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采后生物学.pdf

采后生物学.pdf

上传者: yidiniaoren 2012-05-18 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《采后生物学pdf》,可适用于自然科学领域,主题内容包含P:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:PostharvestBiology符等。

P:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:PostharvestBiologyandTechnologyofFruits,Vegetables,andFlowersiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:iiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:PostharvestBiologyandTechnologyofFruits,Vegetables,andFlowersEditedbyGopinadhanPaliyath,PhDDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaDennisPMurr,PhDDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaAvtarKHanda,PhDDepartmentofHorticulturePurdueUniversityWestLafayette,IndianaSusanLurie,PhDAgriculturalResearchOrganizationTheVolcaniCenterBetDaganIsraelAJohnWileySons,Ltd,PublicationiiiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:EditionfirstpublishedcWileyBlackwellPublishingBlackwellPublishingwasacquiredbyJohnWileySonsinFebruaryBlackwell’spublishingprogramhasbeenmergedwithWiley’sglobalScientific,Technical,andMedicalbusinesstoformWileyBlackwellEditorialOfficStateAvenue,Ames,Iowa,USAFordetailsofourglobaleditorialoffices,forcustomerservices,andforinformationabouthowtoapplyforpermissiontoreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbook,pleaseseeourwebsiteatwwwwileycomwileyblackwellAuthorizationtophotocopyitemsforinternalorpersonaluse,ortheinternalorpersonaluseofspecificclients,isgrantedbyBlackwellPublishing,providedthatthebasefeeispaiddirectlytotheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MAForthoseorganizationsthathavebeengrantedaphotocopylicensebyCCC,aseparatesystemofpaymentshasbeenarrangedThefeecodesforusersoftheTransactionalReportingServiceareISBN:DesignationsusedbycompaniestodistinguishtheirproductsareoftenclaimedastrademarksAllbrandnamesandproductnamesusedinthisbookaretradenames,servicemarks,trademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheirrespectiveownersThepublisherisnotassociatedwithanyproductorvendormentionedinthisbookThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercoveredItissoldontheunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservicesIfprofessionaladviceorotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalshouldbesoughtLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataPostharvestbiologyandtechnologyoffruits,vegetables,andflowerseditedbyGopinadhanPaliyathetalstedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)FruitPostharvestphysiologyVegetablesPostharvestphysiologyFlowersPostharvestphysiologyFruitPostharvesttechnologyVegetablesPostharvesttechnologyFlowersPostharvesttechnologyIPaliyath,GopinadhanSBP’dcAcataloguerecordforthistitleisavailablefromtheUSLibraryofCongressSetinptTimesbyAptaraRInc,NewDelhi,IndiaPrintedinSingaporebyMarkonoPrintMediaPteLtdiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:ContentsContributorsviiiPrefacexiPostharvestBiologyandTechnology:AnInternationalPerspectiveGopinadhanPaliyath,DennisPMurr,AvtarKHanda,andSusanLurieCommonFruits,Vegetables,Flowers,andTheirQualityCharacteristicsGopinadhanPaliyathandDennisPMurrBiochemistryofFruitsGopinadhanPaliyathandDennisPMurrBiochemistryofFlowerSenescenceAjayAroraProgrammedCellDeathduringPlantSenescenceAjayAroraEthylenePerceptionandGeneExpressionWillisOOwinoandHiroshiEzuraEnhancingPostharvestShelfLifeandQualityinHorticulturalCommoditiesUsingMCPTechnologySusanLurieandGopinadhanPaliyathStructuralDeteriorationoftheProduce:TheBreakdownofCellWallComponentsPradeepSNegiandAvtarKHandavP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:viCONTENTSStructuralDeteriorationinProduce:PhospholipaseD,MembraneDeterioration,andSenescenceGopinadhanPaliyath,KrishnarajTiwari,HaiyingYuan,andBruceDWhitakerPhospholipaseDInhibitionTechnologyforEnhancingShelfLifeandQualityGopinadhanPaliyathandJayasankarSubramanianHeatTreatmentforEnhancingPostharvestQualitySusanLurieTheRoleofPolyphenolsinQuality,PostharvestHandling,andProcessingofFruitsHPVasanthaRupasingheIsoprenoidBiosynthesisinFruitsandVegetablesAndrewSchofieldHPVasanthaRupasinghe,andGopinadhanPaliyathPostharvestTreatmentsAffectingSensoryQualityofFreshandFreshCutProductsElazarFallikPolyaminesandRegulationofRipeningandSenescenceSavithriNambeesan,AvtarKHanda,andAutarKMattooPostharvestEnhancementofPhenolicPhytochemicalsinApplesforPreservationandHealthBenefitsKalidasShetty,IshanAdyanthaya,YoungInKwon,EmmanouilApostolidis,ByungjinMin,andPaulDawsonRhizosphereMicroorganismsandTheirEffectonFruitQualityVıctorOlaldePortugalandHortenciaGabrielaMenaViolanteBiotechnologicalApproachestoEnhancingTropicalFruitQualityMiguelAngelGomezLimPostharvestFactorsAffectingPotatoQualityandStorabilitySastrySJayantyP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:CONTENTSviiBiosensorBasedTechnologiesfortheEvaluationofQualityBarryByrne,NeilCarolan,andRichardO’KennedyChangesinNutritionalQualityofFruitsandVegetablesDuringStorageMohiniSharma,CaroleSitbon,JayasankarSubramanian,andGopinadhanPaliyathIndexP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:ContributorsIshanAdyanthayaDepartmentofFoodScienceUniversityofMassachusettsAmherst,MassachusettsEmmanouilApostolidisDepartmentofFoodScienceUniversityofMassachusettsAmherst,MassachusettsAjayAroraDivisionofPlantPhysiologyIndianAgriculturalResearchInstituteNewDelhiIndiaBarryByrneAppliedBiochemistryGroupSchoolofBiotechnologyDublinCityUniversityGlasnevinDublinIrelandNeilCarolanAppliedBiochemistryGroupSchoolofBiotechnologyDublinCityUniversityGlasnevinDublinIrelandPaulDawsonFoodScienceandHumanNutritionClemsonUniversityClemson,SouthCarolinaHiroshiEzuraGeneResearchCenterGraduateSchoolofLifeandEnvironmentalSciencesUniversityofTsukubaTennodaiTsukubaJapanElazarFallikDepartmentofPostharvestScienceofFreshProduceAgriculturalResearchOrganizationTheVolcaniCenterBetDaganIsraelMiguelAngelGomezLimDepartamentodeIngenieriaGeneticadePlantasCinvestavCampusGuanajuatoKmLibramientoNorteCarrIrapuatoLeon,ApdoCPIrapuatoMexicoviiiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:CONTRIBUTORSixAvtarKHandaDepartmentofHorticulturePurdueUniversityWestLafayetteIndianaSastrySJayantyDepartmentofHorticultureandLandscapeArchitectureColoradoStateUniversitySanLuisValleyResearchCenterEastRoadNorthCenter,ColoradoYoungInKwonDepartmentofFoodScienceUniversityofMassachusettsAmherst,MassachusettsSusanLurieAgriculturalResearchOrganizationTheVolcaniCenterBetDaganIsraelAutarKMattooResearchPlantPhysiologistSustainableAgriculturalSystemsLaboratoryUSDA,ARS,ANRI,SASLBldg,RoomBARCWestBeltsville,MarylandHortenciaGabrielaMenaViolanteDepartamentodebiotecnologiayBioquimicaCentrodeInvestigacionydeEstudiosAvanzadosIPNUnidadIrapuatoKmLibramientoNorteCarrIrapuatoLeon,ApdoCPIrapuatoMexicoByungjinMinFoodScienceandHumanNutritionClemsonUniversityClemson,SouthCarolinaDennisPMurrDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaSavithriNambeesanDepartmentofHorticulturePurdueUniversityWestLafayette,IndianaPradeepSNegiDepartmentofHorticulturePurdueUniversityWestLafayette,IndianaRichardO’KennedyAppliedBiochemistryGroupSchoolofBiotechnologyDublinCityUniversityGlasnevinDublinIrelandVıctorOlaldePortugalDepartamentodebiotecnologiayBioquimicaCentrodeInvestigacionydeEstudiosAvanzadosIPNUnidadIrapuatoKmLibramientoNorteCarrIrapuatoLeon,ApdoCPIrapuatoMexicoWillisOOwinoGeneResearchCenterGraduateSchoolofLifeandEnvironmentalSciencesUniversityofTsukubaTennodaiTsukubaJapanP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:xCONTRIBUTORSGopinadhanPaliyathDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaHPVasanthaRupasingheTreeFruitBioProductResearchProgramDepartmentofEnvironmentalSciencesNovaScotiaAgriculturalCollegeTruro,NovaScotiaBNECanadaAndrewSchofieldDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelpOntarioNGWCanadaMohiniSharmaDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaKalidasShettyDepartmentofFoodScienceUniversityofMassachusettsAmherst,MassachusettsCaroleSitbonDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaJayasankarSubramanianDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphVinelandStationVictoriaAveNVineland,OntarioLREOCanadaKrishnarajTiwariDepartmentofPlantAgricultureUniversityofGuelphOntarioNGWCanadaBruceDWhitakerProduceQualityandSafetyLabBeltsvilleAgriculturalResearchCenterUSDAARSBeltsville,MarylandHaiyingYuanCollegeofHorticultureXinjiangAgriculturalUniversityNanchangRoadUrumqi,XinjiangPeople’sRepublicofChinaP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:PrefacePostharvestpracticesforthepreservationoffruits,vegetables,andflowersareperhapsoneoftheoldestinhumanhistoryWiththeunderstandingofthemolecularprocessesthatoccurduringplantsenescence,thisdisciplinehasdevelopeduniquefeaturesofitsownTraditionally,postharvestscienceisconsideredasanappliedsciencefocusingonthephysiologicalaspectsofenhancementofshelflifeandpreservationofqualityofhorticulturalproduceHowever,inthepasttwodecades,biochemicalandmolecularbiologicalaspectshavebeenextensivelyusedforanalyzingpostharvestissuesThepresentworkisacompilationofsomeoftheadvancesinbasicaspectsofpostharvestsciencePostharvestissuesarecommonaroundtheworldTheextentofthelossofhorticulturalproduceafterharvestcanvaryindifferentcountriesInthosepartsoftheworldwherethemethodsofagriculturalproductionandstorageemployadvancedtechnology,postharvestlossesmaybeminimal,andmostofitoccursduringthetransitofproducefromtheproductionsitetothedestinationalongtheconsumerchainThelossescanrangefromtobyvolumeIntropicswheretheproductionpracticesarebasicandbasedondaytodaydemand,thepostharvestlossescanbeashighasoroverItissurprisingandabitdisturbingtoseethatfruitsareconsideredasluxuryitemsinsomepartsoftheworldInanerawhereweconsidertheconsumptionoffruitsandvegetablesasameansofhealthpromotion,postharvestsciencegetsanewmeaningTherefore,tocompilethekeyaspectsofpostharvestsciencethroughinternationalauthorshasbeenhelpfulinaddressingsomeoftheseissuesAcommonthemeinmostchaptersistolinkthebiochemicalandmolecularaspectsrelevanttothattopicwithpostharvestimplicationsAswell,severalnoveladvancesintheareahavebeenbroughtoutThechaptershavebeenorganizedinsuchawaythatthephysiologicalaspectsarelinkedtothepostharvestaspectsThechaptersonbiochemistryoffruits,followedbyflowers,giveanoverallpictureofmetabolicprocessesinhorticulturalproduceTheroleofethylenereceptors,MCPtechnologytoblockethylenereceptoractionchangestocellwallandmembranestructurethatoccurduringripening,biosynthesisofqualitycomponents,technologiesforshelflifeenhancementandqualitypreservationandqualitydetermination,andnutritionalaspects,etc,havebeendealtwithinthefollowingchaptersOverall,thebookcoversseveraltopicsthatarenotnormallydealtwithinthebooksdealingwithpostharvestscienceatpresentAnexamplewillbethechapteronmembranedeteriorationTheimportanceofmembranepreservationandthusmaintenanceofmembranecompartmentalizationisatopicthathasbeendealtwithforoveryearsItisxiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:xiiPREFACEdifficulttofindabookthatdealswiththistopicatpresentInaddition,wehavealsodescribedthetechnologyofmembranepreservationthroughtheinhibitionofphospholipaseD,thekeyenzymethatinitiatesmembranephospholipiddegradationPhospholipaseDinhibitiontechnologyusinghexanalshowsgreatpromiseandmayserveasawidespreadtechnologyforthepreservationoforganicallygrownhorticulturalproduceWhilepreparingthisbook,wehavegivenadequateconsiderationtopresentthemostadvancedinformationonalltopicsInaconstantlyevolvingfield,thisisalwaysnoteasyhowever,thecontentsareintendedforstudentsintheareaofhorticultureandpostharvestscienceaswellasscientistsandotherprofessionalsWebelievethatthecontentswillenrichtheknowledgeandprovideafreshangletoseveralissuesinpostharvestscienceAswell,thecontributionsbyinternationallyreputedexpertsintheareaprovidegreatdepthtotheindividualtopicsTheeditorialteamwishestothankallthecontributorsfortheirgreateffortandtakingtimeincompletingthechaptersinanexcellentfashionandmakingthiseffortintoasuccessTheeditorialteamalsowishestothankthewholeheartedsupport,encouragement,andprofessionalismshownbythepublishingteamatWileyBlackwellduringthepreparationofthebookandbringingitintoasuccessfulproductionGopinadhanPaliyathDennisPMurrAvtarKHandaSusanLurieP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:PostharvestBiologyandTechnologyofFruits,Vegetables,andFlowersiiiP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:iP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:ChapterPostharvestBiologyandTechnology:AnInternationalPerspectiveGopinadhanPaliyath,DennisPMurr,AvtarKHanda,andSusanLurieImportanceoffruits,vegetables,andflowersinworldeconomyTheproductionoffruits,vegetables,andflowershasbeenanimportantsectorinthetotalworldagriculturaloutputAlthoughanaccurateeconomiccontributionfromthesesegmentsaroundtheworldisdifficulttoobtainbecauseofthereportingsystems,itisestimatedthatthecontributionfromthesesegmentscouldbeoverUS$billionTheglobalizationoftradeandfreetradeagreementshavetremendouslyincreasedthetransactionandtransportofthesecommoditiesacrossnationsandcontinentsTheweatherpatternsintheNorthernHemispherearenotsuitedfortheroutineproductionoftropicalproduce,andthereforefruitssuchasbanana,pineapple,mango,citrusfruits,andtomatoareexportedtocountriesintheNorthernHemisphereTheproductionofflowersinNorthAmericahasseverelybeenaffectedbyimportsfromSouthandCentralAmericaThus,fruits,vegetables,andflowersareproducedandtransportedfromSouthandCentralAmericaandMexicototheUnitedStatesandCanadafromEuropetoAsiafromIndiatotheMiddleEastfromIsraelandEgypttoEuropefromChinatothePacificregionandfromAustralia,NewZealand,andSouthAfricatocountriesaroundtheworldCanadaalone,withapopulationofnearlymillion,importsthesecommoditiesvaluedinexcessofUS$billionThecostofproductionisafactorthathaspositivelyinfluencedsuchtradesCountrieswherelaborcostsarelowcaneffectivelycompetewithlowerpricedproduceThesefactorshaveinfluencedthelocaleconomiesandagriculturalproductionpracticesinseveralcountriesSeveralinternationalandgovernmentalagencieshavekepttrackoffruitsandvegetablesavailableforconsumptiononapercapitabasisIntheUnitedStates,theamountoffreshandprocessedfruitsavailableforconsumptionincreasedfromlbperpersonperyearintolbperpersonperyearin,registeringagrowth(Cook,)Similarly,theamountoffreshandprocessedvegetablesavailableforconsumptionincreasedfromlbperpersonperyearintolbperpersonperyearin,registeringagrowth(Cook,)StatisticsCanada(FoodStatistics,)estimatesthattotalfruitsavailableforconsumptionincreasedfromkgpercapitaintokgpercapitainThepercapitaavailabilityofvegetablesdecreasedfromkgintokginP:SFKRPWP:SFKRPWQC:SFKRPWT:SFKBLBSPaliyathclsSeptember,:POSTHARVESTBIOLOGYTECHNOLOGYOFFRUITS,VEGETABLES,FLOWERSImportanceoffruitsandvegetablesasfoodHumanevolutionwaspotentiallylinkedinitiallytotheconsumptionofnaturallyavailablefruitsandvegetables,whichlatermighthaveresultedintheselectionofpreferredplantsandvarietiesforagricultureThecultivationofgrapesanditsprocessingintowineisaclassicexampleoftheuseoffruitsFruitsandvegetablesarealsousedintraditionalmedicalsystemssuchasAyurvedaFruitsandvegetablesaremajorsourcesofseveralessentialnutrientsthatincludevitaminsAandCandfolicacidInaddition,fruitsandvegetablesarerichinantioxidantssuchascarotenoids,polyphenols,andanthocyaninsthathelpcombatfreeradicalsproducedwithinthebodyandtheexcessproductionofwhichhasbeenrelatedtothedevelopmentofcardiovasculardiseases,Alzheimer’s,maculardegeneration,andcancersFruitsandvegetablesareintegralcomponentsoffoodinallsocietieshowever,insomepartsoftheworld,thisislimitedduetoagriculturalcollapseorsociopoliticalconflictsFruitsareconsideredashighvalueitemsandnotreadilyaccessibletoeconomicallychallengedsegmentsofpopulationaroundtheworldWiththeresultsfromanumberofepidemiologicalstudiesspanningseveralcountriesandcontinentsandpopulationgroupsshowingtherelationbetweenincreasedfruitandvegetableconsumptionandareducedriskofdevelopingmaladiessuchascardiovascularandcerebrovasculardiseases,cancer,neurodegenerativediseasessuchasAlzheimer’s,andmaculardegenerationAverypositiveattitudetowardfruitandvegetableconsumptionhasemergedrecently,especiallyinadvancedcountriesInCanada,fruitsandvegetablesformanimportantsegmentofthefoodguideDailyservingsofor

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