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Analog Integrated Circuit Design 斯坦福大学stanfordEE214.pdf

Analog Integrated Circuit Desig…

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简介:本文档为《Analog Integrated Circuit Design 斯坦福大学stanfordEE214pdf》,可适用于电信技术领域,主题内容包含STANFORDUNIVERSITYDepartmentofElectricalEngineeringProfBorisMurmannEE:Anal符等。

STANFORDUNIVERSITYDepartmentofElectricalEngineeringProfBorisMurmannEE:AnalogIntegratedCircuitDesignAutumnhttp:eeclassstanfordedueeTableofContentsIntroductionLectureCMOSTechnology,LongChannelMOSModelLectureCommonSourceAmplifierLectureTechnologyCharacterization:gmIDLectureTechnologyCharacterization:fT,gmgdsLecturegmIDbasedDesignLectureExtrinsicCapacitanceLectureMillerApproximation,ZVTimeConstantAnalysisLectureElectronicNoiseLectureElectronicNoise(Continued)LectureBackgateEffect,CommonGateStageLectureCommonDrainStageLectureDifferentialPairLectureCurrentMirrors,OffsetVoltageLectureProcessVariations,FeedbackLectureFullyDifferentialAmplifiers,SCCircuitsLectureStability,AnalysisofFeedbackCircuitsLectureLoopGainSimulationLectureTwoStageOTALectureCompensation,NoiseinFeedbackOTAsLectureOTADesignConsiderationsLectureStepResponseLectureSlewingLectureFeedbackandPortImpedances,OTAVariantsLectureSingleEndedOTAs,OutputStageExamplesLectureSupplyInsensitiveBiasingLectureBandgapReferenceLectureBandgapReference(Continued)LectureTechnologyScalingLectureClassSummaryEEIntroductionBMurmannEEAnalogIntegratedCircuitDesignBorisMurmannStanfordUniversitymurmannstanfordeduCopyrightbyBorisMurmannEEIntroductionBMurmannAFewWordsAboutYourInstructor•AssistantProfessorinEEsince•PhD,UCBerkeley–DigitallyassistedADconversion–Use"minimalistic"analogcircuits(lowpower,fast)–Correcterrorsusingdigitalpostprocessor•~yearsworkexperienceinICindustry–MixedsignalICdesign,lowpower,highvoltage•Currentresearch–Digitalcorrectiontechniquesfordataconverters–Sensorinterfaces–Circuitdesigninnewtechnologies•PostCMOSdevices,organicdevicesEEIntroductionBMurmannEEBasics()•Teachingassistants–MohammadHekmat,BobWiser,RossWalker•Administrativesupport–AnnGuerra,CIS•Lecturesaretelevised–Butpleasecometoclasstokeepthediscussioninteractive!•Webpage:http:eeclassstanfordeduee–Checkregularly,especiallybulletinboard–Registerforonlineaccesstogradesandsolutions•OnlyenrolledstudentscanregisterwemanuallycontroltheaccesslistbasedonAxessdataEEIntroductionBMurmannEEBasics()•Requiredtext–AnalysisandDesignofAnalogIntegratedCircuits,thEdition,Gray,Hurst,LewisandMeyer,Wiley,(OnreserveinEngineeringLibrary)•Courseprerequisites–EEBorequivalent–Basicdevicephysicsandmodels•PNjunctions,MOSFETs,BJTs–Basiclinearsystems•Frequencyresponse,poles,zeros–Someexposuretoacircuitsimulator,basicUnixcommands–MayconsiderconcurrentenrollmentinEEXtobrushupontheabove(primarilyforundergraduates)EEIntroductionBMurmannAssignments•Homework()–HandedoutonMondays,duefollowingMondayinclass–Latepolicy•ScoredropsdBperhourafterdeadline–LowestHWscorewillbedropped–Policyforoffcampusstudents:FaxemailtoSCPDbeforedeadlinestatedonhandout•MidtermExam()•Project()–DesignofanamplifierusingHSpice(nolayout)–Workinteamsoftwo•OKtodiscusswithotherteams,butnofileexchange!•FinalExam()EEIntroductionBMurmannHonorCode•Pleaserememberyouareboundbythehonorcode–Iwilltrustyounottocheat–Iwilltrynottotemptyou•Butifyouarefoundcheatingitisveryserious–Thereisaformalhearing–YoucanbethrownoutofStanford•Saveyourselfandmeahugehassleandbehonest•Formoreinfo–http:wwwstanfordedudeptvpsajudicialaffairsguidingpdfhonorcodepdfEEIntroductionBMurmannBeReasonableWhenAskingTAs•TheTAswillnotgiveyou"theanswertimestwo"…•TheywillalsoNOTdebugyourSpicedeck–Figuringoutwhat'swrongwithyourcircuitisanessentialcomponentofthisclassEEIntroductionBMurmannCircuitSimulation•WewillHSpiceforcircuitsimulation–Youcanuseothertoolsat"ownrisk"–"CADBasics"documentandexamplesimulationfilesareprovidedoncoursewebsiteandincoursedirectory•PlotHSpiceresultsusingMatlab("HSpiceToolbox")–Toolboxisinstalledincoursedirectory•See"CADBasics"documentforsetupinfo–CandownloadtoolboxfromMikePerrott'shomepage(MIT)•EETechnology–μmCMOS–BSIMvmodelsprovidedonwebsiteandincoursedirectory•Firstreviewsession(thisweek)willfocusonsimulationbasicsEEIntroductionBMurmannTheSpiceMonkeyProblem()•Whatmostpeopleknow–Evenaverylargenumberofmonkeysrandomlyarrangingcharacterswillnevermanagetowriteaninterestingbook•Whatsomepeopletendtoforget–Evenaverylargenumberof"SpiceMonkeys"randomlytweakingcircuitswillnevermanagetodesignarobust,optimizedICCourtesyIsaacMartinezEEIntroductionBMurmannTheSpiceMonkeyProblem()•Simplyput–Spiceisnothingbuta"calculator"thatletsyouevaluateandtestyourideas–Thereisnoneedtosimulateanythingunlessyoualreadyknowthe(approximate)answer!–Mustalwaysbeawareofmodelinglimitations•Especiallyintheintegratedcircuitsarena,uneducated,purelysimulatordrivendesigncanbecostly–Masksetscostupto$Million(nmproduction)–Turnaroundtimeisontheorderofmonths–Ifyourchipdoesn'twork,youcannotsimplysendthecustomera"patch"…AdministratorUnderlineAdministratorUnderlineEEIntroductionBMurmannAnalysisversusDesign•Unlikecommonperception,analogcircuitanalysisanddesignisnot"blackmagic"•Circuitanalysis–Theartofdecomposingacircuitintomanageablepieces–Basedonthesimple,butsufficientlyaccuratemodel•"Justintime"modelingdonotuseacomplexmodelunlessyouknowwhyit'sneeded…–Onecircuitonesolution•Circuitdesign–Theartofsynthesizingcircuitsbasedonexperiencefromextensiveanalysis–OnesetofspecificationsManysolutions–Designskillsarebestacquiredthrough"learningbydoing"•Thisiswhywe'llhaveadesignproject…EEIntroductionBMurmannLearningGoals•DevelopdeeperunderstandingofMOSdevicebehaviorrelevanttoanalogdesign•Developafeelforlimitsandtradeoffsinanalogcircuits(speed,noise,powerdissipation)•Learntobridgethegapbetweencomplexdevicemodelsbehaviorandbasichandcalculations–Designusinglookuptables,"gmIDmethodology"•Developasystematic,nonspicemonkeydesignstyle•Solidifytheaboveaspectsinahandsondesignproject–DesignandoptimizationofahighperformancefeedbackamplifierusedinmanyindustrialcircuitsapplicationsAdministratorUnderlineEEIntroductionBMurmannPreviewDesignExampleofLectureCsVsdVodCsCfCfCLCLVidMa,bMa,bMa,bMa,bSpecs:Loopbandwidth(fc)=MHzPhasemargin=degreesDR=dBClosedloopgain=Staticgainerror<EEIntroductionBMurmannCourseTopics•CMOStechnologyanddevicemodels•Electronicnoise•Singlestageamplifiers•Currentmirrors,activeloads•Differentialpairs•Operationaltransconductanceamplifiers(OTAs)•Feedback,stabilityandcompensation•TemperatureandsupplyindependentbiasingEELectureBMurmannLectureCMOSTechnologyLongChannelMOSModelBorisMurmannStanfordUniversitymurmannstanfordeduCopyrightbyBorisMurmannEELectureBMurmannOverview•Reading–(MOSfabrication),(ActiveMOSdevices)–(Resistors),(Capacitors)–,,,,(LargesignalMOSmodel)•Introduction–Inthisfirstlecture,wewillcoversomeofthebackgroundthatpositionsEEasanintroductorycourseoncircuitdesignusingCMOStechnologyInthelecturestocome,wewillfocusontheproblemofamplifierdesignasavehicletoestablishasetofconsiderationsthatapplytomorecomplexcircuitsandalsoothertechnologiesAtfirst,wewillreviewthe"longchannelmodel"ofaMOStransistorDrivenbycircuitexamples,wewilllateraugmentthissimplemodeltoincludeadditionaleffectsthatarerelevantinpracticeEELectureBMurmannTheBigPicture•Mostmodernelectronicinformationprocessingsystemsrelyonamplificationof"small"physicalsignals–EgsignalfromRFantenna,diskdrivehead,microphone,…•EEusesamplifiersasavehicletoteachyouthebasicsofanalogintegratedcircuitanalysisanddesign–MaterialformsbasisforotherandormorecomplexcircuitsEELectureBMurmannTechnologicalProgressVacuumTubeModernCMOSTransistorModernDiscreteTransistorsIntegratedCircuitEELectureBMurmannnmCMOS(Intel)SteveCowdenTHEORGONIANJulyEELectureBMurmannEconomicsEuropeanNanotechnologyRoadmapEELectureBMurmannFutureApplicationsEELectureBMurmannDiscretevsIntegratedCircuits•Minimizetransistorcount•Devicesusuallydon'tmatch•Arbitraryresistorvalues•CapacitorspF…mF•"Unlimited"numberoftransistors•Devicesmatchwell•Keepresistors<…k•Keepcapacitors<…pFDiscreteAudioAmplifierIntegratedCMOSAudioAmplifierEELectureBMurmannModernIntegratedCircuitTechnologies•WhyuseCMOSforanalogintegratedcircuits–Lowcost,drivenbyhighvolumedigitalICs–Integrationwithhighdensitydigitalcircuits•BiCMOStendstobeexpensiveBestBetterPoorIntrinsicgainGoodGoodPoorTransconductanceGoodGoodPoorNoiseHighHighHighDeviceSpeedSiGeBJTSiBJTCMOSParameterEELectureBMurmannBasicMOSOperation()•Withzerovoltageatthegate,deviceis"off"–BacktobackreversebiasedpnjunctionsVVD(>V)VVEELectureBMurmannBasicMOSOperation()•Withapositivegatebiasapplied,electronsarepulledtowardthepositivegateelectrode•Givenalargeenoughbias,theelectronsstartto"invert"thesurface(pn)aconductivechannelforms–Magic"thresholdvoltage"Vt(morelater)>EELectureBMurmannBasicOperation()•Ifwenowapplyapositivedrainvoltage,currentwillflow•HowcanwecalculatethiscurrentasafunctionofVGS,VDS>VDS>ID=EELectureBMurmannLectureCommonSourceAmplifierSmallSignalModelBorisMurmannStanfordUniversitymurmannstanfordeduCopyrightbyBorisMurmannEELectureBMurmannOverview•Reading–(Amplifierbasics),(Modelselection)–(Commonsourceamplifer)–(SmallsignalMOSmodel)•Introduction–Todaywe'llcompleteourderivationofthebasiclongchannelMOSFETIVcharacteristicsAsanextstep,we'llusethissimplemodeltoconstructourfirstamplifier–acommonsourcestageLookingatitstransferfunction,we'llfindthattreatingsignalsas"small"withrespecttothebiasconditionsallowsustolinearizethecircuitNext,wegeneralizethisapproachanddevelopamoreuniversal"plugandplay"smallsignalmodelforMOSdevicesthatarebiasedintheactiveregionEELectureBMurmannBasicMOSOperation•HowcanwecalculateIDasafunctionofVGS,VDS>VDS>ID=EELectureBMurmannAssumptions)CurrentiscontrolledbythemobilechargeinthechannelThisisaverygoodapproximation)"GradualChannelAssumption"Theverticalfieldsetschannelcharge,sowecanapproximatetheavailablemobilechargethroughthevoltagedifferencebetweenthegateandthechannel)Thelastandworstassumption(wewillfixitlater)isthatthecarriervelocityisproportionaltolateralfield(ν=μE)ThisisequivalenttoOhm'slaw:velocity(current)isproportionaltoEfield(voltage)>VDS>EELectureBMurmannFirstOrderIVCharacteristics()•Whatweknow:tGSoxnVyVVCyQ=)()(WvQInD=Ev=μWEVyVVCItGSoxD=μ)(EELectureBMurmannFirstOrderIVCharacteristics()dyydVE)(=WEVyVVCItGSoxD=μ)(dVVyVVCWdyItGSoxD=)(μ=DSVtGSoxLDdVVyVVCWdyI)(μ()DSDStGSoxDVVVVLWCI=μ•ForVDS<<VGSVt,thislooksalotlikealinearresistor:I=RV•LetsplotthisIVrelationshipEELectureBMurmannPlotofFirstOrderIVCurves•Somethingiswronghere–CurrentshouldneverdecreasewithincreasingVDS•WhathappenswhenVDS>VGSVt–VGD=VGSVDSbecomeslessthanVt,ienomorechannelor"pinchoff"VDSIDVGSVtEELectureBMurmannPinchOff•EffectivevoltageacrosschannelisVGSVt–Afterchannelchargegoesto,thereisahighlateralfieldthat‘sweeps’thecarrierstothedrain,anddropstheextravoltage(thisisadepletionregionofthedrainjunction)•Tofirstorder,currentbecomesindependentofVDSNN–VGSVDS–yy=y=LQ(y),V(y)nVoltageattheendofchannelIsfixedatVGSVtEELectureBMurmannModifiedPlotandEquationsVDSIDVGSVtTriodeRegionActiveRegion()DSDStGSoxDVVVVLWCI=μTriodeRegion:ActiveRegion:())()()(tGSoxtGStGStGSoxDVVLWCVVVVVVLWCI==μμEELectureBMurmannFirstOrderMOSModelSummary()tGSoxDVVLWCIμSubThreshold(morelater)VtVGSVDSVGSVtACTIVETRIODE()DSDStGSoxDVVVVLWCIμ"VCCS"EELectureBMurmannModelAccuracy•TheaboveequationsconstitutethemostbasicMOSIVmodel–"Longchannelmodel","quadraticmodel","lowfieldmodel"•Unfortunatelythismodeldoesn'tdescribemodernCMOSdevicesaccurately–Pushingtowardsextremelysmallgeometrieshasresultedinveryhighelectricfields•Someoftheassumptionsonslidebecomeinvalid•Othersecondorderdependenciesarise•Nevertheless,wewillusethissimplemodelinthefirstfewlecturestodevelopsomebasiccircuitintuition–Willfixandrefineaswego…–"Justintime"modelingEELectureBMurmannLet'sBuildOurFirstAmplifier•Onewaytoamplify–Convertinputvoltagetocurrentusingvoltagecontrolledcurrentsource(VCCS)–Convertbacktovoltageusingaresistor(R)•"Voltagegain"=ΔVoutΔVin–ProductoftheVIandIVconversionfactorsEELectureBMurmannCommonSourceAmplifier•MOSdeviceactsasVCCS()tioxDVVLWCI=μ()RVVLWCVVtioxDDo=μEELectureBMurmannBiasing•Needsomesortof"battery"thatbringsinputvoltageintousefuloperatingregion•DefineVOV=VIVt,"quiescentpointgateoverdrive"–VOV=VGSVtwithnoinputsignalapplied"Bias""Signal"VIΔVoΔViVOVOVEELectureBMurmannRelationshipBetweenIncrementalVoltages•WhatisΔVoasafunctionofΔVi()()ΔΔ=ΔΔ=Δ=ΔΔ=ΔOViiOVDiiOVoxOViOVoxoiOVoxDDoOVVVRVIVVVRLWCVVVRLWCVRVVLWCVVVμμμ•Asexpected,thisisanonlinearrelationship•Nobodylikesnonlinearequationsweneedasimplermodel–Fortunately,alinearapproximationtotheaboveexpressionissufficientforofallanalogcircuitanalysisEELectureBMurmannSmallSignalApproximation()•AssumingΔVi<<VOV,wehaveΔΔ=ΔOViiOVDoVVVRVIViOVDoVRVIVΔΔ•Ifwefurtherpretendthattheinputvoltageincrementisinfinitelysmall,wecanfindthisresultdirectlybytakingthederivativeofthelargesignaltransferfunctionatthe"operatingpoint"VIRVIdVdVOVDVVioIi==EELectureBMurmannSmallSignalApproximation()•Graphicalillustration:VIVOVOVdVodVi•Theslopeoftheabovetangentisthesocalled"smallsignalgain"ofouramplifierEELectureBMurmannSmallSignalMOSModel•Fortunatelywedon'thavetorepeatthisanalysisforeverysinglecircuitwebuild•Instead,wederivealinearizedcircuitmodelfortheMOStransistorandplugitintoarbitrarycircuitsEELectureBMurmannTransconductance•Theparameterthatrelatessmallsignalgatevoltagetodraincurrentiscalledtransconductance(gm),oryintwoportnomenclature•ThetransconductanceisfoundbydifferentiatingthelargesignalIVcharacteristicofthetransistorinitsoperatingpoint()tGSoxDVVLWCI=μ()OVoxtGSoxGSDgsdmVLWCVVLWCVIvigμμ====OVDmVIg=EELectureBMurmannAdditionalModelComponents•Nowthatwe'vedecidedtomoveonusing"smallsignal"approximations,italsobecomeseasiertorefineourmodelandmakeitmorerealistic•Let'sfirsttakealookat"intrinsicgatecapacitance"–Intrinsicmeansthatthesecapacitancesareunavoidableandrequiredfortheoperationofthedevice–Notethatthereareplentyofextrinsic,technologyrelatedcapacitances•We'lltalkaboutsomeofthoselater•Whentalkingaboutgatecapacitance,wemustdistinguishseveraloperatingregions–Transistoron•Triodeandactiveregions–Transistor"off"•SubthresholdoperationEELectureBMurmannTransistorinTriodeRegion•GateterminalandconductivechannelformaparallelplatecapacitoracrossgateoxideCGC=WLεoxtox=WLCox–WecanapproximatelymodelthisusinglumpedcapacitorsofsizeCGCeachfromgatesourceandgatedrain•Changingeithervoltagewillchangethechannelcharge•ThedepletioncapacitanceCCBaddsextracapacitancefromdrainandsourcetosubstrate–UsuallynegligibleLSDWGCGCCCBEELectureBMurmannTransistorinActiveRegion•Assumingalongchannelmodel,ifwechangethethesourcevoltageintheforwardactiveregion–ThevoltagedifferencebetweenthegateandchannelatthedrainendremainsatVt,butthevoltageatthesourceendchanges–Thismeansthatthe"bottomplate"ofthecapacitordoesnotchangeuniformly•DetailedanalysisshowsthatinthiscaseCgs=WLCox–Seetext,section•Inthelongchannelmodelforforwardactiveoperation,thedrainvoltagedoesnotaffectthechannelcharge–ThismeansCgd=intheforwardactiveregion!•Neglectingsecondordereffectsandextrinsiccaps,ofcourseEELectureBMurmannTransistorOff•Thereisnoconductivechannel–Gateseesacapacitortosubstrate,equivalenttotheseriescombinationofthegateoxidecapacitorandthedepletioncapacitance•Ifthegatevoltageistakennegative,thedepletionregionshrinks,andthegatesubstratecapacitancegrows–Withlargenegativebias,thecapacitanceapproachesCGCLSDWGCGCCCBEELectureBMurmannIntrinsicMOSCapacitorSummaryCgbWLCoxCgdWLCoxWLCoxCgsForwardActiveTriodeSubthresholdoxC

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