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首页 自考00830现代语言学自考小抄 自考速成笔记

自考00830现代语言学自考小抄 自考速成笔记.doc

自考00830现代语言学自考小抄 自考速成笔记

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2012-06-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《自考00830现代语言学自考小抄 自考速成笔记doc》,可适用于其他资料领域

现代语言学完整版页笔记依据教材《现代语言学》何兆熊、梅德明主编外语教学与研究出版社笔记依据目录ChapterIntroductionWhatislinguisticsDefinitionThescopeoflinguisticsSomeimportantdistinctionsinlinguisticsPrescriptivevsdescriptiveSynchronicvsdiachronicSpeechandwritingLangueandparoleCompetenceandperformanceWhatislanguageDefinitionsoflanguageDesignfeaturesStudyquestionsChapterPhonologyThephonicmediumoflanguagePhoneticsWhatisphoneticsOrgansofspeechOrthographicrepresentationofspeechsoundsbroadandnarrowtranscriptionsClassificationofEnglishspeechsoundsClassificationofEnglishconsonantsClassificationofEnglishvowelsPhonologyPhonologyandphoneticsPhone,phoneme,andallophonePhonemiccontrast,complementarydistribution,andminimalpairSomerulesinphonologySequentialrulesAssimilationrulesDeletionruleSuprasegmentalfeaturesstress,tone,intonationStressToneIntonationStudyquestionsChapterMorphologyDefinitionMorphemeMorpheme:thesmallestmeaningfulunitoflanguageTypesofmorphemesFreemorphemesBoundmorphemesMorphologicalrulesCompoundingTypesofcompoundwordsFeaturesofcompoundsStudyquestionsChapterSyntaxSyntaxasasystemofrulesSentencestructureThebasiccomponentsofasentenceTypesofsentencesThesimplesentenceThecoordinatesentenceThecomplexsentenceThelinearandhierarchicalstructuresofsentencesThelinearwordorderofasentenceThehierarchicalstructureofasentenceTreediagramsofsentencestructureSyntacticcategoriesLexicalcategoriesPhrasalcategoriesGrammaticalrelationsCombinationalrulesPhrasestructurerulesTherecursivenessofphrasestructurerulesXbartheorySyntacticmovementandmovementrulesNPmovementandWHmovementOthertypesofmovementDstructureandSstructureMoveαageneralmovementruleTowardatheoryofuniversalgrammarGeneralprinciplesofUniversalGrammarTheparametersofUniversalGrammarStudyquestionsChapterSemanticsWhatissemanticsSomeviewsconcerningthestudyofmeaningThenamingtheoryTheconceptualistviewContextualismBehaviorismLexicalmeaningSenseandreferenceMajorsenserelationsSynonymyPolysemyHomonymyHyponymyAntonymySenserelationsbetweensentencesAnalysisofmeaningComponentialanalysisawaytoanalyzelexicalmeaningPredicationanalysisawaytoanalyzesentencemeaningStudyquestionsChapterPragmaticsWhatispragmaticsDefinitionPragmaticsvssemanticsContextSentencemeaningvsutterancemeaningSpeechacttheoryPrincipleofconversationStudyquestionsChapterHistoricalLinguisticsThepurposeandsignificanceofthehistoricalstudyoflanguageThenatureoflanguagechangeThehistoricaldevelopmentofEnglishMajorperiodsinthehistoryofEnglishOldEnglishMiddleEnglishModernEnglishlinguisticchangeofEnglishSoundchangeMorphologicalchangeSyntacticchangeLexicalchangeSemanticchangeLanguagefamilyClassifyinggeneticallyrelatedlanguagesTheIndoEnglishlanguagefamilyThecausesoflanguagechangeSoundassimilationRulesimplificationandregularizationInternalborrowingElaborationSociologicaltriggersCulturaltransmissionChildren’sapproximationtowardtheadultgrammarStudyquestionsChapterSociolinguisticsLanguagevariationSpeechcommunitySpeechvarietyRegionalvariationSocialvariationStylisticvariationIdiolectalvariationStandardandnonstandardlanguageStandardandnonstandardlanguageLinguafrancasPidginsCreolesDiglossiaandbilingualismDiglossiaBilingualismEthnicdialectBlackEnglish,acasestudyofethnicdialectThesocialenvironmentofBlackEnglishSocialdialectEducationvarietiesAgevarietiesGendervarietiesRegistervarietiesAddresstermsSlangLinguistictabooEuphemismStudyquestionsChapterPsycholinguisticsThebiologicalfoundationsoflanguageThecaseofPhineasGageThehumanbrainBrainlateralizationLinguisticlateralizationLefthemisphericdominanceforlanguageDichoticlisteningresearchThelanguagecentersBroca’sareaWernicke’sareaTheangulargyrusLanguageperception,comprehensionandproductionThecriticalperiodforlanguageacquisitionThecriticalperiodhypothesisThecaseofGenieandthedegenerationoflanguagefacultywithageLanguageandthoughtEarlyviewsonlanguageandthoughtTheSapirWhorfhypothesisArgumentsagainsttheSapirWhorfhypothesisWordsandmeaningGrammaticalstructureTranslationSecondlanguageacquisitionLanguageandworldviewsUnderstandingtherelationoflanguageandthoughtMajorfunctionsoflanguageThedevelopmentandblendingoflanguageThinkingwithoutlanguageLanguageasaconventionalcodingsystemtoexpressthoughtThewaysinwhichlanguageaffectsthoughtStudyquestionsChapterLanguageAcquisitionFirstlanguageacquisitionThebiologicalbasisoflanguageacquisitionLanguageacquisitionastheacquisitionofgrammaticalrulesTheroleofinputandinteractionTheroleofinstructionTheroleofcorrectionandreinforcementTheroleofimitationStagesoffirstlanguageacquisitionTheprelinguisticstageTheonewordstageThetwowordstageThemultiwordstageThedevelopmentofthegrammaticalsystemThedevelopmentofphonologyThedevelopmentofsyntaxThedevelopmentofmorphologyThedevelopmentofvocabularyandsemanticsSecondlanguageacquisitionAcquisitionvslearningTransferandinterferenceErrorAnalysisandthenaturalrouteofSLAdevelopmentInterlanguageandfossilizationTheroleofinputTheroleofformalinstructionIndividuallearnerfactorsTheoptimumageforsecondlanguageacquisitionMotivationAcculturationPersonalityStudyquestionsSuggestedAnswerstoStudyQuestionsAnEnglishChineseGlossaryADetailedNoteforModernLinguisticsChapter:IntroductionDefinethefollowingterms:)Linguistics:Itisgenerallydefinedasthescientificstudyoflanguage)Generallinguistics:Thestudyoflanguageasawholeiscalledgenerallinguistics)Appliedlinguistics:Inanarrowsense,appliedlinguisticsreferstotheapplicationoflinguisticprinciplesandtheoriestolanguageteachingandlearning,especiallytheteachingofforeignandsecondlanguagesInabroadsense,itreferstotheapplicationoflinguisticfindingstothesolutionofpracticalproblemssuchastherecoveryofspeechability)Synchronicstudy:ThestudyofalanguageatsomepointintimeegAstudyofthefeaturesoftheEnglishusedinShakespeare’stimeisasynchronicstudy)Diachronicstudy:ThestudyofalanguageasitchangesthroughtimeAdiachronicstudyoflanguageisahistoricalstudy,whichstudiesthehistoricaldevelopmentoflanguageoveraperiodoftimeegastudyofthechangesEnglishhasundergonesinceShakespeare’stimeisadiachronicstudy)Languagecompetence:Theidealuser’sknowledgeoftherulesofhislanguageAtransformationalgenerativegrammar(转化生成语法)isamodeloflanguagecompetence)Languageperformance:performanceistheactualrealizationoftheideallanguageuser’sknowledgeoftherulesinlinguisticcommunication)Langue:LanguereferstotheabstractlinguisticsystemsharedbyallthemembersofaspeechcommunityLangueisthesetofconventionsandruleswhichlanguageusersallhavetofollowLangueisrelativelystable,itdoesnotchangefrequently)Parole:Parolereferstotherealizationoflangueinactualuseparoleistheconcreteuseoftheconventionsandtheapplicationoftherulesparolevariesfrompersontoperson,andfromsituationtosituation)Language:Languageisasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunication)Arbitrariness:ItisoneofthedesignfeaturesoflanguageItmeansthatthereisnologicalconnectionbetweenmeaningsandsoundsAgoodexampleisthefactthatdifferentsoundsareusedtorefertothesameobjectindifferentlanguages)Productivity:Languageisproductiveorcreativeinthatitmakespossibletheconstructionandinterpretationofnewsignalsbyitsusers)Duality:Languageisasystem,whichconsistsoftwosetsofstructure,ortwolevels,oneofsoundsatthelowerorbasiclevel,andtheotherofmeaningsatthehigherlevel)Displacement:languagecanbeusedtorefertothingswhicharepresentornotpresent,realorimaginedmattersinthepast,present,orfuture,orinfarawayplacesInotherwords,languagecanbeusedtorefertocontextsremovedfromtheimmediatesituationsofthespeaker)Culturaltransmission:Whilewearebornwiththeabilitytoacquirelanguage,thedetailsofanylanguagearenotgeneticallytransmitted,butinsteadhavetobetaughtandlearned)Designfeatures:ItreferstothedefiningpropertiesofhumanlanguagethatdistinguishitfromanyanimalsystemofcommunicationExplainthefollowingdefinitionoflinguistics:LinguisticsisthescientificstudyoflanguageLinguisticsinvestigatesnotanyparticularlanguage,butlanguagesingeneralLinguisticstudyisscientificbecauseitisbasedonthesystematicinvestigationofauthentic(可靠的真实的)languagedataNoseriouslinguisticconclusionisreacheduntilafterthelinguisthasdonethefollowingthreethings:observingthewaylanguageisactuallyused,formulatingsomehypotheses,andtestingthesehypothesesagainstlinguisticfactstoprovetheirvalidityWhatarethebranchesoflinguisticsWhatdoeseachofthemstudy(语言学的主要分支是什么每个分支的研究对象是什么?)Linguisticsmainlyinvolvesthefollowingbranches:)Generallinguistics,whichisthestudyoflanguageasawholeandwhichdealswiththebasicconcepts,theories,descriptions,modelsandmethodsapplicableinanylinguisticstudy)Phonetics,whichstudiesthesoundsthatareusedinlinguisticcommunication)Phonology,whichstudieshowsoundsareputtogetherandusedtoconveymeaningincommunication)Morphology,whichstudiesthewayinwhichmorphemesarearrangedtoformwords)Syntax,whichstudieshowmorphemesandwordsarecombinedtoformsentences)Semantics,whichisthestudyofmeaninginlan¬guage)Pragmatics,whichisthestudyofmeaningnotinisolation,butinthecontextofuse)Sociolinguistics,whichisthestudyoflanguagewithreferencetosociety)Psycholinguistics,whichisthestudyoflanguagewithreferencetotheworkingsofmind)Appliedlinguistics,whichisconcernedabouttheapplicationoflinguisticfindingsinlinguisticstudiesinanar¬rowsense,appliedlinguisticsreferstotheapplicationoflinguisticprinciplesandtheoriestolanguageteaching,especiallytheteachingofforeignandsecondlanguages)Otherrelatedbranchesareanthropologicallinguistics(人类语言学),neurologicallinguistics(神经语言学),mathematicallinguistics(数学语言学),andcomputationallinguistics(计算机语言学)Whatmakesmodernlinguisticsdifferentfromtraditionalgrammar(现代语言学与传统语法有什么区别?)Traditionalgrammarisprescriptive(规定性)itisbasedon"high"(religious,literary)writtenlanguageItsetsmodelsforlanguageuserstofollowButModernlinguisticsisdescriptive(描述性)itsinvestigationsarebasedonauthenticandmainlyspokenlanguagedataItissupposedtobescientificandobjectiveandthetaskoflinguistsissupposedtodescribethelanguagepeopleactuallyuse,whetheritis"correct"ornotIsmodernlinguisticsmainlysynchronic(共时性)ordiachronic(历时性)Why(Thedescriptionoflanguageatsomepointintimeisasynchronicstudythedescriptionofalanguageasitchangesthroughtimeisadiachronicstudy)Modernlinguisticsismainlysynchronic,focusingonthepresentdaylanguageUnlessthevariousstatesofalanguagearesuccessfullystudied,itwillnotbepossibletodescribelanguagefromadiachronicpointofviewWhichenjoyspriorityinmodernlinguistics,speechorwritingWhyModernlinguisticsgivesprioritytothespokenlanguageforthefollowingreasons:First,speechprecedeswritingThewritingsystemisalwaysalaterinventionusedtorecordthespeechTherearestillsomelanguagesthatonlyhavethespokenformThen,alargeramountofcommunicationiscarriedoutinspeechthaninwritingThird,speechistheforminwhichinfantsacquiretheirnativelanguageSaussure是如何区分语言langue和言语parole的?(ThedistinctionbetweenlangueandparolewasmadebythefamousSwisslinguistFerdinanddeSaussureearlythiscenturyLangueandparoleareFrenchwords)Languereferstotheabstractlinguisticsystemsharedbyallthemembersofaspeechcommunity,andparolereferstotherealizationoflangueinactualuseLangueisthesetofconventionsandruleswhichlanguageusersallhavetofollowwhileparoleistheconcreteuseoftheconventionsandtheapplicationoftherulesLangueisabstractitisnotthelanguagepeopleactuallyuse,butparoleisconcreteitreferstothenaturallyoccurringlanguageeventsLangueisrelativelystable,itdoesnotchangefrequentlywhileparolevariesfrompersontoperson,andfromsituationtosituationChomsky的语言能力competence和语言使用performance各指什么?(AmericanlinguistNChomskyinthelate’sproposedthedistinctionbetweencompetenceandperformance)Chomskydefinescompetenceastheidealuser’sknowledgeoftherulesofhislanguageThisinternalizedsetofrulesenablesthelanguageusertoproduceandunderstandaninfinitelylargenumberofsentencesandrecognizesentencesthatareungrammaticalandambiguousAccordingtoChomsky,performanceistheactualrealizationofthisknowledgeinlinguisticcommunicationAlthoughthespeaker’sknowledgeofhismothertongueisperfect,hisperformancesmayhavemistakesbecauseofsocialandpsychologicalfactorssuchasstress,embarrassment,etc…Chomskybelievesthatwhatlinguistsshouldstudyisthecompetence,whichissystematic,nottheperformance,whichistoohaphazard(偶然的)HowisSaussure’sdistinctionbetweenlangueandparolesimilartoChomsky’sdistinctionbetweencompetenceandperformanceAndwhatistheirdifferenceBothSaussureandChomskymakethedistinctionbetweentheabstractlanguagesystemandtheactualuseoflanguageTheirpurposeistosingleoutoneaspectoflanguageforseriousstudyTheydifferinthatSaussuretakesasociologicalviewoflanguageandhisnotionoflangueisamatterofsocialconventions,andChomskylooksatlanguagefromapsychologicalpointofviewandtohimcompetenceisapropertyofthemindofeachindividualWhatcharacteristicsoflanguagedoyouthinkshouldbeincludedinagood,comprehensivedefinitionoflanguageLanguageisasystemofarbitraryvocalsymbolsusedforhumancommunicationFirstofall,languageisasystem,ieelementsoflanguagearecombinedaccordingtorulesSecond,languageisarbitraryinthesensethatthereisnointrinsicconnectionbetweenthewordandthethingitreferstoThird,languageisvocalbecausetheprimarymediumissoundforalllanguagesTheterm“human”ismeanttospecifythatlanguageishumanspecificWhatfeaturesofhumanlanguagehavebeenspecifiedbyCharlesHocketttoshowthatitisessentiallydifferentfromanyanimalcommunicationsystem人类语言的甄别性特征是什么?Arbitrariness(任意性):(课本答案:asignofsophisticationonlyhumansarecapableof)ItmeansthatthereisnologicalconnectionbetweenmeaningsandsoundsAlthoughlanguageisarbitrarybynature,itisnotentirelyarbitraryNonarbitrarywordsmakeuponlyasmallpercentageofthetotalnumberThearbitrarynatureoflanguageisasignofsophisticationanditmakesitpossibleforlanguagetohaveanunlimitedsourceofexpressionsProductivity(创造性):(课本答案:creativity:animalsarequitelimitedinthemessagestheyareabletosend)Languageisproductiveorcreativeinthatitmakespossiblethecon¬structionandinterpretationofaninfinitelylargenumberofsentences,includingthosetheyhaveneversaidorheardbeforeDuality(二重性):(课本答案:afeaturetotallylackinginanyanimalcommunication)Itmeansthatlanguageisasystem,whichconsistsoftwosetsofstructure,ortwolevels,oneofsoundsatthelowerlevelandtheotherofmeaningsatthehigherlevelAtthelowerorthebasiclevel,thereisthestructureofindividualandmeaninglesssounds,whichcanbegroupedintomeaningfulunitsatthehigherlevelThisdualityofstructureordou¬blearticulationoflanguageenablesitsuserstotalkaboutanythingwithintheirknowledgeDisplacement(移位性):(课本答案:noanimalcan“talk”aboutthingsremovedfromtheimmediatesituation)Languagecanbeusedtorefertothingswhicharepresentornotpresent,realorimaginedmattersinthepast,present,orfuture,orfarawayplacesInotherwords,languagecanbeusedtorefertocontextsremovedfromtheimmediatesituationsofthespeakerCulturaltransmission(文化传递性):(课本答案:detailsofhumanlanguagesystemaretaughtandlearnedwhileanimalsarebornwiththecapacitytosendoutcertainsignalsasameansoflimitedcommunication)Whilewearebornwiththeabilitytoacquirelanguage,thedetailsofanylanguagearenotgeneticallytransmitted,butinsteadhavetobetaughtandlearnedDoyouthinkhumanlanguageisentirelyarbitraryWhyLanguageisarbitraryinnature,itisnotentirelyarbitrary,becausetherearealimitednumberofwordswhoseconnectionsbetweenformsandmeaningscanbelogicallyexplainedtoacertainextent,forexample,theonomatopoeia,wordswhicharecoinedonthebasisofimitationofsoundsbysoundssuchasbang,crash,etcTakecompoundsforanotherexampleThetwoelements“photo”and“copy”in“photocopy”arenonmotivated,butthecompoundisnotarbitraryChapter:PhonologyDefinetheterms:)phonetics:Phoneticsisdefinedasthestudyofthephonicmediumoflanguageitisconcernedwithallthesoundsthatoccurintheworld’slanguages)auditoryphonetics:Itstudiesthespeechsoundsfromthehearer’spointofviewItstudieshowthesoundsareperceivedbythehearer)acousticphonetics:ItstudiesthespeechsoundsbylookingatthesoundwavesItstudiesthephysicalmeansbywhichspeechsoundsaretransmittedthroughtheairfromonepersontoanother)internationalphoneticalphabetIPA:Itisastandardizedandinternationallyacceptedsystemofphonetict

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