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首页 大学英语四级考试写作题型

大学英语四级考试写作题型.doc

大学英语四级考试写作题型

1990dyt
2012-05-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《大学英语四级考试写作题型doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

大家学习网第四章大学英语四级考试写作题型根据教育部颁布的大学英语教学大纲的要求大学英语四级考试的命题形式有以下几种:首尾句作文、提纲作文、图表作文、命题作文、书信体作文等。第一节首尾句作文首尾句作文是根据段首(尾)句续写短文。段首句作文也称主题句作文因为作文题中所给的段首句往往是段落主题句。其特点是以题目为中心一般情况下将文章分为三个段落每段首句即为该段的主题句(topicsentences)。考生要按主题句的要求组织材料提出论据用一些辅助句(supportingsentences)来支持或说明主题句写英文段首句作文要注意:所写的内容要紧扣主题辅助句应围绕段首句续写。保证段内每个句子的内容与段首句紧密展开各个段落如:例证、因果、定义、比较对比、程序等。要注意句与句之间特别是段首句与辅助句之间的自然衔接。另外所给的段首句有时是一个完整的句子有时不是一个完整的句子只是句子的一部分这就要求考生一定要审好题。找出其中表示中心思想的关键词围绕这些关键词去扩展、描述或说明。[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositionaboutWomenintheModernWorldinthreeparagraphsYouaregiventhefirstsentenceofeachparagraphandarerequiredtodeveloptheideaincompletingtheparagraphyourpartofthecompositionshouldbeaboutwords,notincludingthewordsgivenRemembertowriteclearly[范文]WomenintheModernWorldWomenareplayinganincreasinglyimportantroleinsocietySuccessfulwomenwhoaregovernmentofficials,writers,scientists,doctorsandteacherscanbefoundeverywhereItistruethatmanyjobsthatonceweredominatedbymencanbedonewellbywomenWiththechangesintheirsocialrole,womenspositioninthefamilyhasbeenimprovedaswellThehusbandisnolongertheonlybreadmakerinthefamilyandthewifenolongerlivesonothersTheysharecomfortsandhardshipswitheachotherInspiteofthesechanges,theliberationofwomenhasnotbeencompletelyrealizedWomenstillfacemanydifficultiesandobstaclesduetotraditionalrolesandlimitedeconomicstrengthWomenstillhavealongwaytogointheirstruggleforcompleteequalitywithmen第一段首句是讲妇女在社会上的作用因而续写的内容紧紧围绕妇女的社会作用比如妇女可以是政府机关的工作人员、科学家、教师等第二句的段首句是关于妇女在家庭中的地位也提高了续写的内容也是有关夫妻患难与共第三句的段首句是讲妇女解放仍然任重而道远续写的部分提出了妇女所面临的问题整个续写的部分紧扣段首句。[例2]Directions:WriteacompositionaboutWhatWouldHappenIfThereWereNopowerinthreeparagraphs,youaregiventhefirstsentenceorpartofthefirstsentenceofeachparagraph:Eversinceearlythiscentury,electricityhasbecomeanessentialpartofourmodernlifeIftherewerenoelectricpower,Therefore,[范文]WhatWouldHappenIfThereWereNoPowerEversinceearlythiscentury,electricityhasbecomeanessentialpartofourmodernlifeIthasplayedadecisiveroleinthemodernworldEverybodyadmitsthatdevelopmentofourcivilizationdependsonelectricityIftherewerenoelectricitypower,ourmodernworldwouldbeintroubleForinstance,allthewheelwouldstopbecausewithoutthepowerthemachinewouldceaseworkingAndalltheelectricalequipmentlifewouldbeimpossibleandinagreatmasswithoutelectricityTherefore,weshouldmakebetteruseofelectivepowerOntheotherhand,weshouldeducatepeopletoeconomizeonelectricityandnottowasteenergyresourcesAtthesametimewemustdoourbesttoexploitmoreelectricresourcestomeettherequirementsofhumanbeings第一段的段首句是讲电已经成为人们现代生活中必不可少的部分因而接下来的续写部分应强调它的重要性。第二段的段首句提出如果没有电的假设下面列出没有电将会出现的麻烦。最后一段指出我们应该节约用电开拓更多的电力资源。第二节提纲作文提纲作文是要求考生根据所给出的作文题目和提纲(一般为中文提纲)进行写作。中文提纲大多是以三个单句的形式出现的。写提纲作文首先要做的就是审题并要仔细分析题目中所列举的提纲。审完题后应该根据提纲拟出三个英文的主题句再在这些主题句的基础上扩展成文。在扩展的过程中一定要做到条理清楚开门见山。[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositiononthetopicGoodHealthaccordingthefollowingoutlineYourcompositionislessthanwordsRememberthatthecontentsoftheoutlineshouldallbeincludedinyourcompositionOutline:健康的重要性保持健康的方法我的做法[范文]GoodHealthGoodhealthisveryimportanttoeveryoneWithit,wecanstudyhard,wecanserveourcountry,wecandoeverythingaswelikeWithoutgoodhealth,everybodyknowsthatwewillfailtodothingsWecan’tworkefficiently,wemaystayinhospital,wellbecomeaburdenofourfamilyInmyopinion,therearetwowaysforustokeepfitFirst,wemusteatabalanceddietThatistosay,wemusteatnotonlyeggs,fishandmeat,butalsosomevegetablesandfruiteverydayBesideseatingproperly,drinkingcleanwaterisalsoimportantNevergetaddictedtodrinkingthesoftdrinkSecond,exercisingisavitalpartofourdailylifeWecandosomerunninginthemorningandplayfootballintheafternoonAsauniversitystudent,IpaymuchattentiontophysicalexercisesIdosomeswimminginsummerandsomeskatinginwinterIoftenplaybadmintonandtennisIamalsocarefulwithmydietInaway,keepinghealthyisnotveryhardifyoujusttakeitseriously文章开门见山就点出了主题:Goodhealthisveryimportanttoeveryone。然后作者很巧妙地用了with和without这两个介词从正反两个方面举出了具体的事例来支持自己的观点。另外with和without这两个词常用于议论文中用“正证法”和“反证法”来对各论点或观点进行论述。第二段的开头句紧扣提纲概括地提出保持健康有两种方法并且通过first,second这样的指示词,使所列举的事实条理化。最后一段告诉读者自己的做法也紧扣了提纲。[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositiononthetopicCompetitionYourcompositionshouldbelessthanwordsRememberthatthecontentsoftheoutlineshouldallbeincludedinyourcompositionOutline:TheimportanceofcompetitionThefunctionofcompetitionMyownpractices[范文]CompetitionCompetitionmakespeopleactiveandcreativeItisverynecessarytocompeteifhumansocietywantstoadvanceWithoutit,wewouldbecomelazyandnobodywouldtakeanyresponsibility“Threemonks,therewillbenodrinkingwater”ThisChineseproverbvividlydescribeswhyChinasproductivitywassolowbeforeMrDengcameintopowerAtthattime,wehadthesocalledplannedeconomyTherewasnocompetitionatallSofarmersdidntworkhardWorkersdidntworkhardChinawasontheedgeofcollapseCompetitioncanstimulatepeopletotrytheirbesttodothingsForexample,inmeterrace,eachsportsmanrunsasquicklyaspossible,tryingtowinthechampion,thesamethingshappeninoursocietyandinourdailylifeIfacompanywantstosurpass,itmustcompetewiththemItmustraiseitsefficiencyAllthecompaniesdoingthiswillnodoubtbenefitthewholesocietyandthewholehumanbeingsBeingastudent,ImustcompetewithotherstudentsinourstudiesImuststudyhardinallthefieldssothatIcanbeausefulmanwhenIenterthesocietyaftergraduation文章一开头就提出了竞争的重要性。接下来作者用了两个事例更进一步说明了主题。最后谈到了自己的做法。[例]Directions:ForthisPart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositiononthetopicLosingandGainingweightaccordingtothefollowingYourcompositionshouldbelessthanwordsRememberthatthecontentsoftheoutlineshouldallbeincludedinyourcompositionOutline:Thecomparisonofone’sbodytoacar:thesimilaritiesanddifferencesofone’sbodyandone’scarThewaysforgainingweightandlosingweightMyownpractices[范文]LosingandGainingweightTheprocessofgainingorlosingweightcanbeexplainedbycomparingyourcarFirst,yourcarcan’trunifthereisnopetrolordieseloilBecauseitneedsenergyThesamethinghappenstoyourbodyYourbodyalsoneedsenergy,thefoodyoueatcanbeconvertedintoenergy,withwhichyoucanrun,youcantalk,youcandoeverythingSecond,ifyoueattoomuchyouwillgainweightWeknowacarwithtooheavyloadcantrunquicklyandsafelyMaybeitwillbreakdownForthesamereason,ifyouaretoofat,itisalsoveryinconvenientanddangerousYoumightgetheartdisease,diabetes,andhypertensionandsoonIfsuchthingshappen,doctorwouldaskyoutoloseweightYoueattoomuchandyoudonttakeexercise,youllgainweightSoifyouwanttoloseweightyouhavetodotheoppositeYouwillbeonadietYouwillgooutanddosomeexercises,suchas,running,swimming,andplayingfootball,etcSoon,youllbebackingoodconditionandgoodshapeagainAsfarasIamconcerned,Igetupandgotobedearly,doplentyofexerciseseveryday,andpayspecialattentiontothefoodIeataswellIdonteattoomuchmeatInstead,mydietconsistsofvegetables,fruits,eggs,fish,andbeansBydoingthisIcankeepfit作者在这篇文章中先用比较对比法比较了人与车之间的相似之处:车需要汽油人需要食物车载的重物过多跑不快人长得太胖既行动不便也存有隐患因而过于肥胖的人就需要减肥。第一段的最后一句话起了承上启下的作用。接下来作者谈了如何减肥最后很自然地过渡到作者自己的做法。第三节关键词作文关键词作文是根据作文题目以及所给出的关键词写短文。关键词的数目由几个到十几个不等。写这种题型的作文要特别注意关键词的作用。关键词是短文内容发展的“路标”在作文思路和写作内容上起着决定乾坤的作用。因此写出的文章要把所给的这些关键词都用上可以一句中用上几个词也可以几句中用上一个词只要能做到恰到好处即可。而且要学会根据所给关键词的语义群分段。如果所给的关键词可以分为三组那么短文就可以写成三段。如果给出的关键词是两组短文就可以写为两段。再者要把给出的关键词用在刀刃上即各段的主题句以及结尾的主题句都应该有关键词。[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteapassageon“TheAdvantagesofTravel”basedonthewordsandphrasesgiven:advantageswidenourknowledge,makefriends,knowledgeorgeography,beautifulscenery,differentlifestyle,customsandcultures,variousfoods,practiceaforeignlanguage,worthspendingthetime[范文]TheAdvantagesofTravelWheneveracollegestudentisasked“Whatareyougoingtodothissummervacation”themostprobableanswermightbe“Iamgoingtohaveatrip”ItseemsthatcollegestudentsarefondoftravelingverymuchWhyBecausetravelhasnumerousadvantagesFirstofall,travelcanwidenourknowledgeofgeography,theknowledgeofdifferentcustoms,culturesandlifestylesofdifferentplacesandcountriesSecondly,wecanmakefriendsandpracticeaforeignlanguagethroughtravelingFinally,travelisthebestwayofspendingtimeWecanenjoyeatingvariouslocalfoodsandseeingbeautifulsceneryInaword,wecanbenefitfromtravelinmorethanonewayItisworthspendingthetime作者在第一段中就用上了关键词travel和advantage并很巧妙地利用Becausetravelhasnumerousadvantages这样的承上启下的句子来引出下文关于旅游的种种好处。最后又把关键词用在了文章的结尾处强化了主题不失为画龙点睛之笔。[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteapassageon“TheHelpfulFeaturesofTextbooks”basedonthefollowingwordsgiven:textbooks,school,levels,kids,purpose,learn,therefore,features,information,contentsts,page,understand,divide,sections,finally,alphabetical,mast,help,quickly,efficiently[范文]TheHelpfulFeaturesofTextbooksTextbooksarebooksthatstudentsuseinschoolsStudentsatalllevelsandinallkindsofschoolsusetextbooksTheyhavecertainfeaturesincommonfeaturesthatcanhelpstudentsfindandunderstandtheinformationinthemAlltextbookshavetablesofcontentsatthebeginningThetablesofcontentslistthechaptertitles,thepartsofthechapters,andthepagenumbersofthepartsThesesectionsaredividedagainintosmallerpartswithheadingsandsubheadingsFinally,mosttextbookshaveanindexatthebackofthebookTheindexlistsallthetopicsinthebookinalphabeticalorder,andgivestheirpagenumbersThesearethefeaturesofmosttextbooks,whichhelpstudentsfindandunderstandtheinformationintextbooksquicklyandefficiently文章一开头用定义法给教材下了个定义。接下来具体说明教材的主要特征。最后一段与第一段相呼应并重复和强调了几个关键词中的关键词比如textbooksinformation等。第四节图表作文图表作文要求考生用文字材料把图表中所提供的信息准确、完整地表达出来。在写作图表作文时首先要仔细观察并分析图表以及题中所给出的有关信息比如作文题英文提纲、英文提示、英语关键词等。在分析图表时要抓住与主题有关的信息要发现数据呈现的规律要充分利用图表中的图形、数据等去说明主题。但是注意不要过多地引用数据以免造成滥用数据的后果。另外在写作图表作文时可以套用一些常用词汇或表达方式这将有助于你写出较为地道的图表作文。例如:①Ascanbeseenfromthetable(graph,form)that②Fromtheabovetableitcanbeseen(concluded)that③Acarefulstudyofthetableshowsthat④Thenumber(percentage)istimesasmuchasthatin⑤Ithasdecreased(fell,dropped)abouttwice,comparedwith(ascomparedwith,asagainst)thatof⑥In,itincreased(wentup,rose)fromtopercentofthetotal(topercent,bypercent)[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositionofnolessthanwordsonChangesinPeople’sDietStudythefollowingtablecarefullyandyourcompositionmustbebasedontheinformationgiveninthetableWritethreeparagraphsto:Statethechangesinpeople’sdiet(饮食)inthepastfiveyearsGivepossiblereasonsforthechangesDrawyourownconclusionYoushouldquoteasfewfiguresaspossibleKindsGrainMilkMeatFruitandVegetableTotal[范文]ChangesinPeople’sDietAscanbeseeninthetable,therehavebeengreatchangesinpeople’sdietinthepastfiveyearsGrainusedtobetheChinesemainfood,butnowitisplayingalessimportantroleinpeoplesdiet,whiletheconsumptionofsomehighenergyfoods,suchasmilkandmeat,hasincreasedsteadilyWhatcausedthesechangesIthinkthereasonsareasfollows:First,theopenpolicybringsthepeopleopportunitiestoearnalotofmoneySecond,peoplenowadayspaymoreattentiontothestructureoftheirdietTheyareseekingthemostreasonabledietstructure,whichwilldogoodtotheirhealthFromtheabove,wecanseethat,withthedevelopmentofthecountry,theleveloftheChinesepeople’slifehaschangedinthepastfiveyearsI’msuretherewillbegreaterchangesinthefuture文中第一句话就明确告诉读者这篇作文是一篇图表作文。接下来根据图表分析了在过去的五年中人们的饮食结构都发生了哪些变化最后预测将来人们的生活水平还会发生更大的变化。尽管在这张图表中有很多数据但作者并没有过多地引用这些数据而是通过数据把要说明的问题点了出来。[例]Directions:Forthispart,youareallowedminutestowriteacompositionofnolessthanwordsonIncomeSourcesbetweenChineseandAmericanStudentsStudythefollowingtablecarefullyandyourcompositionmustbebasedontheinformationgiveninthetableWritethreeparagraphsto:DescribethedifferencesoftheincomesourcesbetweenChineseandAmericanstudentsAnalyzepossiblereasonsforthesedifferencesPredicatefuturetendencySourceofincomePercentageofTotalIncomeParentsParttimejobFellowshiporScholarshipAmericanstudentsChinesestudents[范文]IncomeSourcesBetweenChineseStudentsandAmericanStudentsIncomesourcesofChinesestudentsarequitedifferentfromthoseofAmericanstudentsInChina,studentsgetoftheirmoneyfromtheirparentswhileinAmerica,onlyofstudents`moneyisprovidedbyparentsInaddition,ChinesestudentsearnonlyoftheirmoneyfromparttimejobsandfromfellowshiporscholarshipwhileincomefromthesetworesourcesforAmericanstudentstakesupandrespectivelyoftheirtotalincomeIthinkthereareprobablythreereasonsfortheirdifferencesFirst,becauseoftheinfluenceofdifferentsocialandfamilyvalues,ChinesestudentshaveformedthehabitofaskingformoneyfromtheirparentswhileAmericanstudentshavedevelopedmoresenseofbeingfinanciallyindependentSecond,mostChineseparentsdevotetoomuchcaretotheirchildrenandtheywouldrathersaveuptoaffordtheirchildrenseducationratherthanencouragethemtotakeparttimejobsButinAmerica,manyparentspaymoreattentiontodevelopingthestudentsabilityofselfreliance,sotheyencouragetheirchildrentofindparttimejobtoearnsomemoneybythemselvesThird,sinceAmericaismoredevelopedthanChina,itisrelativelyeasyforstudentstofindparttimejobsInChina,suchopportunitiesareratherrareIbelievewiththedevelopmentofChina,moreandmoreChinesestudentswillrealizeandpaymoreattentiontothenecessityofselfdependenceInaddition,moreandmoreopportunitieswillbeprovidedforthemtotakeparttimejobsSomorestudentswillgooutoftheivorytowertobroadentheirknowledgeandtobecomethemasteroftheirownlives作者在这篇图表作文中很好地利用了图表以及题目中所给的提示文章结构完整意思表达清楚较好地完成了一篇图表作文所应该表达的内容。第五节命题作文命题作文要求就所给的作文题目进行写作。与其他作文相比命题作文具有较大的自主性。因为同样的一个题目可以从不同的角度、用不同的文体来进行写作。例如“MyTeacher”这个题目可以写成一篇记叙文也可以写成一篇描写文。不管用什么文体也不管从哪个方面来写只要写出的文章切题、流畅、条理清楚、语言正确就是一篇好文章。然而这种较大的自主性也会使考生感到困难。因为在有限的分钟之内要形成提纲并写成短文并不是件易事。这就要求考生在写命题作文时首先一定要审好题要仔细分析题意搞清楚题目所涉及的范围确定文章的中心思想切忌跑题。再者要选择正确的文体。最后要围绕文章的中心思想将写作素材进行分析、归类并写好写作提纲包括:引言句、主题句和结尾句。[例]FakeCommoditiesMarketsalloverthecountryareswampedwithfakeandpoorcommoditiesThishasharmedgreatlythestatesinterestsandpeopleshealthForexample,falsepoisonmadeinafactorynotonlycantkillmice,butalsogivesthemimmunityandmakesthemhealthierThecauseofthisserioussituationisthatsomeenterprisesonlywanttogetbenefitWhatsmore,somelocalgovernments,forthepurposeoflocalprotection,dontinvestigatesuchactivities,onthecontrary,theyevensupportthemThejudicialorgansdontpunishtheoffendersstrictlyWeholdthatthewholesocietyshouldpaygreaterattentiontotheseillegalactivities,andtheseillegalactivitiesshouldbepunishedaccordingtothelawTheleadersinchargeshouldtakeeffectivemeasurestostoptheseharmfulactivitiesConsumersshouldlearntoprotecttheirowninterests,andnottobuyfakecommoditiesInthisway,wecanatlastwipeoutfakecommoditiesandleavenoroomforthem作者把这个题目写成了一篇说明文。一开始先指出了假冒伪劣产品的危害。接下来分析了这一情况产生的原因最后呼吁全社会都来关注这个问题。[例]HasteMakesWasteThereisanoldChinesesaying,“Hastemakeswaste”Itwastrueinthepast,anditisstilltrueinmanycasestodayUsually,ifyouactfaster,youcanreachyourgoalsearlierButitisntalwaysthecaseIfyouemphasizeonlyonspeedbutignorethequalityofyourwork,youwillgettheoppositeresultSupposeyouarepreparingforyourfinalexaminationYouhavesomanythingstodothatyoudonthaveenoughrestYouhavetoreadandwritecontinuouslyTheresultisthatyourbrainislessandlessefficient,andthesituationgoesfrombadtoworseAllyoureffortsbecomefruitlessOnthecontrary,ifyourpreparationfollowsacarefullyworkedoutplanyourworkwillbeeffectiveConsequentlyyouwilltakepartintheexaminationconfidentlyWhateveryoudo,pleaserememberthesayingHastemakeswasteIfyoucanproperlyunderstanditsmeaning,you’llbenefitalotfromit作者在文章的开头通过重复作文的题目巧妙地点了题接下来用具体的事例来说明这一众所周知的道理。第六节书信体作文书信是一种应用非常广泛的应用文形式之一。英文书信的种类很多但可以把它们归为两大类一类是私人书信(personalletters)另一类是事务书信(businessletters)例如:申请信、求职信、推荐信、证明信、感谢信等。英文书信的书写有一定的格式。一封完整的书信应包括寄信人的地址和日期收信人的姓名和地址称呼、正文、结尾和签名。一、书信的格式英文书信的格式与汉语不尽相同具体表现在信封的写法和英文信的结构两方面。.信封的写法在信封正面左上方写下发信人姓名、地址在信封中间偏右一点写下收信人的姓名、地址。姓名单独占一行地址和名称按从小到大的顺序。一般信封的写法有两种形式第一种为并列式(blockform)即每行开头要平齐例如:LiMingChineseDepartmentBeijingUniversityBeijing,PRChinaMrsMarySmithLongStreetLondon,NWGreatBritain第二种为缩进式(indentedform)即每行开头都要向右推进两到三个字母例如:LiMingChineseDepartmentBeijingUniversityBeijing,PRChinaMrsMarySmithLongStreetLondon,NWGreatBritain.信的构成英文信一般由六部分组成。下面的实例可以说明英文信的构成实例之后还有对英文信结构的详细说明。发信人地址→ChineseDepartmentBeijingUniversityBeijing,ChinathJanProf,MarySmithLongStreetLondon,HW←收信人地址GreatBritainDearMadam,←对收信人的称呼信的正文结束语→Sincerely签名→LiMing()写信人地址和发信日期写信人地址和发信日期通常写在信纸右上方先写地址后写日期。日期的写法英美不尽相同以下几种写法皆可:Jan,Janth,thJanJan,()收信人姓名和地址收信人姓名、地址写在左上方低于写信人地址和发信日期一至两行一般要在收信人姓名前加上尊称或头衔如Mr,Mrs,Prof,Director等如:ProfWangChineseDepartmentBeijingUniversity()对收信人的称呼对收信人的称呼自成一行写在收信人姓中、地址下面空一行外信纸左边顶格写称呼一般以Dear开始。()信的正文信的正文是信的主体部分一般在呼语下面空两行开始写每段的第一行都要空一个字母正文部分既要内容完整条理清楚又要注意必要的礼节。()结束语和谦称在信的结尾处发信人对收信人往往使用一种谦称。这部分写在正文下面一至两行处一般在信纸中间或偏右的地方写起首字母要大写末尾用“”。常用谦词有:Yourstruly,Trulyyours,Faithfullyyours,Yoursfaithfully,Respectfullyyours,Yoursrespectfully,Yourslovingly,Yours,Yoursever等。()发信人签名信末的签名一般低于结束用语一至两行从信纸中间偏右的地方写起。一般要签全名除非是自己十分熟悉或亲密的人。有时还要写上发信人的职务或头衔。另外有时信中还有附件这时要在信的左下角注明Encl(enclosure)或Enc如:EncDriveLicense附驾驶执照如果在写完信后又有需要补充的内容可在左下方写PS(postscript)。二、英文书信实例求职申请信要写明你要申请的工作或职务你的学历、能力或你的特长。求职申请信的写作要做到简单、明了要用简洁的语言清楚地反映你的才能、成绩、经历。申请信主要用于申请入学、学术交流等。这类信件应写明本人的意愿、申请的理由。求职申请信的常用句型有:①I’dliketoapplyforthejob(post,position)

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