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首页 考研英语阅读

考研英语阅读.doc

考研英语阅读

sunlight
2012-05-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《考研英语阅读doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

Passage    Intwobrothers,MacandDickMcDonald,startedadriveinrestaurantinSanBernadino,CaliforniaTheycarefullychoseabusycornerfortheirlocationTheyhadruntheirownbusinessesforyears,firstatheater,thenabarbecue(烤肉)restaurant,andthenanotherdriveinButintheirnewoperation,theyofferedanew,shortenedmenu:Frenchfries,hamburgers,andsodasTothissmallselectiontheyaddedonenewconcept:quickservice,nowaitersorwaitresses,andnotips    TheirhamburgerssoldforfifteencentsCheesewasanotherfourcentsTheirFrenchfriesandhamburgershadaremarkableuniformity,forthebrothershaddevelopedastrictroutineforthepreparationoftheirfood,andtheyinsistedontheircooks'stickingtotheirroutineTheirnewdriveinbecameincrediblypopular,particularlyforlunchPeopledroveupbythehundredsduringthebusynoontimeTheselfservicerestaurantwassopopularthatthebrothershadallowedtencopiesoftheirrestauranttobeopenedTheywerecontentwiththismodestsuccessuntiltheymetRayKroc    KrocwasasalesmanwhomettheMcDonaldbrothersin,whenhewassellingmilkshakemixingmachinesHequicklysawtheuniqueappealofthebrothers'fastfoodrestaurantsandboughttherighttofranchise(特许经营)othercopiesoftheirrestaurantsTheagreementstruckincludedtherighttoduplicatethemenuTheequipment,eventheirredandwhitebuildingswiththegoldenarches(拱门)    TodayMcDonald'sisreallyahouseholdnameItsnamesforitssandwicheshavecometomeanhamburgerinthedecadessincethedayRayKrocwatchedpeoplerushuptoorderfifteencenthamburgersIn,McDonald'shadover$billionintotalsalesItsfirsttwentytwoyearsisoneofthemostincrediblesuccessstoriesinmodernAmericanbusinesshistory    Thispassagemainlytalksabout        A) thedevelopmentoffastfoodservices  B) howMcDonald'sbecameabilliondollarbusiness  C) thebusinesscareersofMacandDickMcDonald  D) RayKroc'sbusinesstalent    MacandDickmanagedallofthefollowingbusinessesexcept       A)adrivein    B)acinema    C)atheater    D)abarbecuerestaurant    Wemayinferfromthispassagethat         A)MacandDickMcDonaldneverbecamewealthyfortheysoldtheirideatoKroc    B)ThelocationtheMcDonaldschosewastheonlysourceofthegreatpopularityoftheirdrivein  C)Fortyyearsagotherewerenumerousfastfoodrestaurants  D) RayKrocwasagoodbusinessman    Thepassagesuggeststhat       A) creativityisanimportantelementofbusinesssuccess  B) RayKrocwastheclosepartneroftheMcDonaldbrothers  C) MacandDickMcDonaldbecamebrokenaftertheysoldtheirideastoRayKroc  D) Californiaisthebestplacetogointobusiness    Asusedinthesecondsentenceofthethirdparagraph,theworduniquemeans      A)special    B)financial    C)attractive    D)peculiarPassage    You'rebusyfillingouttheapplicationformforapositionyoureallyneedlet'sassumeyouonceactuallycompletedacoupleofyearsofcollegeworkoreventhatyoucompletedyourdegreeIsn'tittemptingtoliejustalittle,toclaimontheformthatyourdiplomarepresentsaHarvarddegreeOrthatyoufinishedanextracoupleofyearsbackatStateUniversity    Moreandmorepeopleareturningtoutterdeceptionlikethistolandtheirjobortomoveaheadintheircareers,forpersonnelofficers,likemostAmericans,valuedegreesfromfamousschoolsAjobapplicantmayhaveagoodeducationanyway,butheorsheassumesthatchancesofbeinghiredarebetterwithadiplomafromawellknownuniversityRegistrarsatmostwellknowncollegessaytheydealwithdeceitfulclaimsliketheseattherateofaboutoneperweek    Personnelofficersdocheckupondegreeslistedonapplicationforms,thenIfitturnsoutthatanapplicantslying,mostcollegesarereluctanttoaccusetheapplicantdirectlyOneIvyLeagueschoolcallsthemimpostors(骗子)anotherreferstothemasspecialcasesOnewellknownWestCoastschool,inperhapsthemostdelicatephraseofall,saysthattheseclaimsaremadebynosuchpeople    Toavoidoutright(彻底的)lies,somejobseekersclaimthattheyattendedorwereassociatedwithacollegeoruniversityAftercarefullychecking,apersonnelofficermaydiscoverthatattendingmeansbeingdismissedafteronesemesterItmaybethatbeingassociatedwithacollegemeansthatthejobseekervisitedhisyoungerbrotherforafootballweekendOneschoolthatkeepsrecordsoffalseclaimssaysthatthepracticedatesbackatleasttotheturnofthecenturythat'swhentheybegankeepingrecords,anyhow    Ifyoudon'twanttolieorevenstretchthetruth,therearecompaniesthatwillsellyouaphony(假的)diplomaOnecompany,withofficesinNewYorkandontheWestCoast,willputyournameonadiplomafromanynumberofnonexistentcollegesThepricebeginsataroundtwentydollarsforadiplomafromSmootStateUniversityThepricesincreaserapidlyforadegreefromtheUniversityofPurdueAsthereisnoSmootStateandtherealschoolinIndianaproperlycalledPurdueUniversity,thepricesseemratherhighforonesheetofpaper    Themainideaofthispassageisthat         A) employersarecheckingmorecloselyonapplicantsnow  B) lyingaboutcollegedegreeshasbecomeawidespreadproblem  C) collegedegreescannowbepurchasedeasily  D) employersarenolongerinterestedincollegedegrees    Accordingtothepassage,specialcasesrefertocaseswhere         A) studentsattendaschoolonlyparttime  B) studentsneverattendedaschooltheylistedontheirapplication  C) studentspurchasefalsedegreesfromcommercialfilms  D) studentsattendedafamousschool    Wecaninferfromthepassagethat          A) performanceisabetterjudgeofabilitythatacollegedegree  B) experienceisthebestteacher  C) pastworkhistoriesinfluencepersonnelofficersmorethandegreesdo  D) adegreefromafamousschoolenablesanapplicanttogainadvantageoverothersinjobpetition    Thispassageimpliesthat          A) buyingafalsedegreeisnotmoral  B) personnelofficersonlyconsiderapplicantsfromfamousschools  C) mostpeoplelieonapplicationsbecausetheyweredismissedfromschool  D) societyshouldbegreatlyresponsibleforlyingonapplications    Asusedinthefirstlineofthesecondparagraph,theworduttermeans       A)address    B)thorough    C)ultimate    D)decisive Passage    EveryonehasheardoftheSanAndreasfault(断层),whichconstantlythreatensCaliforniaandtheWestCoastwithearthquakesButhowmanypeopleknowabouttheequallyseriousNewMadridfaultinMissouri    BetweenDecemberofandFebruaryof,threemajorearthquakesoccurred,allcenteredaroundthetownofNewMadrid,Missouri,ontheMississippiRiverPropertydamagewassevereBuildingsintheareawerealmostdestroyedWholeforestsfellatonce,andhugecracksopenedintheground,allowingsmellofsulfur(硫磺)tofilterupward    TheMississippiRiveritselfcompletelychangedcharacter,developingsuddenrapidsandwhirlpoolsSeveraltimesitchangeditscourse,andonce,accordingtosomeobservers,itactuallyappearedtorunbackwardsFewpeoplewerekilledintheNewMaridearthquakes,probablysimplybecausefewpeoplelivedintheareainbuttheseverityoftheearthquakesareshownbythefactthattheshockwavesrangbellsinchurchtowersinCharleston,SouthCarolina,onthecoastBuildingsshookinNewYorkCity,andclockswerstoppedinWashington,DCScientistsnowknowthatAmerica'stwomajorfaultsareessentiallydifferentTheSanAndreasisahorizontalboundarybetweentwomajorlandmassesthatareslowlymovinginoppositedirectionsCaliforniaearthquakesresultwhenthemovementofthesetwomassessuddenlylurches(倾斜)forward    TheNewMadridfault,ontheotherhand,isaverticalfaultatsomepoints,possiblyhundredsofmillionsofyearsago,rockwaspusheduptowardthesurface,probablybyvolcanoesunderthesurfaceSuddenly,thevolcanoescooledandtherockcollapsed,leavinghugecracksEvennow,therockcontinuestosettledownwards,andsuddensinkingmotionstrigger(触发)earthquakesintheregionThefaultitself,alargecrackinthislayerofrock,withdozensofothercracksthatsplitofffromit,extendsfromnortheastArkansasthroughMissouriandintosouthernlllinois    ScientistswhohavestudiedtheNewMadridfaultsaytherehavebeennumeroussmallerquakesintheareasincethesesmallerquakesindicatethatlargeronesareprobablycoming,butthescientistssayhavenomethodofpredictingwhenalargeearthquakewilloccur    Thispassageismainlyabout        A)theNewMadridfaultinMissouri    B)theSanAndreasandtheNewMadridfaults  C)thecausesoffaults         D)currentscientificknowledgeaboutfaults    TheNewMadridfaultis         A) ahorizontalfault  B) averticalfault  C) amoreseriousfaultthantheSanAndreasfault  D) responsibleforformingtheMississippiRiver    Wemayconcludefromthepassagethat         A) itisprobablyasdangeroustoliveinMissouriasinCalifornia  B) theNewMadridfaultwilleventuallydevelopamountainrangeinMissouri  C) Californiawillbecomeanislandinfuture  D) AbigearthquakewilloccurtoCaliforniasoon    Thispassageimpliesthat          A) horizontalfaultsaremoredangerousthanverticalfaults  B) Verticalfaultsaremoredangerousthanhorizontalfaults  C) Earthquakesoccuronlyaroundfaultareas  D) Californiawillbreakintopiecesbyaneventualearthquake    Asusedinthefirstsentenceofthefourthparagraph,thewordessentiallymeans        A)greatly    C)basically    B)extremely    D)necessarilyPassage    ThosewhowelcomedtherailwaysawitasmorethanarapidandcomfortablemeansofpassingTheyactuallysawitasafactorinworldpeaceTheydidnotforeseethattherailwaywouldbejustonemoremeansfortherapidmovementofaggressivearmiesNoneofthemforesawthatthemorewearetogetherthemorechancesthereareofwarAnyboyorgirlwhoisoneofalargefamilyknowsthat    Wheneveranynewinventionisputforward,thoseforitandthoseagainstitcanalwaysfindmedicalmentoapproveorcondemnTheantirailwaygroupproduceddoctorswhosaidthattunnelswouldbemostdangeroustopublichealth:theywouldproducecolds,catarrhs(粘膜炎)andconsumptionsThedeafeningnoiseandtheglareoftheenginefire,wouldhaveabadeffectonthenervesFurther,beingmovedthroughtheairatahighspeedwoulddograveinjurytodelicatelungsInthosewithhighbloodpressure,themovementofthetrainmightproduceapoplexy(中风)Thesuddenplungingofatrainintothedarknessofatunnel,andtheequallysuddenrushintofulldaylight,wouldcausegreatdamagetoeyesightButtheprorailwaygroupwasofcourseabletoproduceequallyfamousmedicalmentosayjusttheoppositeTheysaidthatthespeedandswingofthetrainwouldequalizethecirculation,promotedigestion,tranquilizethenerves,andensuregoodsleep    TheactualrollingstockwasanythingbutcomfortableIfitwasatestofendurancetositforfourhoursoutsideacoachinrain,orinsideindirtyair,therailwayofferedlittlemoreinthewayofcomfortCertainlythefirstclasscarriageshadcushionedseatsbutthesecondclasshadonlynarrowbareboards,whilethethirdclasshadnothingatallnoseatsandnorooftheywerejustopentrucksSothatthirdclasspassengersgainednothingfromthefewmodeexceptspeedInthematterofcomfort,indeedtheylosttheydid,onthecoaches,haveaseat,butnowtheyhadtostandalltheway,whichgaveopportunitiestothecomic(滑稽的)pressThiskindofthing:AmanwasseenyesterdaybuyingathirdclassticketforthenewLondonandBirminghamRailwayThestateofhismindisbeingenquiredinto    AwriterintheearlydaysofrailwayswrotefeelinglyofbothsecondandthirdclasscarriagesHemadethesuggestionthatthedirectorsoftherailwaysmusthavesentallovertheworldtofindthehardestpossiblewoodOftheopenthirdclasstruckshesaidthattheyhadthepeculiarpropertyofmeetingtherainfromwhateverquarteritcameHedescribedthemashorizontalshowerbaths,fromwhosesearchingpowertherewasnoescape    Allboysandgirlsinlargefamiliesknowthat           A) aboyandagirlusuallyfightwhentheyaretogether  B) peopletendtobetogethermorethantheyusedtobe  C) alotofpeoplebeingtogethermakesfightslikely  D) Railwayleadstheworldtopeace    Accordingtothosewhowelcomedtherailway,therailwayitselfshouldincludeallthefollowingexcept           A) therailwayenablespeopletravelfast  B) therailwaybringscomforttopeople  C) therailwaymakestheworldpeaceful  D) therailwayleadstheworldtowaraswell    Accordingtotheantirailwaygroup,allthefollowingsaretruebut           A) tunnelsaredangeroustopublichealth  B) thenoiseandtheglareoftheenginefiremayaffectpeople'snerves  C) therapidspeedthroughtheairdoesdamagetopeople'slungs  D) tothosewithhighbloodpressure,therapidspeedofthetraincausesthemtodie    Wemaysafelyconcludethat           A) theauthorbelongstotheantirailwaygroup  B) theauthorbelongstotheforrailwaygroup  C) theauthorspeakshighlyoftherailway  D) theauthormaynevertaketrainbecauseofitspotentialdangers    Whatisthetoneofthispassage    A)Practical     B)Satirical     C)Humorous    D)ExaggeratedPassage    In,Chad(乍得)harvestedtonsofcottonseedforthefirsttimeinitshistory,andputouttheflagalittletoosoonTheeffortsoftheauthoritiestogetthepeasantsbacktowork,astheyhadslackedoff(松懈)agreatdealthepreviousyearduringindependencecelebrations,largelycontributedtoitAlso,rainswerewellspaced,andcontinuedthroughthewholemonthofOctoberIfthetotalisbacktotheregionoftons,itismostlybecauseeffortsslackenedagainandsowingwasstartedtoolate    TheaveragedateofsowingisaboutJulystIfthisdateissimplymovedupfifteenortwentydays,totonsofcottonaregained,dependingontheyearThepeasantinChadsowshismillet(小米)first,anditishardtocriticizethisinstinctiveprioritygiventohisdailybreadAnessentialreasonforhislatenesswithsowingcottonisthatatthetimewhenheshouldleavetopreparethefieldshehasjustbarelysoldthecottonofthepreviousseasonTheworkrequiredtosow,ingreatheat,ispsychologicallyfarmoredifficultifone'spocketsarefullofmoneyThedateofcottonsalesshouldthereforebemovedforwardasmuchaspossible,andpurchasesofequipmentanddraughtanimalsencouraged    Peasantsshouldalsobeencouragedtosavemoney,tohelpthemthroughthedifficultperiodbetweenharvestsIfnecessarytheyshouldbeforcedtodoso,byhavingthepaymentsforcottongiventothemininstallments(分期付款)Thelastpaymentwouldbemadeafterproofthatthepeasanthasplantedbeforethedeadline,thedatebeingadvancedtotheendofJuneThosewhohavedonesowouldreceiveextramoneywhereasthelastplanterswouldnotreceivetheirlastpaymentuntillater    Onlythefirststepsarehard,becauseonceworkhasstartedthepeasantscontinuewillinglyontheirwayEducationalcampaignsamongthepeasantswillplayanessentialroleinthisbasicadvance,earlysowing,onwhichalltheothersdependItisnotamatterofcontrollingthepeasantsEachpeasantwillremainmasterofhisfieldsOnecould,however,suggesttheneedforthetimebeingofkindbutfirmrule,which,aslongasitcannotberealizedbythepeople,shouldatleastbeforthepeople    In,Chadhadagoodharvestofcottonbecause          A) thegovernmentgreatlyencouragedpeasants  B) rainsfavoredthegrowthofcotton  C) Chadgainedindependenceinthepreviousyear  D) BothA)andB)    Welearnfromthepassagethatthedateofsowingcottonisusually       A)onJuneth    B)onJulyth    C)onJulyst    D)onJulyth    Asusedinthethirdsentenceofthesecondparagraph,dailybreadrefersto         A)breakfast    B)breadandbutter    C)rice    D)millet    Inordertohelpthemthroughthedifficulttimebetweenharveststhepeasantshaveto       A) sellcottoninadvance    B) beencouragedtosavemoney  C) sowcottonintime     D) plantmilletfirst    WhichofthefollowingisNOTtrue    A) Educationalcampaignsareveryimportanttoearlysowing  B) Ofalltheadvancesthatthewriterhopesfor,earlysowingisthemostimportant  C) Peasantsshouldremainthemastersoftheirfields  D) Governmentmightaswellmakegoodandfirmruleforpeasants Passage    WecanmakemistakesatanyageSomemistakeswemakeareaboutmoneyButmostmistakesareaboutpeopleDidJerryreallycarewhenIbrokeupwithHelenWhenIgotthatgreatjob,didJimreallyfeelgoodaboutit,asafriendOrdidheenvymyluckAndPaulwhydidn'tpickupthathewasfriendlyjustbecauseIhadacarWhenwelookback,doubtslikethesecanmakeusfeelbadButwhenwelookback,it'stoolate    WhydowegowrongaboutourfriendsorourenemiesSometimeswhatpeoplesayhidestheirrealmeaningAndifwedon'treallylistenwemissthefeelingbehindthewordsSupposesomeonetellsyou,You'realuckydogThat'sbeingfriendlyButluckydogThere'sabitofenvyinthosewordsMaybehedoesn'tseeithimselfButbringinginthedogbitputsyoudownalittleWhathemaybesayingisthatthedoesn'tthinkyoudeserveyourluck    JustthinkofallthethingsyouhavetobethankfulforisanothernoisethatsaysonethingandmeansanotherItcouldmeanthatthespeakeristryingtogetyoutoseeyourproblemaspartofyourlifeasawholeButisheWrappedupinthisphraseisthethoughtthatyourproblemisn'timportantIt'stellingyoutothinkofallthestarvingpeopleintheworldwhenyouhaven'tgotadateforSaturdaynight    Howcanyoutelltherealmeaningbehindsomeone'swordsOnewayistotakeagoodlookatthepersontalkingDohiswordsfitthewayhelooksDoeswhathesaysagreewiththetoneofvoiceHisposture(姿态)ThelookinhiseyesStopandthinkTheminuteyouspendthinkingabouttherealmeaningofwhatpeopletoyoumaysaveanothermistake    Thispassageismainlyabout         A)howtointerpretwhatpeoplesay  B)whattodowhenyoulistentootherstalking  C)howtoavoidmistakeswhenyoucommunicatewithpeople  D)Whywegowrongwithpeoplesometimes    Accordingtotheauthor,thereasonwhywegowrongaboutourfriendsisthat        A)Wefailtolistencarefullywhentheytalk  B)Peopletendtobeannoyedwhenwecheckwhattheysay  C)Peopleusuallystateonethingbutmeansanother  D)Wetendtodoubtwhatourfriendssay    InthesentenceMaybehedoesn'tseeithimselfinthesecondparagraph,thepronounitrefersto  A)beingfriendly    C)luckydog    B)abit

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