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首页 一战以来中东政治史(英文原版 )

一战以来中东政治史(英文原版 )

一战以来中东政治史(英文原版 )

上传者: sholokovsky 2012-05-14 评分 5 0 163 22 743 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《一战以来中东政治史(英文原版 )pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含TheModernMiddleeasTpraiseforthefirsteditionofthemodernmiddleeast“MehanKamr符等。

TheModernMiddleeasTpraiseforthefirsteditionofthemodernmiddleeast“MehanKamravaprovidesanindepthanalysisnotonlyofpoliticalhistorybutalsoofotherissuesthathaveplaguedthispartoftheworldforsomanyyearsandthatmayremainunresolvedforyearstocome”MahmoodMonshipouri,authorofIslamism,Secularism,andHumanRightsintheMiddleEast“Thisisanambitious,stimulatingbookthatsynthesizesabroadrangeofliteratureonMiddleEasthistoryandpoliticsTheauthoranalyzesmanyimportantissuesintheregion,emphasizingthechallengescountriesfaceinovercominghistoricallegacies,developingaccountableleadership,recoveringfromconflict,anddevelopingproductiveeconomies”BradfordDillman,authorofStateandPrivateSectorinAlgeria:ThePoliticsofRentseekingandFailedDevelopment“AtatimewhensensationalbooksontheMiddleEastfillthemarket,thisisaseriousandsobercontributionthatwillhelpstudentsandlaypeoplealikeTheauthorapproachesthehighlychargedemotionalissuesoftheMiddleEastwithsensitivityandobjectivity”As‘adAbuKhalil,authorofTheBattleforSaudiArabia:Royalty,Fundamentalism,andGlobalPower“Averywellresearched,accessible,anduptodatebookKamrava’sthemesarewellchosenhisanalysisiscogentandlucid”ManochehrDorraj,authorofMiddleEastattheCrossroadsTheModernMiddleEastaPoliticalhistorysincetheFirstWorldWarsecondediTionMEhranKaMravaUniversiTyoFcaliForniaPressBerkeleylosangeleslondonUniversityofCaliforniaPress,oneofthemostdistinguisheduniversitypressesintheUnitedStates,enricheslivesaroundtheworldbyadvancingscholarshipinthehumanities,socialsciences,andnaturalsciencesItsactivitiesaresupportedbytheUCPressFoundationandbyphilanthropiccontributionsfromindividualsandinstitutionsFormoreinformation,visitwwwucpresseduUniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,LtdLondon,EnglandbyTheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataKamrava,Mehran,–ThemodernMiddleEast:apoliticalhistorysincetheFirstWorldWarMehranKamravandedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbn(cloth:alkpaper)isbn(pbk:alkpaper)MiddleEastHistorythcenturyMiddleEastHistorystcenturyMiddleEastPoliticsandgovernmentthcenturyMiddleEastPoliticsandgovernmentstcenturyITitleDSkdcManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThisbookisprintedonCascadesEnviro,apostconsumerwaste,recycled,deinkedfiberFSCrecycledcertifiedandprocessedchlorinefreeItisacidfree,Ecologocertified,andmanufacturedbyBioGasenergyToMelisa,Dilara,andKendraThispageintentionallyleftblankviilistofillustrationsixlistofTablesxiacknowledgmentstotheFirsteditionxiiiacknowledgmentstothesecondeditionxvintroductionParTIaPolITIcalhIsToryofThEMIddlEEasTFromislamtotheGreatWarFromTerritoriestoindependentstatesTheageofnationalismThearabisraeliWarsTheiranianrevolutionTheGulfWarsandBeyondParTIIIssuEsInMIddlEEasTErnPolITIcsThePalestinianisraeliconflictThechallengeofeconomicdevelopmentstatesandTheiropponentsTheQuestionofdemocracychallengesFacingtheMiddleeastnotesBibliographyindexcontentsThispageintentionallyleftblankixfIgurEsTurkishwomeninalatenineteenthcenturyharemWomeninalgiersinthesMustafaKemalatatürkandrezashahPahlaviconferFemalemembersoftheiraqihomeGuardmarchinBaghdad,davidBenGurion,thefirstprimeministerofthestateofisraelisraeliwomentakeanoathtojointhehaganah,Telaviv,egyptianwomencelebratenasser’sannouncementofwomen’srighttovote,egyptianboysandgirlsreceivemilitarytrainingduringthesuezcanalcrisis,israelisoldierscelebratecapturingJerusalemintheWaregyptiansoldierscelebratecrossingthesuezcanalintheWarayatollahKhomeini,leaderofiran’sislamicrevolutioniraqifemalepoliceofficersduringtheirgraduationceremonyattheBaghdadPolicecollegeiraqiforcesonthe“highwayofdeath”shi`iteiraqiwomenmournaftertheGulfWarinosamabinladen’svideotapedmessageswerebroadcastonalJazeerasaddamhussein’sstatueistoppledinBaghdadIllustrationsxillUsTraTionsPresidentsaddamhusseinBritishoccupationforcessearchiraqiwomenforweaponsiraqiwomeninspectthesiteofacarbombexplosioninBayaadistrictemunaZviyonabatheshersonattheunauthorizedoutpostofMaozestheryasserarafat,chairmanofthePalestineliberationorganization,presidentofthePalestiniannationalauthorityasettlertosseswineataPalestinianwomanonshuhadastreetinhebronyitzhakrabinandyasserarafatsigntheosloaccordsWomenmarchinsupportofhamasaJewishsettlerpraysatsunrisefromaformeroutpostnearnablusaPalestinianwomaninspectstherubbleofherhouseafterisraelimissilestrikesaPalestinianwomanflashesthe“vforvictory”signatisraelisoldiersskyscrapersofsheikhZayedroad,dubai,atnightiranianpresidentMahmoudahmadinejadMaPsThemodernMiddleeastxviThesykesPicotagreementFrenchandBritishmandatesafterWorldWariTheUnitednationsPartitionPlanTerritoriescapturedbyisraelinxiJewishimmigrationineachAliyaPhasesinPalestiniannationalismPalestinianrefugeesoftheWarPopulationGrowthinselectedWestBanksettlementsGnPandGdPaverageannualGrowthrateindevelopingcountriesGrowthofGdPinselectedMiddleeasterncountries,–GloballevelsofForeigndirectinvestmentshareofManufacturesinTotalMerchandiseTradebyregion,TradeindicatorsinselectedMiddleeasterncountries,commoditystructureofarabinternationalTrade,–arabWorldTradePartners,–PopulationcharacteristicsoftheMiddleeastFertilityratesintheMiddleeastascomparedtootherWorldregionsForeignlaborForceintheoilMonarchies,–agestructureintheMiddleeast,PercapitaWateravailabilityandtheratioofsupplyanddemandintheMiddleeastTablesxiThispageintentionallyleftblankxiiiTheresearchandwritingofthisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthekindnessandgenerosityofanumberofindividualsIgreatlybenefitedfromtheresearchassistanceofAnnmarieHunterandEmilySmurthwaiteIammostgratefulfortheirdiligenceandtheirenthusiasmforthisprojectfromstarttofinishTerrenceThorpe,anotheroutstandingstudent,alsoreadseveralchaptersandgavevaluablesuggestionsBradfordDillman,ManochehrDorraj,NaderEntessar,MarkGasiorowski,NikkiKeddie,andMahmoodMonshipourikindlyreadallorsomeofthechaptersandgaveinvaluableandinsightfuladviceOfcourse,anyomissionsorshortcomingsremainentirelymyfaultWorkonChapterwaspartlyfundedbyagenerousgrantfromtheCollegeofSocialandBehavioralSciencesatCaliforniaStateUniversity,NorthridgeThisbookistheoutgrowthofmorethanadecadeofteachingandlecturingonthepoliticsandhistoryoftheMiddleEastIntheprocess,Ihavelearnedagreatdealfromtheinnumerablestudentswhohavesharedwithmetheirinsights,experiences,criticisms,andcommentsBothdirectlyandindirectly,theirinputisnodoubtreflectedhereForthat,IamgratefulChapterisanexpanded,muchrevisedversionofanarticlethatoriginallyappearedinThirdWorldQuarterly,vol,no,,pp–IamgratefultoTWQ’seditor,ShahidQadir,forpermissiontoquoteextensivelyfromthearticlehereMywife,MelisaÇanli,deservesspecialthanksOverthenearlyfiveyearsthatittooktowritethisbook,sheputupwithmymanysolitaryhoursbehindthecomputer,myfrequentmoodswings,andmyfartoooftenfrownsAllalong,sheneverwaveredinherlovingsupportformyworkAsIwasinthefinalstagesofpreparingthebook,shegavebirthtoourbeautifuldaughter,DilaraAsameagertokenofmyloveandgratitude,IdedicatethisbooktothembothacknowledgmentstothefirstEditionThispageintentionallyleftblankxvSomefiveyearsafteritsoriginalpublication,thebookcontinuestobenefitfromtheinputandadviceofmanycolleaguesandresearchassistantswhohelpedwithitsoriginalinceptionanditssubsequentpublicationbackinIntheinterveningyears,countlessfriendsandassociates,andattimesanonymousreaders,havepointedoutvariouswaysinwhichthefirsteditioncouldbeimproveduponIamthankfulfortheirinput,theirconstructivecriticisms,andtheirsuggestionsforimprovementIhavebeenextremelyfortunatetoworkwithNaomiSchneider,myeditorattheUniversityofCaliforniaPress,whoseguidance,encouragement,andpatiencewithdelaysincompletingthiseditionweretremendouslyhelpfulinshapingthebookGratefulacknowledgmentalsogoestoSimonePopperl,mysuperbresearchassistantonthisbook,especiallyforherhelpwithupdatestomanyofthetablesappearingthroughoutthemanuscriptAnyprojectofthismagnitudeisaproductoflove,andIhavebeenextremelyfortunatetobesurroundedbyamostlovingfamilywhoselflesslygavemethetimeandthepeaceandquietneededtocompleteworkonthiseditionMywife,Melisa,andourdaughters,DilaraandKendra,alwaysprovidedthelovingsupportandtheemotionalnourishmentthatIneededtoworkonthebook’ssecondeditionForthat,andformuchmorethatcannotbeadequatelyexpressedinwords,IdedicatethisbooktothemacknowledgmentstothesecondEditionISRAELLEBANONBAHRAINQATARUAEMAURITANIAMOROCCOALGERIATUNISIALIBYAEGYPTSUDANJORDANSYRIATURKEYIRAQIRANSAUDIARABIAOMANYEMENmilesKUWAITMapThemodernMiddleEastThisbookexaminesthepoliticalhistoryofthecontemporaryMiddleEastAlthoughitfocusesprimarilyontheperiodsincethedemiseoftheOttomanEmpire,shortlyafterWorldWarI,itincludessomediscussionofpreOttomanandOttomanhistoriestobetterclarifythebackgroundandthecontextinwhichmodernMiddleEasternpoliticalhistoryhastakenshapeThebookusesabroadconceptionofthe“MiddleEast”asageographicareathatextendsfromIranintheeasttoTurkey,Iraq,theArabianpeninsula,theLevant(LebanonandSyria),andNorthAfrica,includingtheMaghreb,inthewestMaghrebistheArabicwordfor“Occident”andhashistoricallybeenusedtodescribeareaswestofEgyptInmoderntimesithascometorefertoTunisia,Algeria,andMoroccoLibyaisalsosometimesincludedaspartoftheMaghreb,butitismorecommonlygroupedwithEgyptasbelongingtoNorthAfricaAlthoughtherearevastdifferencesbetweenandwithinthehistories,cultures,traditions,andpoliticsofeachoftheseregionswithintheMiddleEast,equallyimportantandcompellingsharedcharacteristicsunifytheregionByfarthemostimportantofthesearelanguage,ethnicity,andreligionMuchofMiddleEasternidentityiswrappedaroundtheArabiclanguagePoetryandstorytellinghavehistoricallybeenviewedaselevatedartformsAsFouadAjamihasobserved,“Poetry,ithasbeensaid,was(andis)totheArabswhatphilosophywastotheGreeks,lawtotheRomans,andarttothePersians:therepositoryandpurestexpressionoftheirdistinctivespirit” Eveninplaceswhereitisnotthenationallanguageandisnotwidelyspoken,asinIranandinTurkey,Arabic,thelanguageoftheQuran,permeateslifewithitsmanyexpressionsandphrasesAnothercommonbondintheMiddleEastisArabethnicidentityFromIraqinthenorthdowntotheArabianpeninsulaandwestallthewaytoIntroductioninTrodUcTionMorocco,ethnicArabspredominateThereare,ofcourse,significantclustersofotherethnicgroupsAmajorityofIraniansarePersians,andTurksarepredominantinTurkeyApartfromthesocalled“ArabIsraelis”PalestinianswhofoundthemselvesinIsrael’sborderswhenthecountrywasborninJewsarethedominantgroupinIsraelAsChapterdiscusses,however,thereisadebateastowhetherJewsaremembersofanethnicgrouporbelieversinareligiousfaithAdditionally,thereareseveral“stateless”ethnicgroups,byfarthelargestbeingtheKurds,whoaremostlyinsoutheasternTurkey,westernIran,northernIraq,andnortheasternSyriaTherearealsosizableBerbercommunitiesthroughouttheMaghrebButdespitethesediverseethniccommunities,muchoftheArabworldremainsethnicallyhomogenousandstronglyidentifieswithitsethnicityAnevenstrongerbondunitingtheregionisreligion,withsomepercentofMiddleEasternersidentifyingthemselvesasMuslimThatIslamisawholewayoflifeandnotjustareligionisaclichéButregardlessoftheirethnicity,wheretheylive,andwhatlanguagetheyspeak,thefaithfulshareacompellingsetofbeliefsandritualsthattranscendnationalboundarieswithremarkableeaseAtitsstrictest,IslamisaustereandexactingButeveninitsmostliberalsettingsandinterpretations,itpermeatesthelifeoftheMiddleEastinwaysfewotherphenomenadoItsrelentlessemphasisoncommunity,itsinjunctionsontheonebillionfaithfultoallfaceMeccainprayerandtofasttogetherinthesamemonth,itsdeeppenetrationoflanguagesfarremovedfromArabic,itsreverencefortheProphetMuhammad,whocalledforsubmission(Islam)toGod(Allah)allofthesereinforcethesenseofbelongingtoawholefarbiggerthanitsindividual,nationalcomponentsSincetheearlydecadesofthetwentiethcentury,Islamasasourceofcrossnationalunityhassteadilylostgroundtostatespecificnationalism,butitcontinuestobeapowerfulandcompellingsourceofcommonidentificationamongfellowMuslimsaroundtheworld,especiallyintheMiddleEastInadditiontotheimportant,unitingphenomenaofethnicity,language,andreligionarethecurseandtheblessingsofacommonhistoricalheritageMuchoftheMiddleEast,withtheexceptionsofIranandMorocco,experiencedcenturiesofOttomanrule,generallyfromthemid–sixteenthcenturyupuntilthewaningyearsofthenineteenthcenturyTheOttomans’holdontheMiddleEastwasoftentenuousandfrequentlyinterruptedOverthecenturies,however,forbetterorforworse,fromtheircapitalinIstanbultheymanagedtoleavetheirimprintonsuchfaroffplacesasCairo,Tripoli,andTunisOncetheOttomansweregone,theBritishandinTrodUcTiontheFrenchtooktheirplace,leavingontheircolonialpossessionstheirowndistinctivemarksPerhapsthebiggestrelicofBritishrule,asidefromthedrawingofartificialnationalborders,wastheinstitutionofmonarchy,whichtheysecuredinalmostallthelandstheyruled,fromEgypttoJordan,Iraq,andtheArabianpeninsulaTheFrenchcolonialinheritancewaslesspoliticalandmorecultural,althoughintheLevanttheyleftbehindrepublicansystemsthatmimickedtheirownFortheFrenchwhatmatteredmostwasthesuperiorityoftheircivilization,andtheyensureditsposteritybymakingFrenchthelinguafrancaoftheMaghrebToday,urbanMoroccans,Algerians,andTunisiansspeakandstudyinFrenchwithasmucheaseastheyconverseinArabicThis,ofcourse,isthecasewithmillionsofothersinFrancophoneAfricaaswellNevertheless,thepowerfulforcesunitingtheMiddleEastreligion,ethnicity,andlanguagehaveattimesalsobeensourcesofdivisionandconflictInmanyhistoricalepisodessubtledifferencesindialectorethnicidentityhaveservedaspowerfulcatalystsforthearticulationofnationalorsubnationalloyaltiesandevenpoliticalmobilizationTheMiddleEast,itmustberemembered,isfarfrommonolithicandhomogenousItsdifferenceshavebeenasourceofbothstrengthandinspirationand,attimes,violentbloodlettingwitnessthetragedyofLebanonorthetormentmetedouttotheKurdsInstudyingtheMiddleEast,itisoftentemptingtooverlooktheregion’srichdiversityingeography,politics,andcultureAnybookpurportingtoexaminethepoliticalhistoryofthemodernMiddleEastisboundtoremainatacertainlevelofgeneralizationandnotpaythenecessaryattentiontothemany,multifaceteddifferenceswithinthevariousMiddleEasterncountriesandcommunitiesThisbook,Iamafraid,isnoexceptionIhavetakencarethroughouttohighlighttheexistenceofdifferences,bothbetweenandwithinthecountriesandthepeoplesdiscussed,andIhopethatthereaderremainsmindfulofthemaswellNevertheless,IfeelcompelledtoapologizetothosegroupswhoseidentitiesordestiniesmaynotbeasthoroughlycoveredhereastheyshouldhavebeenWhenthe“modern”eraoftheMiddleEastbeginsisamatterofsomedebateForourpurposeshere,Ihavetakenittobeinthes,afterthecollapseoftheOttomanEmpire,whenstatesystemsaswehavecometoknowthemtodaybegantobeestablishedthroughouttheregionButthepoliticalandhistoricphenomenathattheOttomansrepresentedhadrootsfardeeperinMiddleEasternandIslamichistorythantheearlydecadesofthetwentiethcenturyIdecided,therefore,togofurtherback,muchfurtherback,andbrieflyretellthestoryoftheMiddleEastsinceinTrodUcTiontheappearanceofIslamandhowitshapedsubsequenthistoricaleventsintheregionIslamdramaticallyalteredthelifeandhistoricevolutionoftheMiddleEast,butitsappearancebynomeansmarksthebeginningofMiddleEasternhistoryAsChaptermakesclear,thiswasanarbitrarystartingdate,forIhadtodrawthelinesomewhere,andIchosetodosowithIslam’sbeginningHadthisbeenaworkonthecompletepoliticalhistoryoftheMiddleEast,itwouldhavehadtostartwiththeearliestdaysofhumancivilization,alongthebanksoftheTigrisandtheEuphratesinmoderndayIraqInadditiontosimpleconvenienceandanarbitrarystartingdate,adeeperlogicguidesthechoiceofthechaptersthatfollowandthetopicstheydiscussPoliticsandhistoryarebothdynamicandchangeableprocessesThustheexaminationofeitheroneinasnapshotisincompletewithoutattentiontosuccessivepastdevelopmentsContemporarypoliticalissuesintheMiddleEastaredeeplyrootedinpasthistoricandpoliticalevents:consider,for

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