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Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

Eccles' Model of Mind.pdf

上传者: UC 2012-05-13 评分1 评论0 下载47 收藏0 阅读量802 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Eccles' Model of Mindpdf》,可适用于学术研究领域,主题内容包含Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractio符等。

Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismEccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismDonaldEWatson,MDDirector,JamesClerkMaxwellProjectHumanEnergySystemsLaboratoryUniversityofArizonaBernardOWilliams,PhDProfessorandChairEnergyMedicineProgramGreenwichUniversityNorfolkIsland,AustraliaNeuroQuantology:January,ABSTRACTSirJohnEccleswrotethatDescartes'dualistinteractionismguidedhisscientificcareer,yethisscientificworkreachedfarbeyondtheboundsofthisoranyotherphilosophicalpropositionIndeed,theuntestable,metaphysicalfoundationofdualisminallitsformsconflictwithscientificthinkingThus,ifEccleshadconcentratedonspiritasdistinctfrommatter,hewouldhavepositionedhimselftodiscoverascientifictheoryoftheselfToillustratehowthisispossible,wecomparesuchatheory—theTheoryofEnformedSystems—withdualistinteractionismINTRODUCTIONAsayoungmedicalstudent,SirJohnEcclescouldnotacceptthe"irreligiousphilosophyofmonistmaterialism"HeturnedtoDescartes'dualismbecauseseparatingresextensaandrescogitans"gaveasecurestatustothehumansoulorself"ThoughEccleswasmotivatedpartlyfromhisreligiousbeliefs,itisclearfromcontextthathisconceptofspiritwasnotconfinedtoanyparticularreligiousorhttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismphilosophicaldoctrineThatis,heequatedthetermsspiritualandnonmaterial,whichdisengagedhisthinkingfromCartesiandualismandplaceditinthepathofmodernscienceGiventhisinsight,ifhehadnotpersistentlyreturnedtodualistinteractionismoranyotherphilosophicalmodelofmind,hewouldhavebeenfreetodevelopascientifictheoryoftheselfanditsrelationtothebrainOfcourse,giventhelackofknowledgeaboutthebrainintheseventeenthcentury,EcclesrejectedDescartes'sproposalthatthemindandbraininteractatthepinealBeyondthat,hisreadingsinphilosophyhadshownhimthatphilosophersingeneralarepervasivelyignorantofthe"brainatthesubtlelevelatwhichitcouldrelatetoconsciousexperiences"Thushedecidedtocontributetothephilosophyofmindbymakinghiscareerinneuroscience,inwhichhis"dualistinteractionistphilosophywaslikeabeaconlightguidingmywaythroughthecomplexitiesofmyneuroscientificstudies"()Asitturnedout,however,thisbeaconwasirrelevanttohisscientificworkIntheprefacetohisbook,HowtheSelfControlsitsBrain,hewrote,"Amostimportantprogrammeforthisbookistochallengeandnegatematerialismandtoreinstatethespiritualselfasthecontrollerofthebrain"Yetthisisn'tasingleprogramItistwoseparateprogramsintworadicallydiversedisciplines,philosophyandsciencePHILOSOPHICPROPOSITIONSvsSCIENTIFICTHEORIESAlthoughEcclesproclaimedhimselfadualistinteractionist,hisscientificworkproclaimsotherwiseIn,hereceivedtheNobelPrizeforhiscomprehensivepioneeringworkonsynapticneurophysiologyThatworkandhissubsequenttheoryofpsychonsandquantumbasedexocytosisresultfromscientificthinking,firmlygroundedintheempiricalmethodTheseworksneitherfollownorprecedethephilosophicdoctrineofdualistinteractionismNordotheyreflectorsupportdualism'scurrentlypopularalternative,materialmonismDualismandmonism,progenyofintrospective,anthropocentricphilosophy,arenotrelevanttothescienceofthebrain,theself,andconsciousnessAlthoughnoscientifictheoryofthemindorselfwasavailabletoEccles,heremainedtruetotheempiricalmethodThus,ifwefollowhisscience,wecanbepropelledintothefutureofnoeticscienceButifwefollowhisphilosophy,wefindourselvesatascientificdeadend,lookingbackwardintothemetaphysics,knowledge,andreligiousbeliefsoftheseventeenthcenturyThetermdualismoriginatedwithThomasHydearoundtheendoftheseventeenthcenturytolabelametaphysicaltheorythatparalleledthetheologicaldoctrinethattheworldconsistsofelementsmadeofpairsofcomplementarybutincommensurablehttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismcomponentssuchasgoodandevil,lightanddark,spiritandbodyWhereasthepopularrenderingofdualismholdsthatincongruousentitiessuchasmindandbodycannotinteract,DescartespositedthattheydoThetermdualistinteractionismindicatesDescartes'sviewDualistinteractionismcouldnotguideEcclestoaccomplishhisscientificprogramfortwokeyreasons:Thetermmindwasnotwelldefined,and"dualistinteractionism"wasnotdelimitedinwaysthatitcouldgeneratehypothesesforempiricaltestingBecausedualistinteractionismcan'tbetested,itisascientificdeadendForcingittomatewithscientificthoughtyieldsamule—ahybridthatcanliveitsownlifebutcannotreproduce,muchlessevolveREDEFININGDUALISTINTERACTIONISMEccles'implicitcriticismofDescartes'dualistinteractionismindicatesthathewasawareoftheweaknessofthephilosophicalpropositionThoughheacceptedthe"dualist"partofdualistinteractionism"thatthemindandbrainareindependententities,"heamendedthe"interactionism"partbygeneralizing:"Thereisinteractionoftwodistinctentities,thespiritualself(World)andthematerialbrain(World),asdefinedbyPopperandEccles()"Notethathereherefersexplicitlytoself,notmindEcclesalsorejectedDescartes'conceptthatmindisasubstance:TheconceptofsubstanceleadstoamaterialistaspectofthemindIspeakinsteadofthespiritualexistenceoftheselfwithoutmentioningany'substance'propertiesThegreatproblemis'howtheselfcontrolsitsbrain'Thisisdualistic,butnotintermsoftwosubstancesInsteaditrelatestothetwoworldsofPopper()ThatPopper'stwocategories,WorldandWorld,arepresumedtobeparallelandcoexistentiscrucialtounderstandingtheimpedimentsthatdualistinteractionismplacedinthewayofEccles'thinkingWhenheconsideredmindandbodyasentities,histhinkingwasconstrainedtothenotionthateachofthemrequirestheexistenceandoperationsoftheotherThat'swhyheanchoredhisconceptofselftobrainoperations,namelytheultramicrophysiologyofsynapsesThisparalleldualismperspectiveprecludedhisdevelopingatheoryofnonmaterialsystemsthatareoperationallyindependentofmaterialsystemsAsshownbelow,withoutsuchamodel,therecanbenoscientifictheoryofsurvivaloftheselfafterdeathofthebody—aphenomenoninwhichEcclesfirmlybelievedDespitehisdissatisfactionwithdualistinteractionism,Ecclesreliedonitbecausehehttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismhadnoscientifictheoryofspirittoguidehimIftheTheoryofEnformedSystems(TES)(Watson,etal,)hadbeenavailabletohim,hewouldhavefoundthatthenotionof"mind"issuperfluousUnderTES,whichisempiricallytestable,theselfperformsalltheoperationsattributedtomindEvidentlyDescartesagreedwiththeideathatitistheselfthatexhibitsmentaloperationswhenhewrotehisfamousstatement,"Ithink,thereforeIam"Hedidnotsay,"Mymindthinks,thereforemymindis"Thisstatementevokesthequestion,"Whatisthereferentfor'my'"THEBINDINGPROBLEMWithFriedrichBeck,EcclesappliedquantumtheorytoexplainthesynapticexocytosisofneurotransmittersThoughthisprovidedatleastahintof"spiritmatter"interaction,itdidnotsolvethebindingproblem(Damasio,)IfTEShadbeenavailabletohim,EccleswouldhaveavoidedthisperennialproblemofneuroscienceThatis,becauseTESisatheoryofwholes—asopposedtocollectionsofparts—hecouldhavecomemuchclosertorealizinghisobjectivethanhedidintryingtoconformhisinterpretationstodualistinteractionismEccles'approachtothebindingproblemisfoundinhisconceptofmentalunits:Thehypothesishasbeenproposed(Eccles,)thatallmentaleventsandexperiences,infactthewholeoftheouterandinnersensoryexperiences,areacompositeofelementalorunitarymentalexperiencesatalllevelsofintensityEachofthesementalunitsisreciprocallylinkedinsomeunitarymannertoadendronabundleofdendritesAppropriatelywenametheseproposedmentalunits'psychons'PsychonsarenotperceptualpathstoexperiencesTheyaretheexperiencesinalltheirdiversityanduniquenessTherecouldbemillionsofpsychonseachlinkeduniquelytothemillionsofdendronsItishypothesizedthatitistheverynatureofpsychonstolinktogetherinprovidingaunifiedexperience()Thoughrudimentary,Eccles'notionofpsychonslinkingtogetherisconsistentwithoneofthefundamentalbehaviorsofSELFsunderTES:coheringinspacetimeThedifferenceisinhisconsideringpsychonsthemselvesas"experiences,"notentitiesUnderTES,SELFs(acronymforSingular,Enformed,LivingFields)aretheentitiesthatcontainexperiencesie,SELFsarecontainers,notcontentsWebelieveEccleswouldagreewiththisview,becauseit'stortuoustothinkthatexperiencesthemselvesformthe"intentions"necessaryforneurotransmitterexocytosisunderhistheoryhttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismTHEMINDBODYPROBLEMTheenduring"mindbodyproblem"isanartefactofphilosophicalreasoningThepremiseofparalleldualism,togetherwiththepremisethatspiritandmattercan'tinteract,fosterinterminableargumentsthatcanonlyreflectbacktothepremises—hence,theproblemThatis,ifonebeginswiththesepremisesandremainsfaithfultotheirimplications,onecanonlyfindresultsthatmirrorthepremisesThisisnotscience,becauseitisimpossibletoapplythesepremisestoformulateatestablehypothesisofmindbodyinteractionTheonlywayaroundthemindbodyproblemistogeneratedissimilar,competingpropositionsThe"psychophysicalidentity"propositionistoday'smostpopularmodelforworkingaroundtheclassicalmindbodyproblemItreplacesdualismwithmaterialmonismUnderthepsychophysicalidentityproposition,mindisanunnecessaryconceptbecausemindstatesareactuallybrainstatesNotingthatPopper(PopperandEccles,)characterizesthepsychophysicalidentitymodelas"promissorymaterialism,"Ecclesattackedthispropositionthus:IregardthistheoryasbeingwithoutfoundationThemorewediscoverscientificallyaboutthebrainthemoreclearlydowedistinguishbetweenthebraineventsandthementalphenomenaandthemorewonderfuldothementalphenomenabecomePromissorymaterialismissimplyasuperstitionheldbydogmaticmaterialistsIthasallthefeaturesofaMessianicprophecy,withthepromiseofafuturefreedofallproblems—akindofNirvanaforourunfortunatesuccessors()Ecclesdidn'tneedtostopwithcharacterizingpromissorymaterialismasdogmaHecouldhaveusedascientificargumentUnliketheparalleldualismpremise,materialmonismimpliesatestablehypothesis,namelythatlocalbrainoperationsarenecessaryforallmentaleventsHadEcclesincludednonlocalparapsychologicalfindingsamongour"wonderfulmentalphenomena,"hecouldhaveshownthatmaterialmonism'sessentialimplicationhasbeenfalsifiedThebrainisnotnecessaryforvalidempiricaldatapointingtowhatDosseylabeledthe"nonlocalmind"(),includingtelepathy(BemandHonorton,),psychokinesis(Jahn,etal,),remoteviewing(Targ,),andmanyothernonlocalparapsychologicalphenomena(Radin,)ORGANIZINGANDTHECONSERVATIONLAWSAlthoughEcclesdidn'tseizetheopportunitytoattackthebasicpremiseofmaterialmonismwithempiricalevidenceofnonlocality,heappliedotheraspectsofquantumtheorytoaddressthelongheldbeliefthattheconservationlawsprecludemindbodyhttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionisminteraction:ThematerialistcriticsarguethatinsuperabledifficultiesareencounteredbythehypothesisthatimmaterialmentaleventscanactinanywayonmaterialstructuressuchasneuronsSuchapresumedactionisallegedtobeincompatiblewiththeconservationlawsofphysics,inparticularofthefirstlawofthermodynamicsThisobjectionwouldcertainlybesustainedbynineteenthcenturyphysicists,andbyneuroscientistsandphilosopherswhoarestillideologicallyinthephysicsofthenineteenthcentury,notrecognizingtherevolutionwroughtbyquantumphysicistsinthetwentiethcentury()Ofcourse,notallnineteenthcenturyphysicistswereideologicallyidenticalJamesClerkMaxwell,wholaidthefoundationformodernphysics,foresawthesolutiontomindmatterinteractionsinhisthoughtexperimentthatbecameknownas"Maxwell'sdemon"Themetaphoricdemonsegregatesfast(highenergy)moleculesinagasfromslowones,therebycreatinganenergygradientinapparentviolationofthefirstandsecondlawsofthermodynamicsThattheviolationisonlyapparentisfoundinrealizingthatthedemonorganizesmatteritdoesnotcreateordestroyenergyInotherwords,organizinganensembleofmaterialelementsisthekeytoextractingusableenergyfromnonusableenergyOrganizing,inthisframeofreference,consistsofderandomizingotherwiserandomeventsSzilard()andBrillouin()showedthatMaxwell'sdemoncan'toperateundertheprevailingrenditionsofphysicsandinformationtheoryYetSzilard,educatednotonlyinphysics,butinbiologyandbiophysics,circumspectlyacknowledged,"Presently,ofcourse,wedonotknowwhetherwecommitanerrorbynotincludingtheinterveningmanintothesystemandbydisregardinghisbiologicalphenomena"ThisisacriticalcaveatbecausethedisregardedbiologicalphenomenaarethekeystothisissueDerandomizationinoppositiontotheentropylawisnecessary,notonlyforMaxwell'sdemon,butforlifeitselfWeshowbelowthatthetheoreticalquantity,enformy,isthekeytoallowingderandomizationQUANTUMSTATISTICSWithBeck,Ecclesusedtheideaofderandomizationintheirmodelofsynapticneurotransmitterrelease(exocytosis)basedonthestatisticsofquantumphysicsBriefly,aquantumprobabilityfieldassociatedwith"intention"increasesthelikelihoodfortransmitterexocytosisandhence,anexcitatorypostsynapticpotential(EPSP)IfasufficientnumberofEPSPssumwithinatimesufficientlybriefthattheneuron'sthresholddepolarizationisreached,anactionpotentialwillensueThisultimatelyproducescommunicationwithotherneuronsormusclefibers,thelatterhttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismresultinginmotoractivityEvenso,asChalmers()pointsout,sucha"whirofinformationprocessing"doesnotexplainsubjectiveexperienceUltimately,Chalmers'"hardproblem"istheobjectofEccles'workEcclesinterpretedthequantumexocytosismodelintermsofdualistinteractionism,butthisexplanationisneithernecessarynorhelpfulQuantumphysics—andhencethetheoryofEcclesandBeck—doesnotdependonanyphilosophicconceptofdualismASCIENTIFICTHEORYOFTHESELFAlthoughthecontributionsofEcclescan'tbefullyelaboratedinthecontextof"dualistinteractionism,"hisfindingsandthoughtscanbeappreciatedwhentheyarecastintheframeworkoftheTheoryofEnformedSystems(Watson,a,Watson,etal,Schwartz,etal,)Ecclesfoundtherudimentsofthistheoryintriguing(Watson,)TESisnotinducedfromintrospectionorobservationItwasdevelopedbythehypotheticodeductivemethodadvocatedbyEccles:InductionwasshowntobeuntenableasascientificmethodbyPopperinTheLogicofScientificDiscovery()Instead,advancesinscientificunderstandingcomeideallyfromhypotheticodeductivism:firstly,developmentofahypothesisinrelationtoaproblemsituation,andsecondly,itstestinginrelationtoallrelevantknowledgeandfurthermorebyitsgreatexplanatorypower()TheconceptualoriginofTESisthepositthatthereexistsafundamental,conservedcapacitytoorganize,denotedbythetermenformy(Watson,)Opposingthedisorganizingoperationsimpliedbythesecondlawofthermodynamics,enformyorganizesandsustainsfourdimensionalfieldsofnonrandomness(termedenformation)Thesefields(domainsofinfluence)arenamedSELFtoindicatetheyareunique(Singular),sustainedbyenformy(Enformed),andcapableofreproducingandevolving(Living)Notcoincidentally,theSELFcorrespondstothe"self"asdescribedbyEccles:Theword"self"willbeusedtoconnoteanexperiencedunitythatderivesfromalinkingbymemoryofconsciousstatesthatareexperiencedatwidelydifferenttimes—spreadoveralifetimeThus,inorderthata'self'mayexisttheremustbesomecontinuityofmentalexperiencesand,particularly,continuitybridginggapsofunconsciousnessForexample,thecontinuityofour"self"isresumedaftersleep,anaesthesia,andthetemporaryamnesiasofconcussionandhttp:wwwenformycom$dualhtml(of)::Eccles'ModeloftheSelfControllingItsBrain:TheIrrelevanceofDualistInteractionismconvulsionsUnderTES,SELFsarenotlimitedtohumansTheycorrespondtotheorganizationinherentinallcoherent,wholesystemsrangingincomplexityfromphotonstohumansandbeyondBecausetheyarecontinuousinspacetime,butdiscontinuousinthreespace,theirfundamentalbehaviorsaccountforthenonlocalphenomenaapparentinquantumphysics(eg,quantumentanglement)andparapsychology(eg,telepathy)SELFsexhibitthreefundamentalbehaviors:()stateconforming—conformingtotheSELF'sownstatesand()selfconforming—conformingtothesestatesastheSELF'sown,distinguishingthemfromstatesexternaltotheSELFand()coheringinspacetimeHumansexperiencestateconformingandselfconformingastherudimentsofperceptionandselfawarenessrespectivelyCoheringinspacetimeaccountsfortelepathy,remoteviewing,precognition,andpsychokinesisAsseenabove,thisistheaspectofTESthatisconsistentwithEccles'notionofpsychonslinkingtogetherSELFsareentities,buttheydonotnecessarilycoexistwithmaterialentitiesInstead,SELFsareprephysical—ie,preexistingandfundamentaltophysicalsystemsYettheiroperationsonphysicalsystemsareprofound:Enformyenforms(organizes)elementsofmatterandenergymasstoconformtotheenformationimplicitinSELFsInthisway,SELFsactasmapsfororganizingphysicalsystemsintimeandspace,whichisthebasisofmorphogenesis

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