of Africa 7. de Andrade’s Exploration of Tibet 8. Hudson’s Voyages 9. Humboldt’s Expeditions 10. di Mulazzo’s North and South America Exploration 11. Nordenskiöld’s Northeast Passage 12. Amundsen’s Northwest passage 13. Scott’s South Pole Expeditions 14. da Gama’s Sea Route to India 15. de Magalhães’s Voyage of Circumnavigation 16. Darwin’s Voyage of the Beagle 17. Cartier’s Voyages to the New World The Understanding Biodiversity Template We have provided a template to assist authors in preparing their contributions. The template should be inserted into a word program, and as much relevant information compiled as feasible. Material should be as thorough as possible, using appropriate grade-level language and vocabulary. The template is available in the Understanding Biodiversity FlexBook on the CK-12 website (http://www.ck12.org). Authorship Contributors should include their name(s) and school affiliations for inclusion in the List of Contributors. Appropriate attributions will be determined by the Understanding Biodiversity editors. At this time, authorship is limited to secondary-level students. The Review Process The Understanding Biodiversity review process will involve several stages. Initial review should be by the instructor of the submitting students. Secondary-level review will be provided by the Understanding Biodiversity editors. At this time, the publication may be returned to the contributing student(s) with comments for modification, or the contri- bution may be submitted for peer-review. It is the intention that published work is subject to a scientific peer-review process. Furthermore, at the discretion of the editors, work may be published prior to the peer-review process, however such work will be noted as published prior to peer-review. Upon acceptance, materials will be published to the Understanding Biodiversity site in a timely manner. Contributing authors will be able to site their contributions immediately after publication. Contributions Refer to Understanding Biodiversity: Call for Contributions for information on submitting material for publication. Image Sources www.ck12.org 6 Opening image copyright by Guanta, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com. 7 www.ck12.org Chapter 3 Understanding Biodiversity: The Encyclopedia of Life 3.1 The Encyclopedia of Life Figure 3.1: (Watch Youtube Video) http://www.ck12.org/flexbook/embed/view/1501 TheEncyclopedia of Life (EOL; http://www.eol.org/, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6NwfGA4cxJQ) is a free, online collaborative encyclopedia intended to document all of the 1.9+ million living species known to science. It is aggregated or compiled from existing scientific databases, and from contributions by ex- perts and non-experts world-wide. Its goal is to build one “infinitely expandable” page for each species, including videos, sound, images, graphics, and text. As the discovery of new species is expected to con- tinue (the current rate is about 20,000 new species identified per year), EOL will grow continuously. As taxonomy finds new ways to include species identified by molecular techniques, the rate of new species www.ck12.org 8 additions will increase - in particular with respect to the microbial world of (eu)bacteria, archaebacteria, and viruses. EOL went live on February 26, 2008 with 30,000 entries and currently has 752,993 entries. Understanding Biodiversity is made available to the high school student through CK-12 and EOL’s collab- oration, primarily EOL’s Learning + Education group, based in the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University (http://education.eol.org/). Understanding Biodiversity, is an expanding library of biodiversity information aimed at the high school biology classroom. Individual Understanding Biodiver- sity species pages will provide information for each species relevant to the high school biology curriculum: cell biology, genetics, evolution, ecology, and physiology. If you would like to submit a species page to Understanding Biodiversity, email your proposal for contributions to info@ck12.org. The EOL has developed web-based tools and services that provide visitors enhanced capability to use EOL content for their own purposes and to contribute to the site and become part of a growing international community interested in biodiversity. Some of those tools and services are listed below. NameLink http://www.eol.org/content/page/namelink NameLink is a service provided by EOL to quickly identify information associated with taxon names and to provide common species names. Students can submit a webpage address and have the taxon names within the page automatically identified and link up to projects which have information about those names. The common names appear within the webpage or on-line article. NameLink can be used to identify additional information regarding many species. For example, insert the following URL into the URL insertion box on the NameLink page, and explore the information generated by this tool: A Bioline article and abstract: http://www.mass.gov/dfwele/dfw/nhesp/species_info/mesa_list/ mesa_list.htm. Education LifeDesk http://www.edulifedesks.org/ Register at http://www.edulifedesks.org/ to join the CK-12 Biology group. 9 www.ck12.org A LifeDesk is an online environment that provides a collaborative space for creating, editing, and publish- ing web pages of species information. The goal of using a LifeDesk, in many cases, is to generate content to publish to the EOL, including text and images. Try using a LifeDesk in a variety of ways. For example, individually or in a small group, research and write or upload images for different sections (e.g., Habitat, Conservation Status, Ecology, etc) of a species page. Alternatively, students can work on the same sections of different species pages and then compare their research findings about the different organisms. Because LifeDesks are on-line, students from different schools or in different locations can collaborate on projects. When published to EOL, students or classes get credited for the contributions they make to this authentic project. However, there is no requirement to publish content, so LifeDesks can be easily used for class projects that are not visible to external audiences. LifeDesks have a workflow system that allows groups to set assignments and alert each other when edits have been made or review of work is required. This allows students independence outside of the classroom to work on projects and communicate with their instructors. Example of student created content published to EOL using an Education LifeDesk: http://eol.org/ pages/790463/overview. www.ck12.org 10 Field Guides http://education.eol.org/ideas/tools/fieldguide Field Guides pull selected content from EOL species pages into a format that is easier to view and use for particular projects. Rather than sorting through all 1.9 million species pages and all of the Table of Contents information, users will see information for just the organisms and information they select. Users are able to customize and edit the content in their field guide. Field guides can be made public and print options are available for use in a variety of contexts. Try creating a field guide for the organisms found in your schoolyard or for the organisms discussed in another chapter of this FlexBook that you are studying. See what information is found in EOL and what is missing. Is there anything you can contribute to EOL, such as an image or some class research information? Adding Images and Video You can contribute images of organisms to EOL through popular media sharing sites like Flickr or Wiki- media Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page. The Encyclopedia of Life Images Flickr group already has over 60,000 images and short video clips, and our members are adding new ones daily. Basic Flickr accounts are free and it’s easy to tag your images for EOL use. See the group page for instructions: http://www.flickr.com/groups/encyclopedia_of_life. EOL harvests the group pool every couple of days, so your images and videos will show up quickly on EOL pages and/or field guides. Uploading images to EOL supports learning of basic technology skills, proper citing of electronic resources and familiarization with scientific and common names for organisms, all while helping to build a global resource. Short videos can also be uploaded to Flickr. For longer videos, please use EOL’s group on Vimeo. http: //vimeo.com/groups/encyclopediaoflife BioBlitzes http://education.eol.org/bioblitz A BioBlitz is a snapshot - a limited-time, limited-space species inventory of the organisms that live in an area. BioBlitzes let people get involved in the natural environment, increasing their awareness of and understanding for the environment. BioBlitzes are conducted to learn more about an area’s biodiversity (what different life forms live here?), distribution (where do they live?), and abundance (how many of them are there?). BioBlitzes can be a source of new information that can be shared with local conservation management groups as well as the EOL. Students can organize BioBlitzes in their school yards or neighborhood parks. Partner with scientists from local conservation groups or universities to help with identification of species or try your best and see how many different species you can find. Put your event on the BioBlitz Worldwide map http: //education.eol.org/bioblitz/worldwide, upload your images to EOL, and make a field guide of the species you and your classmates identified. EOL Podcasts http://education.eol.org/podcast 11 www.ck12.org The audio series One Species at a Time is a tribute to life on Earth http://education.eol.org/podcast/ one-species-time. Each episode is a story, a mystery, a riddle, or an exploration of a different creature pulsing, fluttering, surging, respiring, and galloping on this planet. Biodiversity is center stage, from scurrying invasive beetles in Oregon http://education.eol.org/podcast/beetles-and-moths to the threatened cedar trees of Lebanon http://education.eol.org/podcast/cedar-lebanon to Ediacaran fauna http://education.eol.org/podcast/ediacaran from 580 million years ago. There are associated Extras and a Meet the Scientist s

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