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The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Political.History.since.the.First.World.War,.Kamrava,.University.of.California.Press,.2ed,.2011.pdf

The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Politi…

上传者: sholokovsky
48次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2012-05-14 举报

简介:The Modern Middle East—A Political History since the First World War

TheModernMiddleeasTpraiseforthefirsteditionofthemodernmiddleeast“MehanKamravaprovidesanin-depthanalysisnotonlyofpoliticalhistorybutalsoofotherissuesthathaveplaguedthispartoftheworldforsomanyyearsandthatmayremainunresolvedforyearstocome.”—MahmoodMonshipouri,authorofIslamism,Secularism,andHumanRightsintheMiddleEast“Thisisanambitious,stimulatingbookthatsynthesizesabroadrangeofliteratureonMiddleEasthistoryandpolitics.Theauthoranalyzesmanyimportantissuesintheregion,emphasizingthechallengescountriesfaceinovercominghistoricallegacies,developingaccountableleadership,recoveringfromconflict,anddevelopingproductiveeconomies.”—BradfordDillman,authorofStateandPrivateSectorinAlgeria:ThePoliticsofRent-seekingandFailedDevelopment“AtatimewhensensationalbooksontheMiddleEastfillthemarket,thisisaseriousandsobercontributionthatwillhelpstudentsandlaypeoplealike.TheauthorapproachesthehighlychargedemotionalissuesoftheMiddleEastwithsensitivityandobjectivity.”—As‘adAbuKhalil,authorofTheBattleforSaudiArabia:Royalty,Fundamentalism,andGlobalPower“Averywell-researched,accessible,andup-to-datebook.Kamrava’sthemesarewellchosen;hisanalysisiscogentandlucid.”—ManochehrDorraj,authorofMiddleEastattheCrossroadsTheModernMiddleEastaPoliticalhistorysincetheFirstWorldWarsecondediTionMEhranKaMravaUniversiTyoFcaliForniaPressBerkeleylosangeleslondonUniversityofCaliforniaPress,oneofthemostdistinguisheduniversitypressesintheUnitedStates,enricheslivesaroundtheworldbyadvancingscholarshipinthehumanities,socialsciences,andnaturalsciences.ItsactivitiesaresupportedbytheUCPressFoundationandbyphilanthropiccontributionsfromindividualsandinstitutions.Formoreinformation,visitwww.ucpress.edu.UniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,Ltd.London,England2011byTheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataKamrava,Mehran,1964–.ThemodernMiddleEast:apoliticalhistorysincetheFirstWorldWar/MehranKamrava.—2nded.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.isbn978-0-520-26774-9(cloth:alk.paper)isbn978-0-520-26775-6(pbk.:alk.paper)1.MiddleEast—History—20thcentury.2.MiddleEast—History—21stcentury.3.MiddleEast—Politicsandgovernment—20thcentury.4.MiddleEast—Politicsandgovernment—21stcentury.I.Title.DS62.8.k3652011956.04—dc222010023250ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica19181716151413121110987654321ThisbookisprintedonCascadesEnviro100,a100%postconsumerwaste,recycled,de-inkedfiber.FSCrecycledcertifiedandprocessedchlorinefree.Itisacidfree,Ecologocertified,andmanufacturedbyBioGasenergy.ToMelisa,Dilara,andKendraThispageintentionallyleftblankviilistofillustrationsixlistofTablesxiacknowledgmentstotheFirsteditionxiiiacknowledgmentstothesecondeditionxvintroduction1ParTI.aPolITIcalhIsToryofThEMIddlEEasT91.FromislamtotheGreatWar112.FromTerritoriestoindependentstates373.Theageofnationalism694.Thearab-israeliWars1095.Theiranianrevolution1406.TheGulfWarsandBeyond170ParTII.IssuEsInMIddlEEasTErnPolITIcs2137.ThePalestinian-israeliconflict2158.Thechallengeofeconomicdevelopment2599.statesandTheiropponents29710.TheQuestionofdemocracy34511.challengesFacingtheMiddleeast374notes393Bibliography449index481contentsThispageintentionallyleftblankixfIgurEs1.Turkishwomeninalatenineteenth-centuryharem.272.Womeninalgiersinthe1880s.513.MustafaKemalatatürkandrezashahPahlaviconfer.614.FemalemembersoftheiraqihomeGuardmarchinBaghdad,1959.735.davidBen-Gurion,thefirstprimeministerofthestateofisrael.796.israeliwomentakeanoathtojointhehaganah,Telaviv,1948.817.egyptianwomencelebratenasser’sannouncementofwomen’srighttovote,1956.958.egyptianboysandgirlsreceivemilitarytrainingduringthesuezcanalcrisis,1956.989.israelisoldierscelebratecapturingJerusaleminthe1967War.12210.egyptiansoldierscelebratecrossingthesuezcanalinthe1973War.13111.ayatollahKhomeini,leaderofiran’sislamicrevolution.15512.iraqifemalepoliceofficersduringtheirgraduationceremonyattheBaghdadPolicecollege.18313.iraqiforcesonthe“highwayofdeath.”18714.shi`iteiraqiwomenmournaftertheGulfWarin1991.18915.osamabinladen’svideotapedmessageswerebroadcastonal-Jazeera.20116.saddamhussein’sstatueistoppledinBaghdad.205Illustrationsx/illUsTraTions17.Presidentsaddamhussein.20618.Britishoccupationforcessearchiraqiwomenforweapons.20719.iraqiwomeninspectthesiteofacarbombexplosioninBayaadistrict.20920.emunaZviyonabatheshersonattheunauthorizedoutpostofMaozesther.21621.yasserarafat,chairmanofthePalestineliberationorganization,presidentofthePalestiniannationalauthority.22822.asettlertosseswineataPalestinianwomanonshuhadastreetinhebron.23723.yitzhakrabinandyasserarafatsigntheosloaccords.24424.Womenmarchinsupportofhamas.25125.aJewishsettlerpraysatsunrisefromaformeroutpostnearnablus.25426.aPalestinianwomaninspectstherubbleofherhouseafterisraelimissilestrikes.25527.aPalestinianwomanflashesthe“vforvictory”signatisraelisoldiers.25628.skyscrapersofsheikhZayedroad,dubai,atnight.28629.iranianpresidentMahmoudahmadinejad.348MaPs1.ThemodernMiddleeast.xvi2.Thesykes-Picotagreement.433.FrenchandBritishmandatesafterWorldWari.474.TheUnitednationsPartitionPlan.825.Territoriescapturedbyisraelin1967.121xi1.JewishimmigrationineachAliya782.PhasesinPalestiniannationalism873.Palestinianrefugeesofthe1948War904.PopulationGrowthinselectedWestBanksettlements2365.GnPandGdPaverageannualGrowthrateindevelopingcountries2656.GrowthofGdPinselectedMiddleeasterncountries,1980–20082667.GloballevelsofForeigndirectinvestment2878.shareofManufacturesinTotalMerchandiseTradebyregion,20072889.TradeindicatorsinselectedMiddleeasterncountries,200728910.commoditystructureofarabinternationalTrade,2003–729011.arabWorldTradePartners,2003–729112.PopulationcharacteristicsoftheMiddleeast37613.FertilityratesintheMiddleeastascomparedtootherWorldregions37914.ForeignlaborForceintheoilMonarchies,1975–200038115.agestructureintheMiddleeast,200738216.PercapitaWateravailabilityandtheratioofsupplyanddemandintheMiddleeast386TablesxiThispageintentionallyleftblankxiiiTheresearchandwritingofthisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthekindnessandgenerosityofanumberofindividuals.IgreatlybenefitedfromtheresearchassistanceofAnnmarieHunterandEmilySmurthwaite.Iammostgratefulfortheirdiligenceandtheirenthusiasmforthisprojectfromstarttofinish.TerrenceThorpe,anotheroutstandingstudent,alsoreadseveralchaptersandgavevaluablesuggestions.BradfordDillman,ManochehrDorraj,NaderEntessar,MarkGasiorowski,NikkiKeddie,andMahmoodMonshipourikindlyreadallorsomeofthechaptersandgaveinvaluableandinsightfuladvice.Ofcourse,anyomissionsorshortcom-ingsremainentirelymyfault.WorkonChapter8waspartlyfundedbyagenerousgrantfromtheCollegeofSocialandBehavioralSciencesatCaliforniaStateUniversity,Northridge.Thisbookistheoutgrowthofmorethanadecadeofteachingandlec-turingonthepoliticsandhistoryoftheMiddleEast.Intheprocess,Ihavelearnedagreatdealfromtheinnumerablestudentswhohavesharedwithmetheirinsights,experiences,criticisms,andcomments.Bothdirectlyandindirectly,theirinputisnodoubtreflectedhere.Forthat,Iamgrateful.Chapter9isanexpanded,muchrevisedversionofanarticlethatorigi-nallyappearedinThirdWorldQuarterly,vol.19,no.1,1998,pp.63–85.IamgratefultoTWQ’seditor,ShahidQadir,forpermissiontoquoteextensivelyfromthearticlehere.Mywife,MelisaÇanli,deservesspecialthanks.Overthenearlyfiveyearsthatittooktowritethisbook,sheputupwithmymanysolitaryhoursbehindthecomputer,myfrequentmoodswings,andmyfar-too-oftenfrowns.Allalong,sheneverwaveredinherlovingsupportformywork.AsIwasinthefinalstagesofpreparingthebook,shegavebirthtoourbeautifuldaughter,Dilara.Asameagertokenofmyloveandgratitude,Idedicatethisbooktothemboth.acknowledgmentstothefirstEditionThispageintentionallyleftblankxvSomefiveyearsafteritsoriginalpublication,thebookcontinuestobenefitfromtheinputandadviceofmanycolleaguesandresearchassistantswhohelpedwithitsoriginalinceptionanditssubsequentpublicationbackin2005.Intheinterveningyears,countlessfriendsandassociates,andattimesanonymousreaders,havepointedoutvariouswaysinwhichthefirsteditioncouldbeimprovedupon.Iamthankfulfortheirinput,theirconstructivecriticisms,andtheirsuggestionsforimprovement.IhavebeenextremelyfortunatetoworkwithNaomiSchneider,myeditorattheUniversityofCaliforniaPress,whoseguidance,encouragement,andpatiencewithdelaysincompletingthiseditionweretremendouslyhelp-fulinshapingthebook.GratefulacknowledgmentalsogoestoSimonePopperl,mysuperbresearchassistantonthisbook,especiallyforherhelpwithupdatestomanyofthetablesappearingthroughoutthemanuscript.Anyprojectofthismagnitudeisaproductoflove,andIhavebeenextremelyfortunatetobesurroundedbyamostlovingfamilywhoself-lesslygavemethetimeandthepeaceandquietneededtocompleteworkonthisedition.Mywife,Melisa,andourdaughters,DilaraandKendra,alwaysprovidedthelovingsupportandtheemotionalnourishmentthatIneededtoworkonthebook’ssecondedition.Forthat,andformuchmorethatcannotbeadequatelyexpressedinwords,Idedicatethisbooktothem.acknowledgmentstothesecondEditionISRAELLEBANONBAHRAINQATARUAEMAURITANIAMOROCCOALGERIATUNISIALIBYAEGYPTSUDANJORDANSYRIATURKEYIRAQIRANSAUDIARABIAOMANYEMEN0200400600800milesKUWAITMap1.ThemodernMiddleEast.1ThisbookexaminesthepoliticalhistoryofthecontemporaryMiddleEast.AlthoughitfocusesprimarilyontheperiodsincethedemiseoftheOttomanEmpire,shortlyafterWorldWarI,itincludessomediscussionofpre-OttomanandOttomanhistoriestobetterclarifythebackgroundandthecontextinwhichmodernMiddleEasternpoliticalhistoryhastakenshape.Thebookusesabroadconceptionofthe“MiddleEast”asageo-graphicareathatextendsfromIranintheeasttoTurkey,Iraq,theArabianpeninsula,theLevant(LebanonandSyria),andNorthAfrica,includingtheMaghreb,inthewest.MaghrebistheArabicwordfor“Occident”andhashistoricallybeenusedtodescribeareaswestofEgypt.InmoderntimesithascometorefertoTunisia,Algeria,andMorocco.Libyaisalsosome-timesincludedaspartoftheMaghreb,butitismorecommonlygroupedwithEgyptasbelongingtoNorthAfrica.Althoughtherearevastdifferencesbetweenandwithinthehistories,cultures,traditions,andpoliticsofeachoftheseregionswithintheMiddleEast,equallyimportantandcompellingsharedcharacteristicsunifytheregion.Byfarthemostimportantofthesearelanguage,ethnicity,andreligion.MuchofMiddleEasternidentityiswrappedaroundtheArabiclanguage.Poetryandstorytellinghavehistoricallybeenviewedaselevatedartforms.AsFouadAjamihasobserved,“[P]oetry,ithasbeensaid,was(andis)totheArabswhatphilosophywastotheGreeks,lawtotheRomans,andarttothePersians:therepositoryandpurestexpressionoftheirdis-tinctivespirit.” 1Eveninplaceswhereitisnotthenationallanguageandisnotwidelyspoken,asinIranandinTurkey,Arabic,thelanguageoftheQuran,permeateslifewithitsmanyexpressionsandphrases.AnothercommonbondintheMiddleEastisArabethnicidentity.FromIraqinthenorthdowntotheArabianpeninsulaandwestallthewaytoIntroduction2/inTrodUcTionMorocco,ethnicArabspredominate.Thereare,ofcourse,significantclus-tersofotherethnicgroups.AmajorityofIraniansarePersians,andTurksarepredominantinTurkey.Apartfromtheso-called“Arab-Israelis”—PalestinianswhofoundthemselvesinIsrael’sborderswhenthecountrywasbornin1948—JewsarethedominantgroupinIsrael.AsChapter7discusses,however,thereisadebateastowhetherJewsaremembersofanethnicgrouporbelieversinareligiousfaith.Additionally,thereareseveral“stateless”ethnicgroups,byfarthelargestbeingtheKurds,whoaremostlyinsoutheasternTurkey,westernIran,northernIraq,andnorth-easternSyria.TherearealsosizableBerbercommunitiesthroughouttheMaghreb.Butdespitethesediverseethniccommunities,muchoftheArabworldremainsethnicallyhomogenousandstronglyidentifieswithitsethnicity.Anevenstrongerbondunitingtheregionisreligion,withsome97percentofMiddleEasternersidentifyingthemselvesasMuslim.ThatIslamisawholewayoflifeandnotjustareligionisacliché.Butregardlessoftheirethnicity,wheretheylive,andwhatlanguagetheyspeak,thefaithfulshareacompellingsetofbeliefsandritualsthattranscendnationalbound-arieswithremarkableease.Atitsstrictest,Islamisaustereandexacting.Buteveninitsmostliberalsettingsandinterpretations,itpermeatesthelifeoftheMiddleEastinwaysfewotherphenomenado.Itsrelentlessemphasisoncommunity,itsinjunctionsontheonebillionfaithfultoallfaceMeccainprayerandtofasttogetherinthesamemonth,itsdeeppenetrationoflanguagesfarremovedfromArabic,itsreverencefortheProphetMuhammad,whocalledforsubmission(Islam)toGod(Allah)—allofthesereinforcethesenseofbelongingtoawholefarbiggerthanitsindividual,nationalcomponents.Sincetheearlydecadesofthetwentiethcentury,Islamasasourceofcross-nationalunityhassteadilylostgroundtostate-specificnationalism,butitcontinuestobeapowerfulandcompel-lingsourceofcommonidentificationamongfellowMuslimsaroundtheworld,especiallyintheMiddleEast.Inadditiontotheimportant,unitingphenomenaofethnicity,language,andreligionarethecurseandtheblessingsofacommonhistoricalheritage.MuchoftheMiddleEast,withtheexceptionsofIranandMorocco,expe-riencedcenturiesofOttomanrule,generallyfromthemid–sixteenthcen-turyupuntilthewaningyearsofthenineteenthcentury.TheOttomans’holdontheMiddleEastwasoftentenuousandfrequentlyinterrupted.Overthecenturies,however,forbetterorforworse,fromtheircapitalinIstanbultheymanagedtoleavetheirimprintonsuchfar-offplacesasCairo,Tripoli,andTunis.OncetheOttomansweregone,theBritishandinTrodUcTion/3theFrenchtooktheirplace,leavingontheircolonialpossessionstheirowndistinctivemarks.PerhapsthebiggestrelicofBritishrule,asidefromthedrawingofartificialnationalborders,wastheinstitutionofmonarchy,whichtheysecuredinalmostallthelandstheyruled,fromEgypttoJordan,Iraq,andtheArabianpeninsula.TheFrenchcolonialinheritancewaslesspoliticalandmorecultural,althoughintheLevanttheyleftbehindrepublicansystemsthatmimickedtheirown.FortheFrenchwhatmatteredmostwasthesuperiorityoftheircivilization,andtheyensureditsposteritybymakingFrenchthelinguafrancaoftheMaghreb.Today,urbanMoroccans,Algerians,andTunisiansspeakandstudyinFrenchwithasmucheaseastheyconverseinArabic.This,ofcourse,isthecasewithmillionsofothersinFrancophoneAfricaaswell.Nevertheless,thepowerfulforcesunitingtheMiddleEast—religion,ethnicity,andlanguage—haveattimesalsobeensourcesofdivisionandconflict.Inmanyhistoricalepisodessubtledifferencesindialectorethnicidentityhaveservedaspowerfulcatalystsforthearticulationofnationalorsubnationalloyaltiesandevenpoliticalmobilization.TheMiddleEast,itmustberemembered,isfarfrommonolithicandhomogenous.Itsdif-ferenceshavebeenasourceofbothstrengthandinspirationand,attimes,violentbloodletting;witnessthetragedyofLebanonorthetormentmetedouttotheKurds.InstudyingtheMiddleEast,itisoftentemptingtooverlooktheregion’srichdiversityingeography,politics,andculture.AnybookpurportingtoexaminethepoliticalhistoryofthemodernMiddleEastisboundtoremainatacertainlevelofgeneralizationandnotpaythenecessaryattentiontothemany,multifaceteddifferenceswithinthevariousMiddleEasterncountriesandcommunities.Thisbook,Iamafraid,isnoexception.Ihavetakencarethroughouttohighlighttheexistenceofdifferences,bothbetweenandwithinthecountriesandthepeoplesdiscussed,andIhopethatthereaderremainsmindfulofthemaswell.Nevertheless,Ifeelcompelledtoapologizetothosegroupswhoseidentitiesordestiniesmaynotbeasthoroughlycoveredhereastheyshouldhavebeen.Whenthe“modern”eraoftheMiddleEastbeginsisamatterofsomedebate.Forourpurposeshere,Ihavetakenittobeinthe1920s,afterthecollapseoftheOttomanEmpire,whenstatesystemsaswehavecometoknowthemtodaybegantobeestablishedthroughouttheregion.ButthepoliticalandhistoricphenomenathattheOttomansrepresentedhadrootsfardeeperinMiddleEasternandIslamichistorythantheearlydecadesofthetwentiethcentury.Idecided,therefore,togofurtherback,muchfurtherback,andbrieflyretellthestoryoftheMiddleEastsince4/inTrodUcTiontheappearanceofIslamandhowitshapedsubsequenthistoricaleventsintheregion.IslamdramaticallyalteredthelifeandhistoricevolutionoftheMiddleEast,butitsappearancebynomeansmarksthebeginningofMiddleEasternhistory.AsChapter1makesclear,thiswasanarbitrarystartingdate,forIhadtodrawthelinesomewhere,andIchosetodosowithIslam’sbeginning.HadthisbeenaworkonthecompletepoliticalhistoryoftheMiddleEast,itwouldhavehadtostartwiththeearliestdaysofhumancivilization,alongthebanksoftheTigrisandtheEuphratesinmodern-dayIraq.Inadditiontosimpleconvenienceandanarbitrarystartingdate,adeeperlogicguidesthechoiceofthechaptersthatfollowandthetopicstheydiscuss.Politicsandhistoryarebothdynamicandchangeableprocesses.Thustheexaminationofeitheroneinasnapshotisincompletewithoutattentiontosuccessivepastdevelopments.ContemporarypoliticalissuesintheMiddleEastaredeeplyrootedinpasthistoricandpoliticalevents:consider,for

The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Political.History.since.the.First.World.War,.Kamrava,.University.of.California.Press,.2ed,.2011.pdf

The.Modern.Middle.East.A.Politi…

上传者: sholokovsky
48次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2012-05-14 举报

简介:The Modern Middle East—A Political History since the First World War

TheModernMiddleeasTpraiseforthefirsteditionofthemodernmiddleeast“MehanKamravaprovidesanin-depthanalysisnotonlyofpoliticalhistorybutalsoofotherissuesthathaveplaguedthispartoftheworldforsomanyyearsandthatmayremainunresolvedforyearstocome.”—MahmoodMonshipouri,authorofIslamism,Secularism,andHumanRightsintheMiddleEast“Thisisanambitious,stimulatingbookthatsynthesizesabroadrangeofliteratureonMiddleEasthistoryandpolitics.Theauthoranalyzesmanyimportantissuesintheregion,emphasizingthechallengescountriesfaceinovercominghistoricallegacies,developingaccountableleadership,recoveringfromconflict,anddevelopingproductiveeconomies.”—BradfordDillman,authorofStateandPrivateSectorinAlgeria:ThePoliticsofRent-seekingandFailedDevelopment“AtatimewhensensationalbooksontheMiddleEastfillthemarket,thisisaseriousandsobercontributionthatwillhelpstudentsandlaypeoplealike.TheauthorapproachesthehighlychargedemotionalissuesoftheMiddleEastwithsensitivityandobjectivity.”—As‘adAbuKhalil,authorofTheBattleforSaudiArabia:Royalty,Fundamentalism,andGlobalPower“Averywell-researched,accessible,andup-to-datebook.Kamrava’sthemesarewellchosen;hisanalysisiscogentandlucid.”—ManochehrDorraj,authorofMiddleEastattheCrossroadsTheModernMiddleEastaPoliticalhistorysincetheFirstWorldWarsecondediTionMEhranKaMravaUniversiTyoFcaliForniaPressBerkeleylosangeleslondonUniversityofCaliforniaPress,oneofthemostdistinguisheduniversitypressesintheUnitedStates,enricheslivesaroundtheworldbyadvancingscholarshipinthehumanities,socialsciences,andnaturalsciences.ItsactivitiesaresupportedbytheUCPressFoundationandbyphilanthropiccontributionsfromindividualsandinstitutions.Formoreinformation,visitwww.ucpress.edu.UniversityofCaliforniaPressBerkeleyandLosAngeles,CaliforniaUniversityofCaliforniaPress,Ltd.London,England2011byTheRegentsoftheUniversityofCaliforniaLibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataKamrava,Mehran,1964–.ThemodernMiddleEast:apoliticalhistorysincetheFirstWorldWar/MehranKamrava.—2nded.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.isbn978-0-520-26774-9(cloth:alk.paper)isbn978-0-520-26775-6(pbk.:alk.paper)1.MiddleEast—History—20thcentury.2.MiddleEast—History—21stcentury.3.MiddleEast—Politicsandgovernment—20thcentury.4.MiddleEast—Politicsandgovernment—21stcentury.I.Title.DS62.8.k3652011956.04—dc222010023250ManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica19181716151413121110987654321ThisbookisprintedonCascadesEnviro100,a100%postconsumerwaste,recycled,de-inkedfiber.FSCrecycledcertifiedandprocessedchlorinefree.Itisacidfree,Ecologocertified,andmanufacturedbyBioGasenergy.ToMelisa,Dilara,andKendraThispageintentionallyleftblankviilistofillustrationsixlistofTablesxiacknowledgmentstotheFirsteditionxiiiacknowledgmentstothesecondeditionxvintroduction1ParTI.aPolITIcalhIsToryofThEMIddlEEasT91.FromislamtotheGreatWar112.FromTerritoriestoindependentstates373.Theageofnationalism694.Thearab-israeliWars1095.Theiranianrevolution1406.TheGulfWarsandBeyond170ParTII.IssuEsInMIddlEEasTErnPolITIcs2137.ThePalestinian-israeliconflict2158.Thechallengeofeconomicdevelopment2599.statesandTheiropponents29710.TheQuestionofdemocracy34511.challengesFacingtheMiddleeast374notes393Bibliography449index481contentsThispageintentionallyleftblankixfIgurEs1.Turkishwomeninalatenineteenth-centuryharem.272.Womeninalgiersinthe1880s.513.MustafaKemalatatürkandrezashahPahlaviconfer.614.FemalemembersoftheiraqihomeGuardmarchinBaghdad,1959.735.davidBen-Gurion,thefirstprimeministerofthestateofisrael.796.israeliwomentakeanoathtojointhehaganah,Telaviv,1948.817.egyptianwomencelebratenasser’sannouncementofwomen’srighttovote,1956.958.egyptianboysandgirlsreceivemilitarytrainingduringthesuezcanalcrisis,1956.989.israelisoldierscelebratecapturingJerusaleminthe1967War.12210.egyptiansoldierscelebratecrossingthesuezcanalinthe1973War.13111.ayatollahKhomeini,leaderofiran’sislamicrevolution.15512.iraqifemalepoliceofficersduringtheirgraduationceremonyattheBaghdadPolicecollege.18313.iraqiforcesonthe“highwayofdeath.”18714.shi`iteiraqiwomenmournaftertheGulfWarin1991.18915.osamabinladen’svideotapedmessageswerebroadcastonal-Jazeera.20116.saddamhussein’sstatueistoppledinBaghdad.205Illustrationsx/illUsTraTions17.Presidentsaddamhussein.20618.Britishoccupationforcessearchiraqiwomenforweapons.20719.iraqiwomeninspectthesiteofacarbombexplosioninBayaadistrict.20920.emunaZviyonabatheshersonattheunauthorizedoutpostofMaozesther.21621.yasserarafat,chairmanofthePalestineliberationorganization,presidentofthePalestiniannationalauthority.22822.asettlertosseswineataPalestinianwomanonshuhadastreetinhebron.23723.yitzhakrabinandyasserarafatsigntheosloaccords.24424.Womenmarchinsupportofhamas.25125.aJewishsettlerpraysatsunrisefromaformeroutpostnearnablus.25426.aPalestinianwomaninspectstherubbleofherhouseafterisraelimissilestrikes.25527.aPalestinianwomanflashesthe“vforvictory”signatisraelisoldiers.25628.skyscrapersofsheikhZayedroad,dubai,atnight.28629.iranianpresidentMahmoudahmadinejad.348MaPs1.ThemodernMiddleeast.xvi2.Thesykes-Picotagreement.433.FrenchandBritishmandatesafterWorldWari.474.TheUnitednationsPartitionPlan.825.Territoriescapturedbyisraelin1967.121xi1.JewishimmigrationineachAliya782.PhasesinPalestiniannationalism873.Palestinianrefugeesofthe1948War904.PopulationGrowthinselectedWestBanksettlements2365.GnPandGdPaverageannualGrowthrateindevelopingcountries2656.GrowthofGdPinselectedMiddleeasterncountries,1980–20082667.GloballevelsofForeigndirectinvestment2878.shareofManufacturesinTotalMerchandiseTradebyregion,20072889.TradeindicatorsinselectedMiddleeasterncountries,200728910.commoditystructureofarabinternationalTrade,2003–729011.arabWorldTradePartners,2003–729112.PopulationcharacteristicsoftheMiddleeast37613.FertilityratesintheMiddleeastascomparedtootherWorldregions37914.ForeignlaborForceintheoilMonarchies,1975–200038115.agestructureintheMiddleeast,200738216.PercapitaWateravailabilityandtheratioofsupplyanddemandintheMiddleeast386TablesxiThispageintentionallyleftblankxiiiTheresearchandwritingofthisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthekindnessandgenerosityofanumberofindividuals.IgreatlybenefitedfromtheresearchassistanceofAnnmarieHunterandEmilySmurthwaite.Iammostgratefulfortheirdiligenceandtheirenthusiasmforthisprojectfromstarttofinish.TerrenceThorpe,anotheroutstandingstudent,alsoreadseveralchaptersandgavevaluablesuggestions.BradfordDillman,ManochehrDorraj,NaderEntessar,MarkGasiorowski,NikkiKeddie,andMahmoodMonshipourikindlyreadallorsomeofthechaptersandgaveinvaluableandinsightfuladvice.Ofcourse,anyomissionsorshortcom-ingsremainentirelymyfault.WorkonChapter8waspartlyfundedbyagenerousgrantfromtheCollegeofSocialandBehavioralSciencesatCaliforniaStateUniversity,Northridge.Thisbookistheoutgrowthofmorethanadecadeofteachingandlec-turingonthepoliticsandhistoryoftheMiddleEast.Intheprocess,Ihavelearnedagreatdealfromtheinnumerablestudentswhohavesharedwithmetheirinsights,experiences,criticisms,andcomments.Bothdirectlyandindirectly,theirinputisnodoubtreflectedhere.Forthat,Iamgrateful.Chapter9isanexpanded,muchrevisedversionofanarticlethatorigi-nallyappearedinThirdWorldQuarterly,vol.19,no.1,1998,pp.63–85.IamgratefultoTWQ’seditor,ShahidQadir,forpermissiontoquoteextensivelyfromthearticlehere.Mywife,MelisaÇanli,deservesspecialthanks.Overthenearlyfiveyearsthatittooktowritethisbook,sheputupwithmymanysolitaryhoursbehindthecomputer,myfrequentmoodswings,andmyfar-too-oftenfrowns.Allalong,sheneverwaveredinherlovingsupportformywork.AsIwasinthefinalstagesofpreparingthebook,shegavebirthtoourbeautifuldaughter,Dilara.Asameagertokenofmyloveandgratitude,Idedicatethisbooktothemboth.acknowledgmentstothefirstEditionThispageintentionallyleftblankxvSomefiveyearsafteritsoriginalpublication,thebookcontinuestobenefitfromtheinputandadviceofmanycolleaguesandresearchassistantswhohelpedwithitsoriginalinceptionanditssubsequentpublicationbackin2005.Intheinterveningyears,countlessfriendsandassociates,andattimesanonymousreaders,havepointedoutvariouswaysinwhichthefirsteditioncouldbeimprovedupon.Iamthankfulfortheirinput,theirconstructivecriticisms,andtheirsuggestionsforimprovement.IhavebeenextremelyfortunatetoworkwithNaomiSchneider,myeditorattheUniversityofCaliforniaPress,whoseguidance,encouragement,andpatiencewithdelaysincompletingthiseditionweretremendouslyhelp-fulinshapingthebook.GratefulacknowledgmentalsogoestoSimonePopperl,mysuperbresearchassistantonthisbook,especiallyforherhelpwithupdatestomanyofthetablesappearingthroughoutthemanuscript.Anyprojectofthismagnitudeisaproductoflove,andIhavebeenextremelyfortunatetobesurroundedbyamostlovingfamilywhoself-lesslygavemethetimeandthepeaceandquietneededtocompleteworkonthisedition.Mywife,Melisa,andourdaughters,DilaraandKendra,alwaysprovidedthelovingsupportandtheemotionalnourishmentthatIneededtoworkonthebook’ssecondedition.Forthat,andformuchmorethatcannotbeadequatelyexpressedinwords,Idedicatethisbooktothem.acknowledgmentstothesecondEditionISRAELLEBANONBAHRAINQATARUAEMAURITANIAMOROCCOALGERIATUNISIALIBYAEGYPTSUDANJORDANSYRIATURKEYIRAQIRANSAUDIARABIAOMANYEMEN0200400600800milesKUWAITMap1.ThemodernMiddleEast.1ThisbookexaminesthepoliticalhistoryofthecontemporaryMiddleEast.AlthoughitfocusesprimarilyontheperiodsincethedemiseoftheOttomanEmpire,shortlyafterWorldWarI,itincludessomediscussionofpre-OttomanandOttomanhistoriestobetterclarifythebackgroundandthecontextinwhichmodernMiddleEasternpoliticalhistoryhastakenshape.Thebookusesabroadconceptionofthe“MiddleEast”asageo-graphicareathatextendsfromIranintheeasttoTurkey,Iraq,theArabianpeninsula,theLevant(LebanonandSyria),andNorthAfrica,includingtheMaghreb,inthewest.MaghrebistheArabicwordfor“Occident”andhashistoricallybeenusedtodescribeareaswestofEgypt.InmoderntimesithascometorefertoTunisia,Algeria,andMorocco.Libyaisalsosome-timesincludedaspartoftheMaghreb,butitismorecommonlygroupedwithEgyptasbelongingtoNorthAfrica.Althoughtherearevastdifferencesbetweenandwithinthehistories,cultures,traditions,andpoliticsofeachoftheseregionswithintheMiddleEast,equallyimportantandcompellingsharedcharacteristicsunifytheregion.Byfarthemostimportantofthesearelanguage,ethnicity,andreligion.MuchofMiddleEasternidentityiswrappedaroundtheArabiclanguage.Poetryandstorytellinghavehistoricallybeenviewedaselevatedartforms.AsFouadAjamihasobserved,“[P]oetry,ithasbeensaid,was(andis)totheArabswhatphilosophywastotheGreeks,lawtotheRomans,andarttothePersians:therepositoryandpurestexpressionoftheirdis-tinctivespirit.” 1Eveninplaceswhereitisnotthenationallanguageandisnotwidelyspoken,asinIranandinTurkey,Arabic,thelanguageoftheQuran,permeateslifewithitsmanyexpressionsandphrases.AnothercommonbondintheMiddleEastisArabethnicidentity.FromIraqinthenorthdowntotheArabianpeninsulaandwestallthewaytoIntroduction2/inTrodUcTionMorocco,ethnicArabspredominate.Thereare,ofcourse,significantclus-tersofotherethnicgroups.AmajorityofIraniansarePersians,andTurksarepredominantinTurkey.Apartfromtheso-called“Arab-Israelis”—PalestinianswhofoundthemselvesinIsrael’sborderswhenthecountrywasbornin1948—JewsarethedominantgroupinIsrael.AsChapter7discusses,however,thereisadebateastowhetherJewsaremembersofanethnicgrouporbelieversinareligiousfaith.Additionally,thereareseveral“stateless”ethnicgroups,byfarthelargestbeingtheKurds,whoaremostlyinsoutheasternTurkey,westernIran,northernIraq,andnorth-easternSyria.TherearealsosizableBerbercommunitiesthroughouttheMaghreb.Butdespitethesediverseethniccommunities,muchoftheArabworldremainsethnicallyhomogenousandstronglyidentifieswithitsethnicity.Anevenstrongerbondunitingtheregionisreligion,withsome97percentofMiddleEasternersidentifyingthemselvesasMuslim.ThatIslamisawholewayoflifeandnotjustareligionisacliché.Butregardlessoftheirethnicity,wheretheylive,andwhatlanguagetheyspeak,thefaithfulshareacompellingsetofbeliefsandritualsthattranscendnationalbound-arieswithremarkableease.Atitsstrictest,Islamisaustereandexacting.Buteveninitsmostliberalsettingsandinterpretations,itpermeatesthelifeoftheMiddleEastinwaysfewotherphenomenado.Itsrelentlessemphasisoncommunity,itsinjunctionsontheonebillionfaithfultoallfaceMeccainprayerandtofasttogetherinthesamemonth,itsdeeppenetrationoflanguagesfarremovedfromArabic,itsreverencefortheProphetMuhammad,whocalledforsubmission(Islam)toGod(Allah)—allofthesereinforcethesenseofbelongingtoawholefarbiggerthanitsindividual,nationalcomponents.Sincetheearlydecadesofthetwentiethcentury,Islamasasourceofcross-nationalunityhassteadilylostgroundtostate-specificnationalism,butitcontinuestobeapowerfulandcompel-lingsourceofcommonidentificationamongfellowMuslimsaroundtheworld,especiallyintheMiddleEast.Inadditiontotheimportant,unitingphenomenaofethnicity,language,andreligionarethecurseandtheblessingsofacommonhistoricalheritage.MuchoftheMiddleEast,withtheexceptionsofIranandMorocco,expe-riencedcenturiesofOttomanrule,generallyfromthemid–sixteenthcen-turyupuntilthewaningyearsofthenineteenthcentury.TheOttomans’holdontheMiddleEastwasoftentenuousandfrequentlyinterrupted.Overthecenturies,however,forbetterorforworse,fromtheircapitalinIstanbultheymanagedtoleavetheirimprintonsuchfar-offplacesasCairo,Tripoli,andTunis.OncetheOttomansweregone,theBritishandinTrodUcTion/3theFrenchtooktheirplace,leavingontheircolonialpossessionstheirowndistinctivemarks.PerhapsthebiggestrelicofBritishrule,asidefromthedrawingofartificialnationalborders,wastheinstitutionofmonarchy,whichtheysecuredinalmostallthelandstheyruled,fromEgypttoJordan,Iraq,andtheArabianpeninsula.TheFrenchcolonialinheritancewaslesspoliticalandmorecultural,althoughintheLevanttheyleftbehindrepublicansystemsthatmimickedtheirown.FortheFrenchwhatmatteredmostwasthesuperiorityoftheircivilization,andtheyensureditsposteritybymakingFrenchthelinguafrancaoftheMaghreb.Today,urbanMoroccans,Algerians,andTunisiansspeakandstudyinFrenchwithasmucheaseastheyconverseinArabic.This,ofcourse,isthecasewithmillionsofothersinFrancophoneAfricaaswell.Nevertheless,thepowerfulforcesunitingtheMiddleEast—religion,ethnicity,andlanguage—haveattimesalsobeensourcesofdivisionandconflict.Inmanyhistoricalepisodessubtledifferencesindialectorethnicidentityhaveservedaspowerfulcatalystsforthearticulationofnationalorsubnationalloyaltiesandevenpoliticalmobilization.TheMiddleEast,itmustberemembered,isfarfrommonolithicandhomogenous.Itsdif-ferenceshavebeenasourceofbothstrengthandinspirationand,attimes,violentbloodletting;witnessthetragedyofLebanonorthetormentmetedouttotheKurds.InstudyingtheMiddleEast,itisoftentemptingtooverlooktheregion’srichdiversityingeography,politics,andculture.AnybookpurportingtoexaminethepoliticalhistoryofthemodernMiddleEastisboundtoremainatacertainlevelofgeneralizationandnotpaythenecessaryattentiontothemany,multifaceteddifferenceswithinthevariousMiddleEasterncountriesandcommunities.Thisbook,Iamafraid,isnoexception.Ihavetakencarethroughouttohighlighttheexistenceofdifferences,bothbetweenandwithinthecountriesandthepeoplesdiscussed,andIhopethatthereaderremainsmindfulofthemaswell.Nevertheless,Ifeelcompelledtoapologizetothosegroupswhoseidentitiesordestiniesmaynotbeasthoroughlycoveredhereastheyshouldhavebeen.Whenthe“modern”eraoftheMiddleEastbeginsisamatterofsomedebate.Forourpurposeshere,Ihavetakenittobeinthe1920s,afterthecollapseoftheOttomanEmpire,whenstatesystemsaswehavecometoknowthemtodaybegantobeestablishedthroughouttheregion.ButthepoliticalandhistoricphenomenathattheOttomansrepresentedhadrootsfardeeperinMiddleEasternandIslamichistorythantheearlydecadesofthetwentiethcentury.Idecided,therefore,togofurtherback,muchfurtherback,andbrieflyretellthestoryoftheMiddleEastsince4/inTrodUcTiontheappearanceofIslamandhowitshapedsubsequenthistoricaleventsintheregion.IslamdramaticallyalteredthelifeandhistoricevolutionoftheMiddleEast,butitsappearancebynomeansmarksthebeginningofMiddleEasternhistory.AsChapter1makesclear,thiswasanarbitrarystartingdate,forIhadtodrawthelinesomewhere,andIchosetodosowithIslam’sbeginning.HadthisbeenaworkonthecompletepoliticalhistoryoftheMiddleEast,itwouldhavehadtostartwiththeearliestdaysofhumancivilization,alongthebanksoftheTigrisandtheEuphratesinmodern-dayIraq.Inadditiontosimpleconvenienceandanarbitrarystartingdate,adeeperlogicguidesthechoiceofthechaptersthatfollowandthetopicstheydiscuss.Politicsandhistoryarebothdynamicandchangeableprocesses.Thustheexaminationofeitheroneinasnapshotisincompletewithoutattentiontosuccessivepastdevelopments.ContemporarypoliticalissuesintheMiddleEastaredeeplyrootedinpasthistoricandpoliticalevents:consider,for
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