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The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Political.History.since.the.First.World.War,.Kamrava,.University.of.California.Press,.2ed,.2011.pdf

The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Politi…

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简介:本文档为《The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Political.History.since.the.First.World.War,.Kamrava,.University.of.California.Press,.2ed,.2011pdf》,可适用于学术研究领域,主题内容包含TheModernMiddleeasTpraiseforthefirsteditionofthemodernmiddleeast“MehanKamr符等。

The Modern Middle easT praise for the first edition of the modern middle east “Mehan Kamrava provides an in-depth analysis not only of political history but also of other issues that have plagued this part of the world for so many years and that may remain unresolved for years to come.” — Mahmood Monshipouri, author of Islamism, Secularism, and Human Rights in the Middle East “This is an ambitious, stimulating book that synthesizes a broad range of literature on Middle East history and politics. The author analyzes many important issues in the region, emphasizing the challenges countries face in overcoming historical legacies, developing accountable leadership, recovering from conflict, and developing productive economies.” — Bradford Dillman, author of State and Private Sector in Algeria: The Politics of Rent-seeking and Failed Development “At a time when sensational books on the Middle East fill the market, this is a serious and sober contribution that will help students and lay people alike. The author approaches the highly charged emotional issues of the Middle East with sensitivity and objectivity.” — As‘ad AbuKhalil, author of The Battle for Saudi Arabia: Royalty, Fundamentalism, and Global Power “A very well-researched, accessible, and up-to-date book. Kamrava’s themes are well chosen; his analysis is cogent and lucid.” —Manochehr Dorraj, author of Middle East at the Crossroads The Modern Middle East a Political history since the First World War second ediTion MEhran KaMrava UniversiTy oF caliFornia Press Berkeley los angeles london University of California Press, one of the most distinguished university presses in the United States, enriches lives around the world by advancing scholarship in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Its activities are supported by the UC Press Foundation and by philanthropic contributions from individuals and institutions. For more information, visit www.ucpress.edu. University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England 2011 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kamrava, Mehran, 1964 – . The modern Middle East : a political history since the First World War / Mehran Kamrava. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn 978-0-520-26774-9 (cloth : alk. paper) isbn 978-0-520-26775-6 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Middle East — History — 20th century. 2. Middle East — History — 21st century. 3. Middle East — Politics and government — 20th century. 4. Middle East — Politics and government — 21st century. I. Title. DS62.8.k365 2011 956.04 — dc22 2010023250 Manufactured in the United States of America 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 This book is printed on Cascades Enviro 100, a 100% postconsumer waste, recycled, de-inked fiber. FSC recycled certified and processed chlorine free. It is acid free, Ecologo certified, and manufactured by BioGas energy. To Melisa, Dilara, and Kendra This page intentionally left blank v i i list of illustrations ix list of Tables xi acknowledgments to the First edition xiii acknowledgments to the second edition xv introduction 1 ParT I. a PolITIcal hIsTory of ThE MIddlE EasT 9 1. From islam to the Great War 11 2. From Territories to independent states 37 3. The age of nationalism 69 4. The arab-israeli Wars 109 5. The iranian revolution 140 6. The Gulf Wars and Beyond 170 ParT II. IssuEs In MIddlE EasTErn PolITIcs 213 7. The Palestinian-israeli conflict 215 8. The challenge of economic development 259 9. states and Their opponents 297 10. The Question of democracy 345 11. challenges Facing the Middle east 374 notes 393 Bibliography 449 index 481 contents This page intentionally left blank i x fIgurEs 1. Turkish women in a late nineteenth-century harem. 27 2. Women in algiers in the 1880s. 51 3. Mustafa Kemal atatürk and reza shah Pahlavi confer. 61 4. Female members of the iraqi home Guard march in Baghdad, 1959. 73 5. david Ben-Gurion, the first prime minister of the state of israel. 79 6. israeli women take an oath to join the haganah, Tel aviv, 1948. 81 7. egyptian women celebrate nasser’s announcement of women’s right to vote, 1956. 95 8. egyptian boys and girls receive military training during the suez canal crisis, 1956. 98 9. israeli soldiers celebrate capturing Jerusalem in the 1967 War. 122 10. egyptian soldiers celebrate crossing the suez canal in the 1973 War. 131 11. ayatollah Khomeini, leader of iran’s islamic revolution. 155 12. iraqi female police officers during their graduation ceremony at the Baghdad Police college. 183 13. iraqi forces on the “highway of death.” 187 14. shi`ite iraqi women mourn after the Gulf War in 1991. 189 15. osama bin laden’s videotaped messages were broadcast on al-Jazeera. 201 16. saddam hussein’s statue is toppled in Baghdad. 205 Illustrations x / i l lUs Tr aT i ons 17. President saddam hussein. 206 18. British occupation forces search iraqi women for weapons. 207 19. iraqi women inspect the site of a car bomb explosion in Bayaa district. 209 20. emuna Zvi yona bathes her son at the unauthorized outpost of Maoz esther. 216 21. yasser arafat, chairman of the Palestine liberation organization, president of the Palestinian national authority. 228 22. a settler tosses wine at a Palestinian woman on shuhada street in hebron. 237 23. yitzhak rabin and yasser arafat sign the oslo accords. 244 24. Women march in support of hamas. 251 25. a Jewish settler prays at sunrise from a former outpost near nablus. 254 26. a Palestinian woman inspects the rubble of her house after israeli missile strikes. 255 27. a Palestinian woman flashes the “v for victory” sign at israeli soldiers. 256 28. skyscrapers of sheikh Zayed road, dubai, at night. 286 29. iranian president Mahmoud ahmadinejad. 348 MaPs 1. The modern Middle east. xvi 2. The sykes-Picot agreement. 43 3. French and British mandates after World War i. 47 4. The United nations Partition Plan. 82 5. Territories captured by israel in 1967. 121 x i 1. Jewish immigration in each Aliya 78 2. Phases in Palestinian nationalism 87 3. Palestinian refugees of the 1948 War 90 4. Population Growth in selected West Bank settlements 236 5. GnP and GdP average annual Growth rate in developing countries 265 6. Growth of GdP in selected Middle eastern countries, 1980 – 2008 266 7. Global levels of Foreign direct investment 287 8. share of Manufactures in Total Merchandise Trade by region, 2007 288 9. Trade indicators in selected Middle eastern countries, 2007 289 10. commodity structure of arab international Trade, 2003 – 7 290 11. arab World Trade Partners, 2003 – 7 291 12. Population characteristics of the Middle east 376 13. Fertility rates in the Middle east as compared to other World regions 379 14. Foreign labor Force in the oil Monarchies, 1975 – 2000 381 15. age structure in the Middle east, 2007 382 16. Per capita Water availability and the ratio of supply and demand in the Middle east 386 Tables xi This page intentionally left blank x i i i The research and writing of this book would not have been possible without the kindness and generosity of a number of individuals. I greatly benefited from the research assistance of Annmarie Hunter and Emily Smurthwaite. I am most grateful for their diligence and their enthusiasm for this project from start to finish. Terrence Thorpe, another outstanding student, also read several chapters and gave valuable suggestions. Bradford Dillman, Manochehr Dorraj, Nader Entessar, Mark Gasiorowski, Nikki Keddie, and Mahmood Monshipouri kindly read all or some of the chapters and gave invaluable and insightful advice. Of course, any omissions or shortcom- ings remain entirely my fault. Work on Chapter 8 was partly funded by a generous grant from the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge. This book is the outgrowth of more than a decade of teaching and lec- turing on the politics and history of the Middle East. In the process, I have learned a great deal from the innumerable students who have shared with me their insights, experiences, criticisms, and comments. Both directly and indirectly, their input is no doubt reflected here. For that, I am grateful. Chapter 9 is an expanded, much revised version of an article that origi- nally appeared in Third World Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, 1998, pp. 63 – 85. I am grateful to TWQ’s editor, Shahid Qadir, for permission to quote extensively from the article here. My wife, Melisa Çanli, deserves special thanks. Over the nearly five years that it took to write this book, she put up with my many solitary hours behind the computer, my frequent mood swings, and my far-too- often frowns. All along, she never wavered in her loving support for my work. As I was in the final stages of preparing the book, she gave birth to our beautiful daughter, Dilara. As a meager token of my love and gratitude, I dedicate this book to them both. acknowledgments to the first Edition This page intentionally left blank x v Some five years after its original publication, the book continues to benefit from the input and advice of many colleagues and research assistants who helped with its original inception and its subsequent publication back in 2005. In the intervening years, countless friends and associates, and at times anonymous readers, have pointed out various ways in which the first edition could be improved upon. I am thankful for their input, their constructive criticisms, and their suggestions for improvement. I have been extremely fortunate to work with Naomi Schneider, my editor at the University of California Press, whose guidance, encouragement, and patience with delays in completing this edition were tremendously help- ful in shaping the book. Grateful acknowledgment also goes to Simone Popperl, my superb research assistant on this book, especially for her help with updates to many of the tables appearing throughout the manuscript. Any project of this magnitude is a product of love, and I have been extremely fortunate to be surrounded by a most loving family who self- lessly gave me the time and the peace and quiet needed to complete work on this edition. My wife, Melisa, and our daughters, Dilara and Kendra, always provided the loving support and the emotional nourishment that I needed to work on the book’s second edition. For that, and for much more that cannot be adequately expressed in words, I dedicate this book to them. acknowledgments to the second Edition ISRAEL LEBANON BAHRAIN QATAR UAE MAURITANIA MOROCCO ALGERIA TUNISIA LIBYA EGYPT SUDAN JORDAN SYRIA TURKEY IRAQ IRAN SAUDI ARABIA OMAN YEMEN 0 200 400 600 800 miles KUWAIT Map 1. The modern Middle East. 1 This book examines the political history of the contemporary Middle East. Although it focuses primarily on the period since the demise of the Ottoman Empire, shortly after World War I, it includes some discussion of pre-Ottoman and Ottoman histories to better clarify the background and the context in which modern Middle Eastern political history has taken shape. The book uses a broad conception of the “Middle East” as a geo- graphic area that extends from Iran in the east to Turkey, Iraq, the Arabian peninsula, the Levant (Lebanon and Syria), and North Africa, including the Maghreb, in the west. Maghreb is the Arabic word for “Occident” and has historically been used to describe areas west of Egypt. In modern times it has come to refer to Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. Libya is also some- times included as part of the Maghreb, but it is more commonly grouped with Egypt as belonging to North Africa. Although there are vast differences between and within the histories, cultures, traditions, and politics of each of these regions within the Middle East, equally important and compelling shared characteristics unify the region. By far the most important of these are language, ethnicity, and religion. Much of Middle Eastern identity is wrapped around the Arabic language. Poetry and storytelling have historically been viewed as elevated art forms. As Fouad Ajami has observed, “[P]oetry, it has been said, was (and is) to the Arabs what philosophy was to the Greeks, law to the Romans, and art to the Persians: the repository and purest expression of their dis- tinctive spirit.” 1 Even in places where it is not the national language and is not widely spoken, as in Iran and in Turkey, Arabic, the language of the Quran, permeates life with its many expressions and phrases. Another common bond in the Middle East is Arab ethnic identity. From Iraq in the north down to the Arabian peninsula and west all the way to Introduction 2 / i n T rodUcT i on Morocco, ethnic Arabs predominate. There are, of course, significant clus- ters of other ethnic groups. A majority of Iranians are Persians, and Turks are predominant in Turkey. Apart from the so-called “Arab-Israelis” — Palestinians who found themselves in Israel’s borders when the country was born in 1948 — Jews are the dominant group in Israel. As Chapter 7 discusses, however, there is a debate as to whether Jews are members of an ethnic group or believers in a religious faith. Additionally, there are several “stateless” ethnic groups, by far the largest being the Kurds, who are mostly in southeastern Turkey, western Iran, northern Iraq, and north- eastern Syria. There are also sizable Berber communities throughout the Maghreb. But despite these diverse ethnic communities, much of the Arab world remains ethnically homogenous and strongly identifies with its ethnicity. An even stronger bond uniting the region is religion, with some 97 percent of Middle Easterners identifying themselves as Muslim. That Islam is a whole way of life and not just a religion is a cliché. But regardless of their ethnicity, where they live, and what language they speak, the faithful share a compelling set of beliefs and rituals that transcend national bound- aries with remarkable ease. At its strictest, Islam is austere and exacting. But even in its most liberal settings and interpretations, it permeates the life of the Middle East in ways few other phenomena do. Its relentless emphasis on community, its injunctions on the one billion faithful to all face Mecca in prayer and to fast together in the same month, its deep penetration of languages far removed from Arabic, its reverence for the Prophet Muhammad, who called for submission (Islam) to God (Allah) — all of these reinforce the sense of belonging to a whole far bigger than its individual, national components. Since the early decades of the twentieth century, Islam as a source of cross-national unity has steadily lost ground to state-specific nationalism, but it continues to be a powerful and compel- ling source of common identification among fellow Muslims around the world, especially in the Middle East. In addition to the important, uniting phenomena of ethnicity, language, and religion are the curse and the blessings of a common historical heritage. Much of the Middle East, with the exceptions of Iran and Morocco, expe- rienced centuries of Ottoman rule, generally from the mid – sixteenth cen- tury up until the waning years of the nineteenth century. The Ottomans’ hold on the Middle East was often tenuous and frequently interrupted. Over the centuries, however, for better or for worse, from their capital in Istanbul they managed to leave their imprint on such far-off places as Cairo, Tripoli, and Tunis. Once the Ottomans were gone, the British and i n T rodUcT i on / 3 the French took their place, leaving on their colonial possessions their own distinctive marks. Perhaps the biggest relic of British rule, aside from the drawing of artificial national borders, was the institution of monarchy, which they secured in almost all the lands they ruled, from Egypt to Jordan, Iraq, and the Arabian peninsula. The French colonial inheritance was less political and more cultural, although in the Levant they left behind republican systems that mimicked their own. For the French what mattered most was the superiority of their civilization, and they ensured its posterity by making French the lingua franca of the Maghreb. Today, urban Moroccans, Algerians, and Tunisians speak and study in French with as much ease as they converse in Arabic. This, of course, is the case with millions of others in Francophone Africa as well. Nevertheless, the powerful forces uniting the Middle East — religion, ethnicity, and language — have at times also been sources of division and conflict. In many historical episodes subtle differences in dialect or ethnic identity have served as powerful catalysts for the articulation of national or subnational loyalties and even political mobilization. The Middle East, it must be remembered, is far from monolithic and homogenous. Its dif- ferences have been a source of both strength and inspiration and, at times, violent bloodletting; witness the tragedy of Lebanon or the torment meted out to the Kurds. In studying the Middle East, it is often tempting to overlook the region’s rich diversity in geography, politics, and culture. Any book purporting to examine the political history of the modern Middle East is bound to remain at a certain level of generalization and not pay the necessary attention to the many, multifaceted differences within the various Middle Eastern countries and communities. This book, I am afraid, is no exception. I have taken care throughout to highlight the existence of differences, both between and within the countries and the peoples discussed, and I hope that the reader remains mindful of them as well. Nevertheless, I feel compelled to apologize to those groups whose identities or destinies may not be as thoroughly covered here as they should have been. When the “modern” era of the Middle East begins is a matter of some debate. For our purposes here, I have taken it to be in the 1920s, after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, when state systems as we have come to know them today began to be established throughout the region. But the political and historic phenomena that the Ottomans represented had roots far deeper in Middle Eastern and Islamic history than the early decades of the twentieth century. I decided, therefore, to go further back, much further back, and briefly retell the story of the Middle East since 4 / i n T rodUcT i on the appearance of Islam and how it shaped subsequent historical events in the region. Islam dramatically altered the life and historic evolution of the Middle East, but its appearance by no means marks the beginning of Middle Eastern history. As Chapter 1 makes clear, this was an arbitrary starting date, for I had to draw the line somewhere, and I chose to do so with Islam’s beginning. Had this been a work on the complete political history of the Middle East, it would have had to start with the earliest days of human civilization, along the banks of the Tigris and the Euphrates in modern-day Iraq. In addition to simple convenience and an arbitrary starting date, a deeper logic guides the choice of the chapters that follow and the topics they discuss. Politics and history are both dynamic and changeable processes. Thus the examination of either one in a snapshot is incomplete without attention to successive past developments. Contemporary political issues in the Middle East are deeply rooted in past historic and political events: consider, for

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