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首页 每日星图(英文)

每日星图(英文)

每日星图(英文)

Jason
2007-10-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《每日星图(英文)pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

tammyplotnerWHAT’SUP:daysofSKYWATCHINGWHAT’SUP:daysofSKYWATCHINGtammyplotner“SOUTHERNAURORAINOHIO”CREDIT:TERRYMANN“ThefairestthingwecanexperienceisthemysteriousItStandsatthecradleoftrueartandtruescience”EinsteinWrittenbyTammyPlotnerAdditionalwrittingbyJeffBarbourEditedbyKenVogtDesignbyRichardShirohttp:wwwasmalladshopcomPublishedbyUniverseTodayhttp:wwwuniversetodaycomCopyright©Noillustrations,photographyorotherportionsofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformwithoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherFirstPrintingPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica����������������������������iTAMMYPLOTNER����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomGreetings,fellowSkyWatchers!Areyoureadyforawholeyearofwhat’supinthenightskyThenlooknofurtheraswepresentthebestofwhatcanbeseenonanynightInthesepagesyouwillfindlunarfeatures,planets,meteorshowers,brightanddoublestars,openandglobularclusters,aswellasdistantgalaxiesThere’sastronomyhistorytoexplorehere,justasthereissomescienceYou’llfindthingshereforthosewhoenjoystargazingwithjusttheireyes,binoculars,oreventhelargestoftelescopes!Whiletheseobservingtipsaredesignedwithallreadersinmind,noteveryonelivesinthesametimezone,samehemisphere,norhasclearskieseverynightNomatterwhereyoulive,orwhoyouare,itismyhopethatsomewherehereyoufindsomethingofinteresttokeepyoulookingup!Iam~TammyPlotnerLearningtheNightSkyIfyouarenewtoastronomy,perhapsoneofthemostdifficultanddauntingpartsaboutbeginningislearningallthosestarsRelax!It’saloteasierthanyouthinkJustlikemovingtoanewcity,everythingwillseemunfamiliaratfirst,butwithalittlehelpfromsomemaps,you’llsoonbefindingyourwayaroundlikeaproOnceyoubecomefamiliarwiththeconstellationsandhowtheyappeartomoveacrossthenightsky,therestiseasyThankstothegoodfolksatSkyandTelescopemagazine,we’veprovidedyouwithsome“skyview”chartstohelpguidethewayTheyoutlinetheconstellationsthatcanbeseenatanyparticulartimeoftheyearandwillhelpyougreatlyonyourwayThereisalsoanoptionaldownloadofskychartscreatedbyJeffBarbourthatlistobjectsinevengreaterdetail,aswellasakeyofGreekletterstohelpyoureadthem,andhelptounderstandstarhopinstructionsKeepinmindtheconstellationchartsareorientedjustasifyouheldthemapoveryourhead,whilestarchartsareprintedintheorderinwhichtheskymovesnorthisupandeastisleftThesepagesalsocontainasimplewayofhelpingyouunderstandrelativepositionsandsizesintheskyInsomeinstances,youwillfinddirectionstocertainobjectstoreada“handspan”ora“fingerwidth”,butwhatexactlydoesthatmeanWhilenoteveryone’shandsarethesamesize,thesetypesofinstructionsFOREWORDiiWHAT’SUP:DAYSOFSKYWATCHING����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomwillhelptoputyouinthegeneralareaofanobjectyouarelookingforA“handspan”isameasurementfromthetipofyourlittlefingertothetipofyourthumbwhenheldoutstretchedatarm’slengthForthemostpart,thissimplemeasurementcoversarounddegreesofskyA“fistwidth”isyourhandclosedatarm’slengthandcoversarounddegrees,whilea“fingerwidth”isarounddegreesAlthoughthesetypeofinstructionsarenotfoolproof,ifyourememberthatnortheastisalwaysnortheastnomatterifaconstellationisrisingorsetting,you’llfindthesesimpledirectionswillhelpyoutofindtherightareatobeginObservingEquipmentWhileIwouldlovetobeabletotellyouwhichbinocularsortelescopewouldbeperfectforyouIcan’tThechoiceinequipmentisjustasindividualasone’stasteinautomobilesEverypersonusesequipmentdifferentlyandunderdifferentcircumstancesLet’sstartwithbinocularsAnyoneeveryvaguelyinterestedinthenightskyshouldownapairofbinocularseveninexpensiveonesWhiletheywillneverrevealtheheavensinquiteasmuchdetailasevenasmalltelescope,theiravailability,easeofuse,andportabilitymakethemtheperfectnightskycompanionIttakesnoeffortatalltoaimthemtowardsthestarsandbegin!ButwhichonesTheverybestsizeforastronomyarexandxmodelsoftheporroprismdesign,yeteventhemodestxmodelswillshowawealthofskyobjectsWhileitmightbetemptingtogetthe“monster”models,remembertheweightandhowdifficultitwouldbetosteadythem!VerylargebinocularstrulyrequireamountofsometypeThereisnorecommendedbrand,butIsuggestwhenpurchasingtokeepinmindtheymightgetdroppedorlostDon’tbeafraidtoasktotrymodelsoutbeforepurchasingTheyshouldbecomfortabletohold,andwhenyoulookthroughtheeyepieces,thefieldshouldbeevenlyilluminatedWhenyoulookinthemainlens,whitereflectionsmeanpoorlycoatedoptics,whiledeeppurpleandgreenreflectionsindicatehigherqualityBettermodelswillhavearightdiopteradjustment,andchecktoseethatbothsetsoflensesarewellcollimatedNomatterwhichyouchose,IguariiiTAMMYPLOTNER����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomanteeyou’llenjoythesehandheld“twin”telescopes!Nowlet’smoveontotelescopesTherearethreedesignsTherefractorusesalenstogatherlight,thereflectorusesamirror,andthecatadioptricusesbothNomatterwhichstyleyouprefer,theobjectislightgatheringabilitynotmagnificationThelargertheaperture,themorelightitgathersandthemorepowerithastoresolveSteerclearofsmalltelescopesyouseeindepartmentstoresandmostcamerashops,theyarealmostinvariablylowqualityandforaboutthesameamountofmoneyyoucanendupwithafinetelescopecapableofyearsofuseTherefractingtelescopeisfavoredbythosewhoenjoyhighpowerviewsofterrestrialsubjects,aswellastheMoonandplanetsandprovidessuitablelightgatheringabilityforplentyofdeepskyBecausetheeyepieceislocatedattheendofthescope,itisoftennecessarytousearightangleattachmenttoputtheeyepieceinacomfortablelocationWhilemanyclaimarefractorissuperiorforseeingdetails,keepinmindthatthisstylemayputyouinsomeveryuncomfortablepositions!ThereflectingtelescopeistheinstrumentofchoicefordeepskyobservingLargeapertureisfarmoreaffordableandtheperformanceonlunarandplanetaryobjectsismoredependentonthequalityoftheopticsandseeingconditionsratherthanthedesignWiththeeyepiecelocatedonthetopsideofthebodyofthetelescope,thistypeoftelescopeisprimarilyusedbyobserverswhoprefertostandEventhesmallest(mm)reflectorwillprovideenoughdeepskystudiestokeeptheaverageSkyWatcherentertainedforalifetime!DotheyhaveaflawYesWithlargeaperturealsocomeslargesize,andportabilitymaybecomeanissueDonotlettheword“collimation”frightenyouItisjusttheactofoccasionallyadjustingtheprimarymirrorandisnodifferentfromtuningaguitarThecatadioptricdesignshouldtherebyfulfillthebestofbothworldsshouldn’titTheanswerisyesbutitdoesn’tcomewithoutdrawbacksThisstyletelescopeisveryexpensiveandproneto“dew”upwithoutcorrectivemeasuresNowlet’stalkmountsHereagainwehavethreebasicdesignsthealtazimuth,theequatorialandivWHAT’SUP:DAYSOFSKYWATCHING����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomthedobsonianThealtazimuthswingsleftrightandupdownandrequiresmanualadjustmenttotrackTheseinexpensiveandeasytousemountsarebestsuitedtosmallrefractorsTheequatorialdesignmovesinrightascensionanddeclinationWhenalignedtothepole,theyonlyrequireaslightturnofaslowmotioncontroltotrackandarecapableofbeingfittedwithmechanicaltrackingdevicesTheycomeinavarietyofweightsandsizessuitableforanytypetelescopeandalmostallcomeequippedwithsettingcirclesThelasttypeofscopeisthedobsonianMuchlikethealtazimuth,itmovesup,down,andsidetosidebutrequiresnotripodItisnothingmorethanasimple,wellbalancedrockerboxWithsmallaperturedobs,thisinexpensivedesignspellstotalfreedomtotravelwithyourscope,butplanonhavingabackachewhileusingitConversely,largermodelshaveamorecomfortableviewingpositionbutlackportabilitySo,howtochose!Morethananything,youmustaskyourselfwhattypeofobservingyouenjoythemostandwhatscopemeetsyourneedsandyourbudgetThere’snopointinbuyingalargedobsonianifyouneedtotraveltoadarkskylocationtouseitYou’llneverbehappywithasmallrefractorifyouhavedarkskiesoutsideyourbackdoorandanitchtogalaxyhuntIownmodelsofeverytypeandthere’sareasonforeachone:Thesmallrefractor(mm)anditseasy,lightweightmountistheperfectcompanionfortravelIt’ssimpletocarry,simpletosetup,andprovidesgreatviewsbutnoteverythingIwanttoseeThesmallreflector(mm)istheworkhorseofmyfleetItprovidesgreatlunar,solaranddoublestarviewsalongwiththecapabilityofcapturingalltheMessierobjectsandagoodlyportionoftheNGCtargetsIt’slightweight,portableenough,andIusuallyhaveatleasttwoofthethreeIownalwaysfullyassembledandreadytobesetoutsideatamoment’snoticeTheyareallfineperformers,butIcouldstillwishforjustalittlebitmoreThemidsizecatadioptric(mm)scopeisamoretedioussetup,butgivesoutstandinglunarandplanetaryviewsItresolvestoughdoublestarsandprovidescrispresolutiononmoststarclustersIfastrophotographywereagoalofminethiswouldbethescopeIwouldchooseBut,vTAMMYPLOTNER����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomgiventhetelescope’sexpense,it’susuallycarefullypackedawayandseldomusedonawhimThelargerequatoriallymountedreflector(”)isasuperbtoolforlowsurfacebrightnessobjectsWithitsbiglightgraspandresolution,thisisaveryfinescopetospendanevening(ormany!)withIt’sfairlyeasytotransport,alittledifficulttosetup,buttheviewsarequiteworththetimeandeffortIfIneedportableaperturethisistheoneIchoseButitstillcan’tquitereachthosefaintgalaxiesThedobsonianmodel(”)ismystudyscopeFartoolargetobeevenremotelyconsideredportable,itspendsitslifeonselfstyledtransportationWhilenewermodelsaremuchlighterinweight,thisscopeneededawayofmovingitfromplacetoplacewithoutkillingitsownerOnceIhaddesignedawayoftransportingitwithease,thewholevistaoftheheavensopenedupNowIwasabletototallyresolveclusters,studyveryfaintgalaxies,homeinonlunarandplanetaryfeatures,andsplitintensedoublestarsThedobsoniandesignleftmewithtotalfreedomofmovementandaftermorethanadecadeofuse,IhavestillnotseeneverythingthisscopeiscapableofOfcourse,Ihaveridiculouslylargeapertureatmydisposalaswell,butthe”ishousedinaprofessionalobservatoryandwhatit“sees”isalmostunfaircomparedtobackyardequipment!AndnowforthenextmajorissueTo“GoTo”ornotto“GoTo”Again,thisisamatterofpersonalpreferenceItismyhonestopinionthatyoudoyourselfadisservicebynotlearningtomanuallyaimatelescopeatanobjectThereisgreatjoytobehadinstudyingtheskyandfindingadistantgalaxyusingnothingmorethanamapandyourowntwohandsSomanyfolkshavethesewonderfulsystemsgatheringdustbecausetheyfoundoutthatitrequiresperfectioninpositioningaswellasbasicskyknowledgetouseRegardlessoftheclaimsofhowmanyobjectsadatabasecontainsonlyexperiencewilltellyouhowmanyoftheseobjectscanbeseenwithyourscopeandskyconditions!ButdonotbeangryThereisalsoabeautyinthesesystemsForthosewithlimitedtime,itonlytakesalittlelearningtouseManysuchsystemsarealsoabletoidentifyobjectsbytheircoordinates,sotheydoviWHAT’SUP:DAYSOFSKYWATCHING����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomhavetheirgoodpointsAndsowecometoeyepiecesThebottomlineisyougetwhatyoupayforAhighlyexpensiveeyepiecewillnotturnabadtelescopeintoagoodone,butitwillturnagoodtelescopeintoanawesomeoneMybestadviceistostartwiththemidrangepricedopticsandaverysimplevarietyofsizesmmisgreatforwidefieldviews,mmandmmarefantasticformostworkmm,mmandmmarethepowerhouses,andwithoutadriveunitonatelescopeoftenprovidesomuchmagnificationastobeuncomfortableonmostscopesLikefishingluresinatacklebox,you’llfindyourselfcollectingavarietyofeyepiecesovertheyearsandeachwillfavorcertainusesOnlyexperimentationwillprovidetheeyepiecesthatarerightforyouandforyourtelescopeNowforaccessoriesThesearethefunthingstohave,butnoneofthemarenecessarytopracticeastronomy:asturdycase,abarlowlens,asetofbasiccolorfilters,aMoonfilter,apolarizingfilter,andanebulafilterOpticscleaningkitsaregreatbutawordtothewisedon’tstressaboutsparklingcleanopticsUnlessitismorethanobstructedyouwillprobablydomoreharmthangoodincleaningAndtherearesomanylittlethingsthatmakeobservingfun,andfuntohaveinyour“kit”ButwhatdoyoureallyneedTheverybestaccessoriesIrecommendareacomprehensiveMoonmap,aneasytoreadskychart,awatch,apadofpaper,amechanicalpencilandaredflashlightThesearethemostimportantthingsyouwilleveruseWhilebasicmapsareprovidedwiththisbook,youmayfindchartsofyourownthatyoupreferWhilenotekeepingisnotanecessity,you’llfindmoreoftenthannotthatyou’llneeditBasicsketchesareeasyandyoumightfindthatyou’llrefertoyourownnotesoftenKeeptrackofwhatyoudo,whatyouuseandwhenyouseeitTherearemanyfineobservingprogramsofferedthroughtheAstronomicalLeaguethatprovideawardsforyourstudyAndwhoknowsYoujustmightdiscoversomethingnewviiTAMMYPLOTNER����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomReadyToObserveTheMoonLet’sstartwithoneofthemostsimpletofindandhighlyrewardingobjectstostudytheMoonItsruggedcraters,highmountainsandvastseasoffersomeofthefinestdetailstobefoundinanyastronomicaltargetItchangeseverynightastheterminatorthelinebetweensunsetandshadowprogressesoverthesurface,revealingnewdetailsUnlikeastarchart,MoonfeatureinstructionsarebasedonlunartopographyandnotourEarthlycardinaldirectionsWhilethesepagesoutlinewhatfeaturesshouldbevisibleonanygivennight,thepositionoftheterminatormaybeslightlydifferentforviewersinvarioustimezonesLet’sstartbydiscussinghowandwhentheMooncanbeseenTheMoonandEarthbothrotateatexactlythesamespeed,sowewillalwaysseethesame“side”yetitsellipticalorbitcausesakindof“wobble”thatwerefertoaslibrationThismeanstheremaybetimeswhenyoucanseejustabitmorealongtheMoon’slimbthevisibleedgeWhentheMoon’sorbitcarriesitbetweentheEarthandtheSun,thisisreferredtoas“NewMoon”It’sstilltherebutwecannotseeitAsitsorbitprogresses,theMoonwillslowlymovetoitsfirstposition,appearinginthenightskyjustaftertheSunsetsThesunlightonthelunarsurfacewillbeginitsmarchacrossthesurface,progressingfromlunareasttolunarwestAteitherpoleoftheMoonistheareacalledthecuspthetipofthecurvewheretheterminatorendsThisprogressionoflightiscalledthe“waxing”phaseWhentheMoonhasreachedthesecondposition,itisnowdirectlyoppositetheSuninourskyandthesurfaceistotallyilluminated“FullMoon”Atthistime,theEarthisbetweentheSunandtheMoonMostofthetime,theMoon’sorbitwilleithercarryitnorthorsouthoftheEarth’sshadow,butabouteverysixmonthsitwillslipinsidethatshadowandalunareclipsewilloccurWhenitpassesonlypartiallyintotheconeofshadowitisknownasapenumbraleclipseandwhenitisdirectlyaligneditwillbeknownasa“full”orumbraleclipseNowtheMoonisheadingtowardsitsthirdpositionandmovingbackviiiWHAT’SUP:DAYSOFSKYWATCHING����������������������������http:wwwuniversetodaycomtowardstheSunItwillriselatereachnightandtheterminatorwillnowprogressacrossthesurfaceinthesamedirectioneasttowestbutthistimethefeatureswillbeseenatlunarsunsetinsteadofsunrise!Thisisknownasthe“waning”phaseItwillbecomeslimmereachnightasitheadstowardtherisingSunAtfirst,thelunarlandscapewilllookquiteconfusingbutkeepinmindthatlunarnorthhasfewercratersthanlunarsouthAsyoustudytheMoonfrommonthtomonth,craterswillbecomemorefamiliartoyouanditwon’tbelonguntilyouknowtheirnamesandcanoftentellwhatfeatureswillbevisiblewithoutevenlooking!ThePlanetsJustliketheSunandMoon,theplanetsdancealonganorderlypathintheskyknownastheeclipticplaneTheirprogressionagainstthebackgroundstarswillseemslowestwhentheyarethefurthestawayDuringanobservingseason,it’spossibletowatchastheEarthovertakesaplanet,muchlikerunningpastanobjectonaracetrackAsweapproachit,itwillseemtoslowdown,standstill,andthenmovebackwardsaswegobyOncewehavepassed,itwillthenappeartoresumeforwardmotionSinceMercuryandVenusareontheinsidetrackofourracecourse,theymovemuchmorequicklyaroundtheSunthantheouterplanetsdoTheywillalwaysappearjustaheadoftherisingSun,orjustafterthesettingSunandlikeourMoonwillgothroughphasesastheyprogressintheirorbitsMars,JupiterandSaturnarethreeofthemosthighlyobservedplanets,andattimes,canofferupwonderfuldetailstothetelescopeButdonotbedisappointedifyoudonotseefantasticthingsonyourfirstnightout!TherearemanythingstobeconsideredwhenviewingtheseplanetsStopfirsttoconsidertheirdistanceatanygiventime,andtheeffectofourownatmosphereonobservingconditionsDonotbediscouraged!LargebinocularsandthesmallestoftelescopeswillrevealJupiter’sequatorialban

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