爱问 爱问共享资料 爱问分类
首页 > > > Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

上传者: UC
46次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2012-05-13 举报

简介:consciousness

Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-InteractionismEccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-InteractionismDonaldE.Watson,MDDirector,JamesClerkMaxwellProjectHumanEnergySystemsLaboratoryUniversityofArizonaBernardO.Williams,PhDProfessorandChairEnergyMedicineProgramGreenwichUniversityNorfolkIsland,AustraliaNeuroQuantology1:119-128January,2003ABSTRACTSirJohnEccleswrotethatDescartes'dualist-interactionismguidedhisscientificcareer,yethisscientificworkreachedfarbeyondtheboundsofthisoranyotherphilosophicalproposition.Indeed,theuntestable,metaphysicalfoundationofdualisminallitsformsconflictwithscientificthinking.Thus,ifEccleshadconcentratedonspiritasdistinctfrommatter,hewouldhavepositionedhimselftodiscoverascientifictheoryoftheself.Toillustratehowthisispossible,wecomparesuchatheory—theTheoryofEnformedSystems—withdualist-interactionism.INTRODUCTIONAsayoungmedicalstudent,SirJohnEcclescouldnotacceptthe"irreligiousphilosophyofmonist-materialism."HeturnedtoDescartes'dualismbecauseseparatingresextensaandrescogitans"gaveasecurestatustothehumansoulorself."ThoughEccleswasmotivatedpartlyfromhisreligiousbeliefs,itisclearfromcontextthathisconceptofspiritwasnotconfinedtoanyparticularreligiousorhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(1of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismphilosophicaldoctrine.Thatis,heequatedthetermsspiritualandnonmaterial,whichdisengagedhisthinkingfromCartesiandualismandplaceditinthepathofmodernscience.Giventhisinsight,ifhehadnotpersistentlyreturnedtodualist-interactionismoranyotherphilosophicalmodelofmind,hewouldhavebeenfreetodevelopascientifictheoryoftheselfanditsrelationtothebrain.Ofcourse,giventhelackofknowledgeaboutthebrainintheseventeenthcentury,EcclesrejectedDescartes'sproposalthatthemindandbraininteractatthepineal.Beyondthat,hisreadingsinphilosophyhadshownhimthatphilosophersingeneralarepervasivelyignorantofthe"brainatthesubtlelevelatwhichitcouldrelatetoconsciousexperiences."Thushedecidedtocontributetothephilosophyofmindbymakinghiscareerinneuroscience,inwhichhis"dualist-interactionistphilosophywaslikeabeaconlightguidingmywaythroughthecomplexitiesofmyneuroscientificstudies."(1994)Asitturnedout,however,thisbeaconwasirrelevanttohisscientificwork.Intheprefacetohisbook,HowtheSelfControlsitsBrain,hewrote,"Amostimportantprogrammeforthisbookistochallengeandnegatematerialismandtoreinstatethespiritualselfasthecontrollerofthebrain."Yetthisisn'tasingleprogram.Itistwoseparateprogramsintworadicallydiversedisciplines,philosophyandscience.PHILOSOPHICPROPOSITIONSvsSCIENTIFICTHEORIESAlthoughEcclesproclaimedhimselfadualist-interactionist,hisscientificworkproclaimsotherwise.In1963,hereceivedtheNobelPrizeforhiscomprehensivepioneeringworkonsynapticneurophysiology.Thatworkandhissubsequenttheoryofpsychonsandquantum-basedexocytosisresultfromscientificthinking,firmlygroundedintheempiricalmethod.Theseworksneitherfollownorprecedethephilosophicdoctrineofdualist-interactionism.Nordotheyreflectorsupportdualism'scurrentlypopularalternative,materialmonism.Dualismandmonism,progenyofintrospective,anthropocentricphilosophy,arenotrelevanttothescienceofthebrain,theself,andconsciousness.AlthoughnoscientifictheoryofthemindorselfwasavailabletoEccles,heremainedtruetotheempiricalmethod.Thus,ifwefollowhisscience,wecanbepropelledintothefutureofnoeticscience.Butifwefollowhisphilosophy,wefindourselvesatascientificdeadend,lookingbackwardintothemetaphysics,knowledge,andreligiousbeliefsoftheseventeenthcentury.ThetermdualismoriginatedwithThomasHydearoundtheendoftheseventeenthcenturytolabelametaphysicaltheorythatparalleledthetheologicaldoctrinethattheworldconsistsofelementsmadeofpairsofcomplementarybutincommensurablehttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(2of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismcomponentssuchasgoodandevil,lightanddark,spiritandbody.Whereasthepopularrenderingofdualismholdsthatincongruousentitiessuchasmindandbodycannotinteract,Descartespositedthattheydo.Thetermdualist-interactionismindicatesDescartes'sview.Dualist-interactionismcouldnotguideEcclestoaccomplishhisscientificprogramfortwokeyreasons:Thetermmindwasnotwelldefined,and"dualist-interactionism"wasnotdelimitedinwaysthatitcouldgeneratehypothesesforempiricaltesting.Becausedualist-interactionismcan'tbetested,itisascientificdead-end.Forcingittomatewithscientificthoughtyieldsamule—ahybridthatcanliveitsownlifebutcannotreproduce,muchlessevolve.REDEFININGDUALIST-INTERACTIONISMEccles'implicitcriticismofDescartes'dualist-interactionismindicatesthathewasawareoftheweaknessofthephilosophicalproposition.Thoughheacceptedthe"dualist"partofdualist-interactionism"thatthemindandbrainareindependententities,"heamendedthe"interactionism"partbygeneralizing:"Thereisinteractionoftwodistinctentities,thespiritualself(World2)andthematerialbrain(World1),asdefinedbyPopperandEccles(1977)."Notethathereherefersexplicitlytoself,notmind.EcclesalsorejectedDescartes'conceptthatmindisasubstance:Theconceptofsubstanceleadstoamaterialistaspectofthemind.Ispeakinsteadofthespiritualexistenceoftheselfwithoutmentioningany'substance'properties.Thegreatproblemis'howtheselfcontrolsitsbrain'.Thisisdualistic,butnotintermsoftwosubstances.InsteaditrelatestothetwoworldsofPopper.(1995)ThatPopper'stwocategories,World1andWorld2,arepresumedtobeparallelandco-existentiscrucialtounderstandingtheimpedimentsthatdualist-interactionismplacedinthewayofEccles'thinking.Whenheconsideredmindandbodyasentities,histhinkingwasconstrainedtothenotionthateachofthemrequirestheexistenceandoperationsoftheother.That'swhyheanchoredhisconceptofselftobrainoperations,namelytheultra-microphysiologyofsynapses.Thisparallel-dualismperspectiveprecludedhisdevelopingatheoryofnonmaterialsystemsthatareoperationallyindependentofmaterialsystems.Asshownbelow,withoutsuchamodel,therecanbenoscientifictheoryofsurvivaloftheselfafterdeathofthebody—aphenomenoninwhichEcclesfirmlybelieved.Despitehisdissatisfactionwithdualist-interactionism,Ecclesreliedonitbecausehehttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(3of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismhadnoscientifictheoryofspirittoguidehim.IftheTheoryofEnformedSystems(TES)(Watson,etal,1999)hadbeenavailabletohim,hewouldhavefoundthatthenotionof"mind"issuperfluous.UnderTES,whichisempiricallytestable,theselfperformsalltheoperationsattributedtomind.EvidentlyDescartesagreedwiththeideathatitistheselfthatexhibitsmentaloperationswhenhewrotehisfamousstatement,"Ithink,thereforeIam."Hedidnotsay,"Mymindthinks,thereforemymindis."Thisstatementevokesthequestion,"Whatisthereferentfor'my?'"THEBINDINGPROBLEMWithFriedrichBeck,Ecclesappliedquantumtheorytoexplainthesynapticexocytosisofneurotransmitters.Thoughthisprovidedatleastahintof"spirit-matter"interaction,itdidnotsolvethebindingproblem(Damasio,1989).IfTEShadbeenavailabletohim,Eccleswouldhaveavoidedthisperennialproblemofneuroscience.Thatis,becauseTESisatheoryofwholes—asopposedtocollectionsofparts—hecouldhavecomemuchclosertorealizinghisobjectivethanhedidintryingtoconformhisinterpretationstodualist-interactionism.Eccles'approachtothebindingproblemisfoundinhisconceptofmentalunits:Thehypothesishasbeenproposed(Eccles,1990)thatallmentaleventsandexperiences,infactthewholeoftheouterandinnersensoryexperiences,areacompositeofelementalorunitarymentalexperiencesatalllevelsofintensity.Eachofthesementalunitsisreciprocallylinkedinsomeunitarymannertoadendron[abundleofdendrites]....Appropriatelywenametheseproposedmentalunits'psychons.'Psychonsarenotperceptualpathstoexperiences.Theyaretheexperiencesinalltheirdiversityanduniqueness.Therecouldbemillionsofpsychonseachlinkeduniquelytothemillionsofdendrons.Itishypothesizedthatitistheverynatureofpsychonstolinktogetherinprovidingaunifiedexperience.(1994)Thoughrudimentary,Eccles'notionofpsychonslinkingtogetherisconsistentwithoneofthefundamentalbehaviorsofSELFsunderTES:coheringinspace-time.Thedifferenceisinhisconsideringpsychonsthemselvesas"experiences,"notentities.UnderTES,SELFs(acronymforSingular,Enformed,LivingFields)aretheentitiesthatcontainexperiences;i.e.,SELFsarecontainers,notcontents.WebelieveEccleswouldagreewiththisview,becauseit'stortuoustothinkthatexperiencesthemselvesformthe"intentions"necessaryforneurotransmitterexocytosisunderhistheory.http://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(4of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-InteractionismTHEMIND-BODYPROBLEMTheenduring"mind-bodyproblem"isanartefactofphilosophicalreasoning.Thepremiseofparalleldualism,togetherwiththepremisethatspiritandmattercan'tinteract,fosterinterminableargumentsthatcanonlyreflectbacktothepremises—hence,theproblem.Thatis,ifonebeginswiththesepremisesandremainsfaithfultotheirimplications,onecanonlyfindresultsthatmirrorthepremises.Thisisnotscience,becauseitisimpossibletoapplythesepremisestoformulateatestablehypothesisofmind-bodyinteraction.Theonlywayaroundthemind-bodyproblemistogeneratedissimilar,competingpropositions.The"psychophysicalidentity"propositionistoday'smostpopularmodelforworkingaroundtheclassicalmind-bodyproblem.Itreplacesdualismwithmaterialmonism.Underthepsychophysicalidentityproposition,mindisanunnecessaryconceptbecausemindstatesareactuallybrainstates.NotingthatPopper(PopperandEccles,1977)characterizesthepsychophysicalidentitymodelas"promissorymaterialism,"Ecclesattackedthispropositionthus:Iregardthistheoryasbeingwithoutfoundation.Themorewediscoverscientificallyaboutthebrainthemoreclearlydowedistinguishbetweenthebraineventsandthementalphenomenaandthemorewonderfuldothementalphenomenabecome.Promissorymaterialismissimplyasuperstitionheldbydogmaticmaterialists.IthasallthefeaturesofaMessianicprophecy,withthepromiseofafuturefreedofallproblems—akindofNirvanaforourunfortunatesuccessors.(1994)Ecclesdidn'tneedtostopwithcharacterizingpromissorymaterialismasdogma.Hecouldhaveusedascientificargument.Unliketheparallel-dualismpremise,materialmonismimpliesatestablehypothesis,namelythatlocalbrainoperationsarenecessaryforallmentalevents.HadEcclesincludednonlocalparapsychologicalfindingsamongour"wonderfulmentalphenomena,"hecouldhaveshownthatmaterialmonism'sessentialimplicationhasbeenfalsified.ThebrainisnotnecessaryforvalidempiricaldatapointingtowhatDosseylabeledthe"nonlocalmind"(1997),includingtelepathy(BemandHonorton,1994),psychokinesis(Jahn,etal,1987),remoteviewing(Targ,1996),andmanyothernonlocalparapsychologicalphenomena(Radin,1997).ORGANIZINGANDTHECONSERVATIONLAWSAlthoughEcclesdidn'tseizetheopportunitytoattackthebasicpremiseofmaterialmonismwithempiricalevidenceofnonlocality,heappliedotheraspectsofquantumtheorytoaddressthelong-heldbeliefthattheconservationlawsprecludemind-bodyhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(5of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionisminteraction:Thematerialistcriticsarguethatinsuperabledifficultiesareencounteredbythehypothesisthatimmaterialmentaleventscanactinanywayonmaterialstructuressuchasneurons.Suchapresumedactionisallegedtobeincompatiblewiththeconservationlawsofphysics,inparticularofthefirstlawofthermodynamics.Thisobjectionwouldcertainlybesustainedbynineteenthcenturyphysicists,andbyneuroscientistsandphilosopherswhoarestillideologicallyinthephysicsofthenineteenthcentury,notrecognizingtherevolutionwroughtbyquantumphysicistsinthetwentiethcentury.(1994)Ofcourse,notallnineteenthcenturyphysicistswereideologicallyidentical.JamesClerkMaxwell,wholaidthefoundationformodernphysics,foresawthesolutiontomind-matterinteractionsinhisthoughtexperimentthatbecameknownas"Maxwell'sdemon."Themetaphoricdemonsegregatesfast(high-energy)moleculesinagasfromslowones,therebycreatinganenergygradientinapparentviolationofthefirstandsecondlawsofthermodynamics.Thattheviolationisonlyapparentisfoundinrealizingthatthedemonorganizesmatter;itdoesnotcreateordestroyenergy.Inotherwords,organizinganensembleofmaterialelementsisthekeytoextractingusableenergyfromnon-usableenergy.Organizing,inthisframeofreference,consistsofderandomizingotherwiserandomevents.Szilard(1929)andBrillouin(1950)showedthatMaxwell'sdemoncan'toperateundertheprevailingrenditionsofphysicsandinformationtheory.YetSzilard,educatednotonlyinphysics,butinbiologyandbiophysics,circumspectlyacknowledged,"Presently,ofcourse,wedonotknowwhetherwecommitanerrorbynotincludingtheinterveningmanintothesystemandbydisregardinghisbiologicalphenomena."Thisisacriticalcaveatbecausethedisregardedbiologicalphenomenaarethekeystothisissue.Derandomizationinoppositiontotheentropylawisnecessary,notonlyforMaxwell'sdemon,butforlifeitself.Weshowbelowthatthetheoreticalquantity,enformy,isthekeytoallowingderandomization.QUANTUMSTATISTICSWithBeck,Ecclesusedtheideaofderandomizationintheirmodelofsynapticneurotransmitterrelease(exocytosis)basedonthestatisticsofquantumphysics.Briefly,aquantumprobabilityfieldassociatedwith"intention"increasesthelikelihoodfortransmitterexocytosisandhence,anexcitatorypost-synapticpotential(EPSP).IfasufficientnumberofEPSPssumwithinatimesufficientlybriefthattheneuron'sthresholddepolarizationisreached,anactionpotentialwillensue.Thisultimatelyproducescommunicationwithotherneuronsormusclefibers,thelatterhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(6of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismresultinginmotoractivity.Evenso,asChalmers(1995)pointsout,sucha"whirofinformation-processing"doesnotexplainsubjectiveexperience.Ultimately,Chalmers'"hardproblem"istheobjectofEccles'work.Ecclesinterpretedthequantumexocytosismodelintermsofdualist-interactionism,butthisexplanationisneithernecessarynorhelpful.Quantumphysics—andhencethetheoryofEcclesandBeck—doesnotdependonanyphilosophicconceptofdualism.ASCIENTIFICTHEORYOFTHESELFAlthoughthecontributionsofEcclescan'tbefullyelaboratedinthecontextof"dualist-interactionism,"hisfindingsandthoughtscanbeappreciatedwhentheyarecastintheframeworkoftheTheoryofEnformedSystems(Watson,1997a,Watson,etal,1998;Schwartz,etal,1998).Ecclesfoundtherudimentsofthistheoryintriguing(Watson,1998).TESisnotinducedfromintrospectionorobservation.Itwasdevelopedbythehypothetico-deductivemethodadvocatedbyEccles:InductionwasshowntobeuntenableasascientificmethodbyPopperinTheLogicofScientificDiscovery(1959).Instead,advancesinscientificunderstandingcomeideallyfromhypothetico-deductivism:firstly,developmentofahypothesisinrelationtoaproblemsituation,andsecondly,itstestinginrelationtoallrelevantknowledgeandfurthermorebyitsgreatexplanatorypower.(1994)TheconceptualoriginofTESisthepositthatthereexistsafundamental,conservedcapacitytoorganize,denotedbythetermenformy(Watson,1993).Opposingthedisorganizingoperationsimpliedbythesecondlawofthermodynamics,enformyorganizesandsustainsfour-dimensionalfieldsofnonrandomness(termedenformation).Thesefields(domainsofinfluence)arenamedSELFtoindicatetheyareunique(Singular),sustainedbyenformy(Enformed),andcapableofreproducingandevolving(Living).Notcoincidentally,theSELFcorrespondstothe"self"asdescribedbyEccles:[Theword"self"]willbeusedtoconnoteanexperiencedunitythatderivesfromalinkingbymemoryofconsciousstatesthatareexperiencedatwidelydifferenttimes—spreadoveralifetime.Thus,inorderthata'self'mayexisttheremustbesomecontinuityofmentalexperiencesand,particularly,continuitybridginggapsofunconsciousness.Forexample,thecontinuityofour"self"isresumedaftersleep,anaesthesia,andthetemporaryamnesiasofconcussionandhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(7of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismconvulsions.UnderTES,SELFsarenotlimitedtohumans.Theycorrespondtotheorganizationinherentinallcoherent,wholesystemsrangingincomplexityfromphotonstohumansandbeyond.Becausetheyarecontinuousinspace-time,butdiscontinuousinthree-space,theirfundamentalbehaviorsaccountforthenonlocalphenomenaapparentinquantumphysics(e.g.,quantumentanglement)andparapsychology(e.g.,telepathy).SELFsexhibitthreefundamentalbehaviors:(1)state-conforming—conformingtotheSELF'sownstates;and(2)self-conforming—conformingtothesestatesastheSELF'sown,distinguishingthemfromstatesexternaltotheSELF;and(3)coheringinspace-time.Humansexperiencestate-conformingandself-conformingastherudimentsofperceptionandself-awarenessrespectively.Coheringinspace-timeaccountsfortelepathy,remoteviewing,precognition,andpsychokinesis.Asseenabove,thisistheaspectofTESthatisconsistentwithEccles'notionofpsychonslinkingtogether.SELFsareentities,buttheydonotnecessarilyco-existwithmaterialentities.Instead,SELFsareprephysical—i.e.,pre-existingandfundamentaltophysicalsystems.Yettheiroperationsonphysicalsystemsareprofound:Enformyenforms(organizes)elementsofmatterandenergy/masstoconformtotheenformationimplicitinSELFs.Inthisway,SELFsactasmapsfororganizingphysicalsystemsintimeandspace,whichisthebasisofmorphogenesis

Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

上传者: UC
46次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2012-05-13 举报

简介:consciousness

Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-InteractionismEccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-InteractionismDonaldE.Watson,MDDirector,JamesClerkMaxwellProjectHumanEnergySystemsLaboratoryUniversityofArizonaBernardO.Williams,PhDProfessorandChairEnergyMedicineProgramGreenwichUniversityNorfolkIsland,AustraliaNeuroQuantology1:119-128January,2003ABSTRACTSirJohnEccleswrotethatDescartes'dualist-interactionismguidedhisscientificcareer,yethisscientificworkreachedfarbeyondtheboundsofthisoranyotherphilosophicalproposition.Indeed,theuntestable,metaphysicalfoundationofdualisminallitsformsconflictwithscientificthinking.Thus,ifEccleshadconcentratedonspiritasdistinctfrommatter,hewouldhavepositionedhimselftodiscoverascientifictheoryoftheself.Toillustratehowthisispossible,wecomparesuchatheory—theTheoryofEnformedSystems—withdualist-interactionism.INTRODUCTIONAsayoungmedicalstudent,SirJohnEcclescouldnotacceptthe"irreligiousphilosophyofmonist-materialism."HeturnedtoDescartes'dualismbecauseseparatingresextensaandrescogitans"gaveasecurestatustothehumansoulorself."ThoughEccleswasmotivatedpartlyfromhisreligiousbeliefs,itisclearfromcontextthathisconceptofspiritwasnotconfinedtoanyparticularreligiousorhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(1of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismphilosophicaldoctrine.Thatis,heequatedthetermsspiritualandnonmaterial,whichdisengagedhisthinkingfromCartesiandualismandplaceditinthepathofmodernscience.Giventhisinsight,ifhehadnotpersistentlyreturnedtodualist-interactionismoranyotherphilosophicalmodelofmind,hewouldhavebeenfreetodevelopascientifictheoryoftheselfanditsrelationtothebrain.Ofcourse,giventhelackofknowledgeaboutthebrainintheseventeenthcentury,EcclesrejectedDescartes'sproposalthatthemindandbraininteractatthepineal.Beyondthat,hisreadingsinphilosophyhadshownhimthatphilosophersingeneralarepervasivelyignorantofthe"brainatthesubtlelevelatwhichitcouldrelatetoconsciousexperiences."Thushedecidedtocontributetothephilosophyofmindbymakinghiscareerinneuroscience,inwhichhis"dualist-interactionistphilosophywaslikeabeaconlightguidingmywaythroughthecomplexitiesofmyneuroscientificstudies."(1994)Asitturnedout,however,thisbeaconwasirrelevanttohisscientificwork.Intheprefacetohisbook,HowtheSelfControlsitsBrain,hewrote,"Amostimportantprogrammeforthisbookistochallengeandnegatematerialismandtoreinstatethespiritualselfasthecontrollerofthebrain."Yetthisisn'tasingleprogram.Itistwoseparateprogramsintworadicallydiversedisciplines,philosophyandscience.PHILOSOPHICPROPOSITIONSvsSCIENTIFICTHEORIESAlthoughEcclesproclaimedhimselfadualist-interactionist,hisscientificworkproclaimsotherwise.In1963,hereceivedtheNobelPrizeforhiscomprehensivepioneeringworkonsynapticneurophysiology.Thatworkandhissubsequenttheoryofpsychonsandquantum-basedexocytosisresultfromscientificthinking,firmlygroundedintheempiricalmethod.Theseworksneitherfollownorprecedethephilosophicdoctrineofdualist-interactionism.Nordotheyreflectorsupportdualism'scurrentlypopularalternative,materialmonism.Dualismandmonism,progenyofintrospective,anthropocentricphilosophy,arenotrelevanttothescienceofthebrain,theself,andconsciousness.AlthoughnoscientifictheoryofthemindorselfwasavailabletoEccles,heremainedtruetotheempiricalmethod.Thus,ifwefollowhisscience,wecanbepropelledintothefutureofnoeticscience.Butifwefollowhisphilosophy,wefindourselvesatascientificdeadend,lookingbackwardintothemetaphysics,knowledge,andreligiousbeliefsoftheseventeenthcentury.ThetermdualismoriginatedwithThomasHydearoundtheendoftheseventeenthcenturytolabelametaphysicaltheorythatparalleledthetheologicaldoctrinethattheworldconsistsofelementsmadeofpairsofcomplementarybutincommensurablehttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(2of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismcomponentssuchasgoodandevil,lightanddark,spiritandbody.Whereasthepopularrenderingofdualismholdsthatincongruousentitiessuchasmindandbodycannotinteract,Descartespositedthattheydo.Thetermdualist-interactionismindicatesDescartes'sview.Dualist-interactionismcouldnotguideEcclestoaccomplishhisscientificprogramfortwokeyreasons:Thetermmindwasnotwelldefined,and"dualist-interactionism"wasnotdelimitedinwaysthatitcouldgeneratehypothesesforempiricaltesting.Becausedualist-interactionismcan'tbetested,itisascientificdead-end.Forcingittomatewithscientificthoughtyieldsamule—ahybridthatcanliveitsownlifebutcannotreproduce,muchlessevolve.REDEFININGDUALIST-INTERACTIONISMEccles'implicitcriticismofDescartes'dualist-interactionismindicatesthathewasawareoftheweaknessofthephilosophicalproposition.Thoughheacceptedthe"dualist"partofdualist-interactionism"thatthemindandbrainareindependententities,"heamendedthe"interactionism"partbygeneralizing:"Thereisinteractionoftwodistinctentities,thespiritualself(World2)andthematerialbrain(World1),asdefinedbyPopperandEccles(1977)."Notethathereherefersexplicitlytoself,notmind.EcclesalsorejectedDescartes'conceptthatmindisasubstance:Theconceptofsubstanceleadstoamaterialistaspectofthemind.Ispeakinsteadofthespiritualexistenceoftheselfwithoutmentioningany'substance'properties.Thegreatproblemis'howtheselfcontrolsitsbrain'.Thisisdualistic,butnotintermsoftwosubstances.InsteaditrelatestothetwoworldsofPopper.(1995)ThatPopper'stwocategories,World1andWorld2,arepresumedtobeparallelandco-existentiscrucialtounderstandingtheimpedimentsthatdualist-interactionismplacedinthewayofEccles'thinking.Whenheconsideredmindandbodyasentities,histhinkingwasconstrainedtothenotionthateachofthemrequirestheexistenceandoperationsoftheother.That'swhyheanchoredhisconceptofselftobrainoperations,namelytheultra-microphysiologyofsynapses.Thisparallel-dualismperspectiveprecludedhisdevelopingatheoryofnonmaterialsystemsthatareoperationallyindependentofmaterialsystems.Asshownbelow,withoutsuchamodel,therecanbenoscientifictheoryofsurvivaloftheselfafterdeathofthebody—aphenomenoninwhichEcclesfirmlybelieved.Despitehisdissatisfactionwithdualist-interactionism,Ecclesreliedonitbecausehehttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(3of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismhadnoscientifictheoryofspirittoguidehim.IftheTheoryofEnformedSystems(TES)(Watson,etal,1999)hadbeenavailabletohim,hewouldhavefoundthatthenotionof"mind"issuperfluous.UnderTES,whichisempiricallytestable,theselfperformsalltheoperationsattributedtomind.EvidentlyDescartesagreedwiththeideathatitistheselfthatexhibitsmentaloperationswhenhewrotehisfamousstatement,"Ithink,thereforeIam."Hedidnotsay,"Mymindthinks,thereforemymindis."Thisstatementevokesthequestion,"Whatisthereferentfor'my?'"THEBINDINGPROBLEMWithFriedrichBeck,Ecclesappliedquantumtheorytoexplainthesynapticexocytosisofneurotransmitters.Thoughthisprovidedatleastahintof"spirit-matter"interaction,itdidnotsolvethebindingproblem(Damasio,1989).IfTEShadbeenavailabletohim,Eccleswouldhaveavoidedthisperennialproblemofneuroscience.Thatis,becauseTESisatheoryofwholes—asopposedtocollectionsofparts—hecouldhavecomemuchclosertorealizinghisobjectivethanhedidintryingtoconformhisinterpretationstodualist-interactionism.Eccles'approachtothebindingproblemisfoundinhisconceptofmentalunits:Thehypothesishasbeenproposed(Eccles,1990)thatallmentaleventsandexperiences,infactthewholeoftheouterandinnersensoryexperiences,areacompositeofelementalorunitarymentalexperiencesatalllevelsofintensity.Eachofthesementalunitsisreciprocallylinkedinsomeunitarymannertoadendron[abundleofdendrites]....Appropriatelywenametheseproposedmentalunits'psychons.'Psychonsarenotperceptualpathstoexperiences.Theyaretheexperiencesinalltheirdiversityanduniqueness.Therecouldbemillionsofpsychonseachlinkeduniquelytothemillionsofdendrons.Itishypothesizedthatitistheverynatureofpsychonstolinktogetherinprovidingaunifiedexperience.(1994)Thoughrudimentary,Eccles'notionofpsychonslinkingtogetherisconsistentwithoneofthefundamentalbehaviorsofSELFsunderTES:coheringinspace-time.Thedifferenceisinhisconsideringpsychonsthemselvesas"experiences,"notentities.UnderTES,SELFs(acronymforSingular,Enformed,LivingFields)aretheentitiesthatcontainexperiences;i.e.,SELFsarecontainers,notcontents.WebelieveEccleswouldagreewiththisview,becauseit'stortuoustothinkthatexperiencesthemselvesformthe"intentions"necessaryforneurotransmitterexocytosisunderhistheory.http://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(4of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-InteractionismTHEMIND-BODYPROBLEMTheenduring"mind-bodyproblem"isanartefactofphilosophicalreasoning.Thepremiseofparalleldualism,togetherwiththepremisethatspiritandmattercan'tinteract,fosterinterminableargumentsthatcanonlyreflectbacktothepremises—hence,theproblem.Thatis,ifonebeginswiththesepremisesandremainsfaithfultotheirimplications,onecanonlyfindresultsthatmirrorthepremises.Thisisnotscience,becauseitisimpossibletoapplythesepremisestoformulateatestablehypothesisofmind-bodyinteraction.Theonlywayaroundthemind-bodyproblemistogeneratedissimilar,competingpropositions.The"psychophysicalidentity"propositionistoday'smostpopularmodelforworkingaroundtheclassicalmind-bodyproblem.Itreplacesdualismwithmaterialmonism.Underthepsychophysicalidentityproposition,mindisanunnecessaryconceptbecausemindstatesareactuallybrainstates.NotingthatPopper(PopperandEccles,1977)characterizesthepsychophysicalidentitymodelas"promissorymaterialism,"Ecclesattackedthispropositionthus:Iregardthistheoryasbeingwithoutfoundation.Themorewediscoverscientificallyaboutthebrainthemoreclearlydowedistinguishbetweenthebraineventsandthementalphenomenaandthemorewonderfuldothementalphenomenabecome.Promissorymaterialismissimplyasuperstitionheldbydogmaticmaterialists.IthasallthefeaturesofaMessianicprophecy,withthepromiseofafuturefreedofallproblems—akindofNirvanaforourunfortunatesuccessors.(1994)Ecclesdidn'tneedtostopwithcharacterizingpromissorymaterialismasdogma.Hecouldhaveusedascientificargument.Unliketheparallel-dualismpremise,materialmonismimpliesatestablehypothesis,namelythatlocalbrainoperationsarenecessaryforallmentalevents.HadEcclesincludednonlocalparapsychologicalfindingsamongour"wonderfulmentalphenomena,"hecouldhaveshownthatmaterialmonism'sessentialimplicationhasbeenfalsified.ThebrainisnotnecessaryforvalidempiricaldatapointingtowhatDosseylabeledthe"nonlocalmind"(1997),includingtelepathy(BemandHonorton,1994),psychokinesis(Jahn,etal,1987),remoteviewing(Targ,1996),andmanyothernonlocalparapsychologicalphenomena(Radin,1997).ORGANIZINGANDTHECONSERVATIONLAWSAlthoughEcclesdidn'tseizetheopportunitytoattackthebasicpremiseofmaterialmonismwithempiricalevidenceofnonlocality,heappliedotheraspectsofquantumtheorytoaddressthelong-heldbeliefthattheconservationlawsprecludemind-bodyhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(5of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionisminteraction:Thematerialistcriticsarguethatinsuperabledifficultiesareencounteredbythehypothesisthatimmaterialmentaleventscanactinanywayonmaterialstructuressuchasneurons.Suchapresumedactionisallegedtobeincompatiblewiththeconservationlawsofphysics,inparticularofthefirstlawofthermodynamics.Thisobjectionwouldcertainlybesustainedbynineteenthcenturyphysicists,andbyneuroscientistsandphilosopherswhoarestillideologicallyinthephysicsofthenineteenthcentury,notrecognizingtherevolutionwroughtbyquantumphysicistsinthetwentiethcentury.(1994)Ofcourse,notallnineteenthcenturyphysicistswereideologicallyidentical.JamesClerkMaxwell,wholaidthefoundationformodernphysics,foresawthesolutiontomind-matterinteractionsinhisthoughtexperimentthatbecameknownas"Maxwell'sdemon."Themetaphoricdemonsegregatesfast(high-energy)moleculesinagasfromslowones,therebycreatinganenergygradientinapparentviolationofthefirstandsecondlawsofthermodynamics.Thattheviolationisonlyapparentisfoundinrealizingthatthedemonorganizesmatter;itdoesnotcreateordestroyenergy.Inotherwords,organizinganensembleofmaterialelementsisthekeytoextractingusableenergyfromnon-usableenergy.Organizing,inthisframeofreference,consistsofderandomizingotherwiserandomevents.Szilard(1929)andBrillouin(1950)showedthatMaxwell'sdemoncan'toperateundertheprevailingrenditionsofphysicsandinformationtheory.YetSzilard,educatednotonlyinphysics,butinbiologyandbiophysics,circumspectlyacknowledged,"Presently,ofcourse,wedonotknowwhetherwecommitanerrorbynotincludingtheinterveningmanintothesystemandbydisregardinghisbiologicalphenomena."Thisisacriticalcaveatbecausethedisregardedbiologicalphenomenaarethekeystothisissue.Derandomizationinoppositiontotheentropylawisnecessary,notonlyforMaxwell'sdemon,butforlifeitself.Weshowbelowthatthetheoreticalquantity,enformy,isthekeytoallowingderandomization.QUANTUMSTATISTICSWithBeck,Ecclesusedtheideaofderandomizationintheirmodelofsynapticneurotransmitterrelease(exocytosis)basedonthestatisticsofquantumphysics.Briefly,aquantumprobabilityfieldassociatedwith"intention"increasesthelikelihoodfortransmitterexocytosisandhence,anexcitatorypost-synapticpotential(EPSP).IfasufficientnumberofEPSPssumwithinatimesufficientlybriefthattheneuron'sthresholddepolarizationisreached,anactionpotentialwillensue.Thisultimatelyproducescommunicationwithotherneuronsormusclefibers,thelatterhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(6of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismresultinginmotoractivity.Evenso,asChalmers(1995)pointsout,sucha"whirofinformation-processing"doesnotexplainsubjectiveexperience.Ultimately,Chalmers'"hardproblem"istheobjectofEccles'work.Ecclesinterpretedthequantumexocytosismodelintermsofdualist-interactionism,butthisexplanationisneithernecessarynorhelpful.Quantumphysics—andhencethetheoryofEcclesandBeck—doesnotdependonanyphilosophicconceptofdualism.ASCIENTIFICTHEORYOFTHESELFAlthoughthecontributionsofEcclescan'tbefullyelaboratedinthecontextof"dualist-interactionism,"hisfindingsandthoughtscanbeappreciatedwhentheyarecastintheframeworkoftheTheoryofEnformedSystems(Watson,1997a,Watson,etal,1998;Schwartz,etal,1998).Ecclesfoundtherudimentsofthistheoryintriguing(Watson,1998).TESisnotinducedfromintrospectionorobservation.Itwasdevelopedbythehypothetico-deductivemethodadvocatedbyEccles:InductionwasshowntobeuntenableasascientificmethodbyPopperinTheLogicofScientificDiscovery(1959).Instead,advancesinscientificunderstandingcomeideallyfromhypothetico-deductivism:firstly,developmentofahypothesisinrelationtoaproblemsituation,andsecondly,itstestinginrelationtoallrelevantknowledgeandfurthermorebyitsgreatexplanatorypower.(1994)TheconceptualoriginofTESisthepositthatthereexistsafundamental,conservedcapacitytoorganize,denotedbythetermenformy(Watson,1993).Opposingthedisorganizingoperationsimpliedbythesecondlawofthermodynamics,enformyorganizesandsustainsfour-dimensionalfieldsofnonrandomness(termedenformation).Thesefields(domainsofinfluence)arenamedSELFtoindicatetheyareunique(Singular),sustainedbyenformy(Enformed),andcapableofreproducingandevolving(Living).Notcoincidentally,theSELFcorrespondstothe"self"asdescribedbyEccles:[Theword"self"]willbeusedtoconnoteanexperiencedunitythatderivesfromalinkingbymemoryofconsciousstatesthatareexperiencedatwidelydifferenttimes—spreadoveralifetime.Thus,inorderthata'self'mayexisttheremustbesomecontinuityofmentalexperiencesand,particularly,continuitybridginggapsofunconsciousness.Forexample,thecontinuityofour"self"isresumedaftersleep,anaesthesia,andthetemporaryamnesiasofconcussionandhttp://www.enformy.com/$dual.html(7of13)[12.08.200722:50:13]Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualist-Interactionismconvulsions.UnderTES,SELFsarenotlimitedtohumans.Theycorrespondtotheorganizationinherentinallcoherent,wholesystemsrangingincomplexityfromphotonstohumansandbeyond.Becausetheyarecontinuousinspace-time,butdiscontinuousinthree-space,theirfundamentalbehaviorsaccountforthenonlocalphenomenaapparentinquantumphysics(e.g.,quantumentanglement)andparapsychology(e.g.,telepathy).SELFsexhibitthreefundamentalbehaviors:(1)state-conforming—conformingtotheSELF'sownstates;and(2)self-conforming—conformingtothesestatesastheSELF'sown,distinguishingthemfromstatesexternaltotheSELF;and(3)coheringinspace-time.Humansexperiencestate-conformingandself-conformingastherudimentsofperceptionandself-awarenessrespectively.Coheringinspace-timeaccountsfortelepathy,remoteviewing,precognition,andpsychokinesis.Asseenabove,thisistheaspectofTESthatisconsistentwithEccles'notionofpsychonslinkingtogether.SELFsareentities,buttheydonotnecessarilyco-existwithmaterialentities.Instead,SELFsareprephysical—i.e.,pre-existingandfundamentaltophysicalsystems.Yettheiroperationsonphysicalsystemsareprofound:Enformyenforms(organizes)elementsofmatterandenergy/masstoconformtotheenformationimplicitinSELFs.Inthisway,SELFsactasmapsfororganizingphysicalsystemsintimeandspace,whichisthebasisofmorphogenesis
  • 相关资料
  • 该用户的其他资料
  • 名称/格式
  • 下载次数
  • 资料大小
  • 名称/格式
  • 下载次数
  • 资料大小

用户评论

0/200
暂无评论
上传我的资料

资料阅读排行

关闭

请选择举报的类型

关闭

提示

提交成功!

感谢您对爱问共享资料的支持,我们将尽快核实并处理您的举报信息。

关闭

提示

提交失败!

您的举报信息提交失败,请重试!

关闭

提示

重复举报!

亲爱的用户!感觉您对爱问共享资料的支持,请勿重复举报噢!

全屏 缩小 放大
收藏
资料评价:

/ 13
所需积分:0 立即下载
返回
顶部
举报
资料
关闭

温馨提示

感谢您对爱问共享资料的支持,精彩活动将尽快为您呈现,敬请期待!