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首页 英语语法难点.doc

英语语法难点.doc

英语语法难点.doc

上传者: liuxiaoyun89 2012-05-14 评分 5 0 142 19 647 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《英语语法难点doc》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含不定式难点:不定式作定语英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小不定式做定语)不定式做定语时与中心词之间在逻辑上有以下几种关系:()很多名词后可接不定式做定符等。

不定式难点:不定式作定语英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小不定式做定语)不定式做定语时与中心词之间在逻辑上有以下几种关系:()很多名词后可接不定式做定语如ability,ambition,anxiety,attempt,campaign,chance,courage,decision,determination等。这类名词通常表示抽象概念后面用动词不定式做定语解释中心词的内容。在这种结构中不能用分词形式。例:ThepressurecausesAmericanstobeenergetic,butitalsoputsthemunderaconstantemotionalstrainAtocompete  Ctobecompeted  Bcompeting  Dhavingcompeted【答案】A。本句的意思是“竞争的压力使美国人精力充沛但也使他们的精神始终处于紧张状态。”名词pressure后应加不定式做定语说明pressure的内容。因此本题答案是A。选项B是现在分词D现在分词的完成式都不符合语法规定。选项C中的compete是不及物动词不能用被动语态所以这三个选项都不正确。()不定式与它修饰的名词是逻辑上的动宾关系这些动词不定式可能是及物的(带宾语)也可能是不及物的如果不定式中的动词是不及物动词则不定式后要加介词因为此时不定式与其修饰的名词实质上有动宾关系。例:Couldyoufindsomeone?AformetoplaytenniswithBformetoplaytennisCplaytenniswithDplayingtennis【答案】A。本句的意思是“请你找个人来和我打网球。”()不定式所修饰的名词和不定式中的动词所表示的动作是逻辑上的主谓关系(此时该不定式短语可转化为一个定语从句)。如:LiXuemeiwasthefirstathletetogettothefinishingline李雪梅是第一个到达终点的选手。)不定式作定语主动形式代替被动形式的几种情况:()不定式与它修饰的名词是逻辑上的动宾关系且主句的主语是不定式中的动词所表示动作的逻辑主语或在句中能找到其逻辑主语。如:Hehasalotofworktodotoday.今天他有大量的活要干。Ourteacherarrangedussixexercisestodoathome.老师给我们安排了六道练习题在家里做。(us是todo的逻辑主语)()有些句子中尽管行文上没有不定式的逻辑主语但是从句意角度可以体会出不定式中隐含着“forsb.todo”结构。此时不定式应该用主动式。例如:Thereisnothing(forus)toworryabout.没有什么可值得担忧的。例:Becauseairpollutionhasbeengreatlyreduced,thiscityisstillagoodplaceAtoliveBforlivinginCtobelivedinDtolivein【答案】D。本句的意思是“因为污染大大减少了这座城市是一个居住的好地方。”不定式tolivein和前面的修饰语agoodplace形成了动宾关系文中虽然没有出现tolivein的逻辑主语但是却隐含着forus的意思因此不定式应当使用主动形式。()在“with/without+宾语+宾语补足语”结构中若宾语补足语是不定式(作定语)不定式所表示的动作将要发生且句子的主语是该动作逻辑上的执行者此时不定式须用主动式。例:Withalotofdifficultproblems,thenewlyelectedpresidentishavingahardtimeAsettledBsettlingCtosettleDbeingsettled【答案】C。本句的意思是“由于有几次会议要参加所以他不能和我们一起去长城了。”宾语从句难点:插入语疑问句英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小试题:HowlongdidshesayinShanghaiAthatshewouldstayBwouldshestayCwouldstayDshewouldstay()先看下面的铺垫:插入语疑问句在thinkbelievesupposeexpectsay等动词所跟的宾语从句中如果要对宾语从句中的相关信息进行提问通常要用到“插入语疑问句”。该结构以所询问信息有关的疑问词开头主句的主位成分变成插入语而宾语从句仍然使用陈述语序。如:IthinkthatJohnwillarriveatfiveo’clock(提问atfiveo’clock)WhendoyouthinkJohnwillarrive(此处的doyouthink变成了插入语)需要注意的是必须根据所提问的内容选用适当的疑问词特别是当问及的内容是人的时候需确定用who(在从句中充当主语)还是用whom(在从句中充当宾语)。如:WebelievethatPeterwillbegiventheprize(提问Peter从句中充当主语)WhodoyoubelievewillbegiventheprizeTheyexpectedthattheteacherwouldcriticizePeter(提问Peter从句中充当宾语)Whomdidtheyexpecttheteacherwouldcriticize例:Ihaven’theardfromHenryforalongtimeWhatdoyouthinktohimAishappeningBwashappeningCtohappenDhappens【答案】B。doyouthink为插入语插入特殊疑问句时疑问句用陈述结构故what为主语happen形式为谓语因此B为正确答案。()试题分析试题中的didshesay作为了插入语使用同时里面的宾语从句要使用陈述语序因此选项D正确选项A错误。状语从句语法练习英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小状语从句是将以前学过的主谓宾状句型中的状语扩大成一个完整的句子并用连词引导。准确掌握每一个连词的含义是掌握状语从句的关键。同时要注意主从句时态呼应。Nosoonerhadtheygotoffthetrainitstartedmoving(年)AwhenBthanCthenDafterItisveryimportantforthestrongmantoknowthatstrongheis,hecannotbethestrongest(年)AwhateverBwheneverCwhicheverDhoweverIadmitthatthereareproblems,Idon’tagreethattheycannotbesolved(年)AWhenBAsCWhileDSinceWe’llbeonlytoogladtoattendyourpartywecangetababysitter(年)AsofarasBprovidedthatCunlessDexceptthatshefindsoutthatyou’velostherbooks(年)AAsifBEvenifCWhatifDSupposethatHetalksasifheeverythingintheworld(年)AknowsBknewChadknownDwouldhaveknownyoudisagreewithher,herideaisstillworthconsidering考虑(年)AEvenifBIfonlyCInsteadofDDespiteofInshort,helives,amanbelongstosomesociety(年)AwhateverBwheneverCwhicheverDwhereverShehaswantedtobecomeanursesinceshewasayounggirl(年)AlongBoftenCalwaysDeverRubberdiffersfromplasticsitisproducednaturallyandnotinfilelab(年)AatthatBinthatCforthatDwiththatkeyNosoonerhadtheygotoffthetrainitstartedmoving(年)AwhenBthanCthenDafter解析:答案选B。表示“一……就……”可以有三种搭配:nosooner…than…hardly…when…scarcely…when…。注意连词的搭配。本句的意思是:“他们刚把货物盖好就开始下雨了。”Itisveryimportantforthestrongmantoknowthatstrongheis,hecannotbethestrongest(年)AwhateverBwheneverCwhicheverDhowever解析:答案选D。however引导让步状语从句修饰strong。that引导宾语从句的句意是:无论他多么强壮他都不是最强壮的。Iadmitthatthereareproblems,Idon’tagreethattheycannotbesolved(年)AWhenBAsCWhileDSince解析:答案选C。while表示虽然。句意是:虽然我承认有些问题但我不同意说就解决不了这些问题。We’llbeonlytoogladtoattendyourpartywecangetababysitter(年)AsofarasBprovidedthatCunlessDexceptthat解析:答案选B。providedthat=if。句意是:我们要是能找到人看孩子就会非常高兴地参加你们的聚会。注意句中onlytoo表示“非常”shefindsoutthatyou’velostherbooks(年)AAsifBEvenifCWhatifDSupposethat解析:答案选C。whatif=whatwillhappenif。Hetalksasifheeverythingintheworld(年)AknowsBknewChadknownDwouldhaveknown解析:答案选B。asif引导的状语从句中表示一种不真实的情况时要使用虚拟语气。其构成是:表示对现在发生事情的假设用一般过去时态表示对过去发生事情的假设用过去完成时态。youdisagreewithher,herideaisstillworthconsidering考虑(年)AEvenifBIfonlyCInsteadofDDespiteof解析:答案选A。evenif表示“即使”ifonly:要不是insteadof:代替后接短语despiteof:尽管后接短语。Inshort,helives,amanbelongstosomesociety(年)AwhateverBwheneverCwhicheverDwherever解析:答案选D。wherever=nomatterwhere本题意是:简而言之无论一个人主在哪里他都是属于某个社会的。Shehaswantedtobecomeanursesinceshewasayounggirl(年)AlongBoftenCalwaysDever解析:答案选D。eversince相当于since,表示自从。Rubberdiffersfromplasticsitisproducednaturallyandnotinfilelab(年)AatthatBinthatCforthatDwiththat“It”作形式主语和形式宾语的用法详解英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小“It”作形式主语和形式宾语的用法详解赵文通It作形式主语和形式宾语用法是英语学习的主要语法项目之一。无论是单项选择还是完行填空it用法始终是反复考查的重、热点之一。现将it在特殊句型中作形式主语和形式宾语用法进行如下归纳分析以供学习参考。一、It用作形式主语当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在某个句子中作主语时为保持句子结构前后平衡避免头重脚轻因此常用it作形式主语置于句首而将真正的主语放在句尾。此时it只起先行引导作用本身无词义。egItiswrongtotellalie(说谎是错误的。)〔It为totellalie的形式主语〕Itisnousearguingaboutit(争吵是没用的。)〔It为arguingaboutit的形式主语〕Itisuncertainwhowillcome(谁要来还不确定。)〔It为whowillcome的形式主语〕It作形式主语的常见句型:Itbe形容词todosthdoingthat…egItisveryimportanttolearnaforeignlanguage(学一门外语非常重要。)Itisuselesscryingoverthespiltmilk(覆水难收。)Itwasreallysurprisingthatshemarriedamanlikethat(她嫁给那样的男士真让人惊讶。)Itbe名词词组doingthat…egItisnogoodtellinglies(撒谎没好处。)Itisapitythatyoudidn’tgotoseethefilmyesterday(你昨天没看成那部电影真遗憾。)ItisatruththattherewouldbenonewChinawithouttheCommunistParty(没有共产党就没有新中国这是毋庸质疑的。)Itbe过去分词that…该句型常见动词有:say,hope,think,suppose,expect,report,know,believe,decide,etcegItissaidthattheyhaveinventedanewtypeofcomputer(据说他们发明了一种新型电脑。)ItisbelievedthatChinawillbecomeoneofthestrongestcountriesintheworld(大家都相信中国将会步入世界强国之列。)Itwasreportedthatmorethanthousandpeoplediedinthetsunami(据报道至少有十七万人在年那场海啸中丧生。)Itseemsappearshappens等不及物动词that…egItseemsthatheenjoyspopsongsverymuch(似乎他非常喜欢流行歌曲。)ItappearsthatTommightchangehismind(看来汤姆可能会改变主意。)若句子是疑问形式就只能用it作形式主语。egDoesitmattermuchthattheywon’tcometomorrow(他们明天不来很重要吗?)Isittruethathewillgoabroadnextweek(他下周出国是真的吗?)Ittakes(sb)sometimetodosth这是一个表示“(某人)花多少时间干某事”的句型其中it是形式主语代替后面的不定式(todosth)句型中的sb也可以省略。egIttookmesometimetoreadthereadingmaterials(我花了一些时间才读完那段阅读材料。)IttookhimfourteenhourstogotoNewZealandfromShanghaibyplane(从上海乘飞机去新西兰花了他小时。)HowlongdoesittakeyoutogotoBeijingfromQingdaobytrain(从青岛坐火车到北京一般要花多久时间?)Iamnotsure,butIthinkittakesatleastninehourstogetthere(我不能肯定但估计至少要九个钟头才能到那儿。)二、It用作形式宾语当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在某个句子中作宾语时为保持句子结构平衡避免句式结构的混乱常用it作形式宾语而将真正的宾语放在句尾。此时it仍只起先行引导作用本身无词义。下列四种情况须用it作形式宾语:当不定式(短语)、动名词(短语)或从句在复合宾语结构中作某些动词的宾语时(如think,make,find,consider,feel,suppose等)egTheyfounditpleasantthattheyworkedwithusChinese(他们发现与我们中国人一起工作很愉快。)Idon’tfeelitdifficulttounderstandtheSpecialEnglish(我觉得理解英语特别节目并不难。)Hemakesitarulenevertoborrowmoney(他立志决不向别人借钱。)Ithinkitnoneedtalkingaboutitwiththem(我认为没必要跟他们谈。)某些表示“喜、怒、哀、乐”的动词如like,enjoy,love,hate等往往不能直接接宾语从句egIdon’tlikeitthathe’ssolazy(我不喜欢他那么懒惰。)Ihateitwhenmymotherasksmetoeateggs(我讨厌母亲要我吃鸡蛋。)that引导的宾语从句不能直接作介词的宾语egYoumaydependonitthatweshallalwayshelpyou(尽管放心我们会随时帮你的。)Wouldyouseetoitthatshegetshomeearly(你负责保证她早到家好吗?)Heinsistedonitthathewasinnocent(他坚持说自己是无辜的。)由及物动词与介词组成的固定搭配中宾语从句若作该动词的宾语时须借用it。egIleaveittoyourownjudgementwhetheryoushoulddoit(我让你自己判断这事是否该做。)Weoweittoyouthattherewasn’taseriousaccident(多亏了你才没有发生严重事故。)练习一IsnecessarytocompletethedesignbeforeNationalDayAthisBthatCitDheIdon’tthinkpossibletomasteraforeignlanguagewithoutmuchmemoryworkAthisBthatCitsDitDoesmatterifhecan’tfinishthejobontimeAthisBthatCheDitTom’smotherkepttellinghimthatheshouldworkharder,butdidn’thelpAheBwhichCsheDitisafactthatEnglishisbeingacceptedasaninternationallanguageAThereBThisCThatDItIhatewhenpeopletalkwiththeirmouthsfullAitBthatCtheseDthemDon’tthatallthosewhogetgoodgradesintheentranceexaminationwillprovetobethemostsuccessfulAtakeasgrantedBtakethisforgrantedCtakethatforgrantedDtakeitforgrantedIlikeintheautumnwhentheweatherisclearandbrightAthisBthatCitDone练习二happenedheisunfitfortheofficeAThisthatBThatthatCItthatDHethatWetookforgrantedthattheywouldacceptouradviceAthatBthisCitDthemthatthescientistwillgiveusatalknextmonthAIstrueBIsittrueCIt’strueDIt’strulydoesn’tmattermuchdressyouaregoingtowearAThisthatBThatwhoCItwhichDItwhoisgoingtoAmericaforfurtherstudyAHeissaidthatBPeoplesaidthatheCItwassaidheDItissaidthatheTheyaregoodfriendsisnowonderthattheyknoweachothersowellAThisBThatCThereDItIspossibletoflytothemooninaspaceshipAthisBthereCthatDitShelikedwhenhekissedherAhimBthatConeDitwilldoyougoodtodosomeexerciseeverymorningAItBThereCThoseDOneWethinkourdutytopaytaxestoourgovernmentAthatBthisCitsDitKey:练习一CDDDDADC练习二CCBCDDDDAD定语从句语法练习英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小导言在学习定语从句时请注意关系代词和关系副词的区别关系代词在从句中起到的是名词的作用而关系副词起的是副词或介词短语的作用即状语的作用。Anoldfriendfromabroad,Iwasexpectingtostaywith,telephonedmefromtheairport(年)AthatBwhomCwhoDwhichThisisoneofthebestbooksonthesubject(年)AthathaveeverbeenwrittenBwhichhaveeverbeenwrittenCthathaseverbeenwrittenDwhateverhavebeenwrittenTheUnitedStatesiscomposedoffiftystates,twoofthoseareABseparatedfromtheothersbylandorwater(年)CDAcurve曲线isalinenopartisstraightandwhichhasnoangle()AthatBwhoseCinwhichDofwhichBeforejoiningthearmy,hespentalotoftimeinthevillagehebelonged(年)AtowhichBwhichCtowhereDatwhichTheexperiment,willsoonbeannounced,wasdonebymycolleagues(年)AwhoseresultsBtheresultsonwhichCatwhichtheresultsDofwhoseresultsisknowntoall,toomuchsmokingwillcauselungcancer(年)AThatBItCAsDWhatDonottrustsuchmenoftenliketopraiseyoutoyourface(年)AwhoBthatCasDtheyInhislatestarticleTomcriticizesthewaywhichthewarABCisbeinghandled(年)DHelenwasmuchkindertoheryoungestchildthanshewastotheothers,,ofcourse,madetheothersjealous(年)AwhoBwhatCthatDwhichkey定语从句典型试题Anoldfriendfromabroad,Iwasexpectingtostaywith,telephonedmefromtheairport(年)AthatBwhomCwhoDwhich解析:答案选B。whom,关系代词在定语从句中做with的宾语指人。本句中的定语从句是非限制性定语从句。that不引导非限制性定语从句。Thisisoneofthebestbooksonthesubject(年)AthathaveeverbeenwrittenBwhichhaveeverbeenwrittenCthathaseverbeenwrittenDwhateverhavebeenwritten解析:答案选A。因为先行词books前有形容词的最高级best修饰所以只能用that引导定语从句选A。当先行词前有形容词最高级、only或very修饰时要用that引导这个定语从句。定语从句中的谓语和先行词保持一致。TheUnitedStatesiscomposedoffiftystates,twoofthoseareABseparatedfromtheothersbylandorwater(年)CD解析:答案选B。应改为:twoofwhich。在非限制性定语从句中限定词some,any,none,all,several以及表示数量的词可与ofwhom,ofwhich连用。先行词是物用ofwhich是人用ofwhom。本题中which指fiftystates。Acurve曲线isalinenopartisstraightandwhichhasnoangle()AthatBwhoseCinwhichDofwhich解析:答案选D。“介词关系代词”可引导定语从句。Nopartof是固定短语因此用ofwhich,而不用inwhich。Beforejoiningthearmy,hespentalotoftimeinthevillagehebelonged(年)AtowhichBwhichCtowhereDatwhich解析:答案选A。belong是不及物动词其后接to之后才接宾语belongto:属于。因此选towhich。where是关系副词不能置于介词之后。towhich引导的从句是定语从句。Theexperiment,willsoonbeannounced,wasdonebymycolleagues(年)AwhoseresultsBtheresultsonwhichCatwhichtheresultsDofwhoseresults解析:答案选A。此句为非限制性定语从句。关系代词whose在从句中作results的定语。whose是代词的所有格它既可以代人也可以代物。isknowntoall,toomuchsmokingwillcauselungcancer(年)AThatBItCAsDWhat解析:答案选C。as引导的是一个非限制性定语从句。as代替后面提到的句子。Donottrustsuchmenoftenliketopraiseyoutoyourface(年)AwhoBthatCasDthey解析:答案选C。当先行词被such修饰时其后的定语从句要用as引导。InhislatestarticleTomcriticizesthewaywhichthewarABCisbeinghandled(年)D解析:答案选C。名词way后接定语从句时要用that引导。C改为:that。Helenwasmuchkindertoheryoungestchildthanshewastotheothers,,ofcourse,madetheothersjealous(年)AwhoBwhatCthatDwhich解析:答案选D。本题考察非限制性定语从句。名词性从句语法练习英语语法::阅读评论字号:大中小Wewerenotsurprised感到惊讶的at,forhehadworkedsohard(年)AwhathasheachievedBthatwhathehadachievedCwhathehadachievedDthathehadachievedIsawwastwomencrossingthestreet(年)AWhatBWhomCWhoDThatMaryfounditdifficulttotalkcalmlyaboutwhichsheABChadexperiencedatthestation(年)DWouldthenewshefailedtopasstheexambotheryou(年)AwhichBthatCofwhichDonwhichThefacthedoessoinsoshortperiodoftimechallengesexplanation(年)AwhyBthatCwhatDwhichTheoldgentlemanneverfailstohelpisinneedofhishelpAwhomBwhoCwhoeverDwhomeverwasunimportant。(年)AWhetherheenjoyedourdinnerornotBNomatterhowheenjoyedourdinnerCIfheenjoyedourdinnerDWhatheenjoyedourdinnerHowlongdoyouthinktofinishthisurgenttaskAdidittakeyouBitwilltakeyouCwillittakeyouDittotakeyouwasnotthewaytheeventhappenedAWhichthepressreportedBThatthepressreportedCWhatdidthepressreportDWhatthepressreportedNoonedoubtsitistrueAwhetherBifCthatDwhatkeyWewerenotsurprised感到惊讶的at,forhehadworkedsohard(年)AwhathasheachievedBthatwhathehadachievedCwhathehadachievedDthathehadachieved解析:答案选C。at是介词其后接宾语从句时从句要用陈述句的语序。achieve是及物动词what在从句中作宾语所以选C。that在从句中只起连接作用无意义。Isawwastwomencrossingthestreet(年)AWhatBWhomCWhoDThat解析:答案选A。本句中的主语是主语从句what在从句中作宾语。MaryfounditdifficulttotalkcalmlyaboutwhichsheABChadexperiencedatthestation(年)D解析:答案选C。what引导宾语从句what在从句中作experience的宾语。C应改为:what。Wouldthenewshefailedtopasstheexambotheryou(年)AwhichBthatCofwhichDonwhich解析:答案选B。由于从句hefailedtopasstheexam是news的内容所以这是一个同位语从句应该用that引导。Thefacthedoessoinsoshortperiodoftimechallengesexplanation(年)AwhyBthatCwhatDwhich解析:答案选B。fact后的从句讲的是fact的内容所以是同位语从句引导同位语从句的连词只能使用that。TheoldgentlemanneverfailstohelpisinneedofhishelpAwhomBwhoCwhoeverDwhomever解析:答案选C。本句中需要填入一个连接代词引导宾语从句。且此代词要在从句中作主语。A、D都只能作宾语。whoever引导宾语从句。who也可以引导宾语从句但whoever强调无论谁。wasunimportant。(年)AWhetherheenjoyedourdinnerornotBNomatterhowheenjoyedourdinnerCIfheenjoyedourdinnerDWhatheenjoyedourdinner解析:答案选A。本句中包含一个主语从句意思是“他是否喜欢我们的饭不重要。”只有A最符合题意。B、C中的nomatterhow和if都引导状语从句D项中的what在从句中作主语或宾语而本从句中有主语和宾语。HowlongdoyouthinktofinishthisurgenttaskAdidittakeyouBitwilltakeyouCwillittakeyouDittotakeyou解析:答案选B。think后接宾语从句。从句不倒装。wasnotthewaytheeventhap

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