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Informal China's retail sector.pdf

Informal China's retail sector…

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简介:本文档为《Informal China's retail sectorpdf》,可适用于人力资源领域,主题内容包含Thisarticlewasdownloadedby:DeMontfortUniversityOn:January,At::Publisher:Ro符等。

Thisarticlewasdownloadedby:DeMontfortUniversityOn:January,At::Publisher:RoutledgeInformaLtdRegisteredinEnglandandWalesRegisteredNumber:Registeredoffice:MortimerHouse,MortimerStreet,LondonWTJH,UKTheInternationalJournalofHumanResourceManagementPublicationdetails,includinginstructionsforauthorsandsubscriptioninformation:http:wwwtandfonlinecomloirijhInformalinstitutionalconstraintsandtheirimpactonHRMandemployeesatisfaction:evidencefromChina'sretailsectorQihaiHuangaJosGamblebaLancasterUniversityManagementSchool,Lancaster,UKbSchoolofManagement,RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon,Surrey,UKAvailableonline:AprTocitethisarticle:QihaiHuangJosGamble():InformalinstitutionalconstraintsandtheirimpactonHRMandemployeesatisfaction:evidencefromChina'sretailsector,TheInternationalJournalofHumanResourceManagement,:,Tolinktothisarticle:http:dxdoiorgPLEASESCROLLDOWNFORARTICLEFulltermsandconditionsofuse:http:wwwtandfonlinecompagetermsandconditionsThisarticlemaybeusedforresearch,teaching,andprivatestudypurposesAnysubstantialorsystematicreproduction,redistribution,reselling,loan,sublicensing,systematicsupply,ordistributioninanyformtoanyoneisexpresslyforbiddenThepublisherdoesnotgiveanywarrantyexpressorimpliedormakeanyrepresentationthatthecontentswillbecompleteoraccurateoruptodateTheaccuracyofanyinstructions,formulae,anddrugdosesshouldbeindependentlyverifiedwithprimarysourcesThepublishershallnotbeliableforanyloss,actions,claims,proceedings,demand,orcostsordamageswhatsoeverorhowsoevercausedarisingdirectlyorindirectlyinconnectionwithorarisingoutoftheuseofthismaterialInformalinstitutionalconstraintsandtheirimpactonHRMandemployeesatisfaction:evidencefromChina’sretailsectorQihaiHuanga*andJosGamblebaLancasterUniversityManagementSchool,Lancaster,UKbSchoolofManagement,RoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon,Surrey,UKThispaperseekstoassesswhetherinformalinstitutionscanaffecthumanresourcemanagementpracticesSpecifically,weexaminewhetherthesocialnormofrespectforauthority,animportantinformalsocialinstitutionincountrieslikeChina,constrainsemployeeparticipation,andwhetherthisaffectsemployeesatisfactioninforeigninvestedandstateownedretailersinChina,respectivelyDataarederivedfromquestionnairescompletedbyalmostemployeesatforeigninvestedandstateownedretailstoresinnineChinesecitiesWeindicatethatanormsuchasrespectforauthoritycanoperateasaconstraintonhumanresourcemanagementpracticessuchasemployeeparticipationwithrelatedimpactsuponsatisfactionlevelsinforeigninvestedandstateownedretailers,butthattheseplayoutinunexpectedwaysKeywords:ChinaHRMinstitutionsparticipationrespectforauthorityretailIntroductionEffectivehumanresourcesmanagementcanbringcompetitiveadvantagestofirmsandisoftenconsideredasacriticaldeterminantoforganizationalperformanceandprofitability(egHuselidFeyandBjorkmanBjorkmanandFanLau,TseandZhouLaw,TseandZhouSun,AryeeandLaw)Meanwhile,itiswidelybelievedthatpowerfulinstitutions,whichincludebothformalorganizations–social,economicandpoliticalbodies–andthesocialnormsandrulesthattheseorganizationsarticulate(NorthScott),canconstrainthestyleofmanagement,suchastheformofhumanresourcesmanagement,asinstitutionalinertiamaydrivefirms’choicesofhumanresourcemanagement(HRM)practices(Buck,Filatotchev,DeminaandWrightWarner)Althoughresearchersincreasinglyexaminetheimportanceofinstitutionsinshapingbusinesspracticesintransitionaleconomies(egChildandTseLawetalPengMeyerandPeng),muchremainstobedone,especiallywithrespecttotheroleandimpactofinformalinstitutionsMuchresearchhasfocusedontheinfluenceofformalinstitutionsonmanagement,suchaslegislation,ownershipandregionaldevelopment(egTangChildWarnerLauetalLawetalMeyerandPengBjorkman,FeyandPark)Whileformalinstitutionalchangeshavebeenimplemented,though,informalinstitutionsmaylagbehindNorth()arguesthatinformalconstraintscomefromtheculturaltransmissionofvalues,underpinnedbyideologicalreinforcementsDevelopingISSNprintISSNonlineqTaylorFrancishttp:dxdoiorghttp:wwwtandfonlinecom*CorrespondingauthorEmail:qihaihuanglancasteracukTheInternationalJournalofHumanResourceManagement,Vol,No,September,–DownloadedbyDeMontfortUniversityat:Januarynormsofbehaviourthatwillsupportandlegitimizenewformalrulesisalengthy,incrementalprocess(North)Theinertiaofinformalinstitutionalstructuresislikelytoinhibittheapplicationofnewmanagementprescriptions(Gooderham,NordhaugandRingdalChildandTse)Sofar,muchlessattentionhasbeenpaidtotheroleofinformalinstitutions,whichmayconstrainmanagementpracticesandaccordinglyfirmperformanceOurstudyaimstofillsuchagapbyassessingtheconstraintsofinformalinstitutionswithspecificreferencetothenormofrespectforauthorityonemployeeparticipationandsatisfactioninretailersinChinaEmployeeparticipationisreportedtobeakeyelementofhighperformanceHRMsystems(egHuselidPfefferBoxallandPurcell)IntheChinesecontext,respectforhierarchyhasbeenbuiltintothesocialstructureoforganizations(Farh,EarleyandLin),whichstillguideindividualactionsandattitudesinmodernChinesesocieties(HofstedeandBond)Suchanormmayconstrainoratleastaffectthestylesofcommunicationacrossorganizationalhierarchiesandemployeeparticipation,whichinturnmayhaveanimpactonemployeesatisfactionInexploringthisdimension,thecurrentpaperalsotestsassumptionsabouttheimpactandefficacyofparticipativemanagementstylesinanonWesterncontextThecontributionofthispaperistwofoldFirst,itconstitutesanearlyattempttoassesstheimpactofinformalinstitutionsonhumanresourcesmanagement,whichispoorlyunderstoodinbothChinaandothertransitionaleconomiesTransitionaleconomiesarenotonlyanideallaboratorytoassesstheimpactofformalinstitutionalchanges,butalsoofinformalinstitutionsonmanagementandperformanceAsPeng()postulates,forinstance,China’ssocialinstitutionsremaincentraltounderstandinghowfirmsoperateandperforminthiscountrySecond,itusesauniquelargesurveydatabasecollectedintheretailsectorinChinaResearchexaminingtheinfluenceofinstitutionsintransitionaleconomiestendstofocusonthemanufacturingsector(egLauetalLawetal),withdataoftendrawnsolelyfromthesurveysofmanagers(egLawetalBjorkmanetal)InChina,ChildandTse()claimthattheentryofforeignventuresintheretailsectorhasengenderedfundamentalandfarreachingchangesHowever,withfewexceptions(egGamble,)thereislittleempiricalresearchthatexamineswhetherforeignretailershaveadopteddifferentHRMpracticescomparedwithindigenousfirmsandnonethatfocusesonemployeeparticipationOurdataincludebothmanagersandshopflooremployeesinindigenousandforeigninvestedretailersInthefollowingsections,wefirstoutlinetheresearchcontext,followedbyareviewoftheliteratureoninstitutions,andthepotentialimpactsofthenormofrespectforauthorityonemployeeparticipationandemployeesatisfactionwiththesepracticesWethenproposeanumberofhypothesesandtestthemusingsurveydata,followedbyadiscussionofthefindingsWedrawouttheimplicationsforbothmanagementandtheorybeforeabriefdiscussiononfutureresearchandaconclusionResearchcontextSinceChina’s‘opendoor’andreformpolicybeganinthelates,substantialinstitutionalchangeshavedismantledmanybarrierstomodernbusinessoperations(ChildWarnerChildandTseWarner)Forexample,theintroductionoflabourcontractsinthelatesandthe‘threesystems’reformsintroducedintheearlysgavefirmsgreaterautonomytohire,promoteandevenfireworkers(Warner)Toaconsiderableextent,alabourmarkethasbeenestablishedthroughformalinstitutionalchangesSincetransitionisapathdependenttransformationTheInternationalJournalofHumanResourceManagementDownloadedbyDeMontfortUniversityat:January(ChildandTse),itislikelythatbothformalandinformalinstitutionscaninhibitfirmsfromadoptinginstitutionalsolutionswhichconventionaleconomictheorywouldregardasoptimalInfact,informalinstitutionsmaylagbehindAsNorth()pointsout,developingnormsofbehaviourthatwillsupportandlegitimizenewformalrulesisalengthy,incrementalprocessTheretailsectorisofgreateconomicandsocialsignificancenotonlyinthedevelopedworldbutalsointhedevelopingcountriesInthecaseofChina,theoverwhelmingfocusonitsroleasaglobalmanufacturingbaseneglectstheimportanceoftheservicesectorinthatcountryAccordingtothePeople’sDaily(),theproportionofChina’sGDPaccountedforbytheservicesectorincreasedfromintoinInthesameperiod,thenumberofpeopleemployedinthissectorrosefromjustmilliontoovermillionItisestimatedthatthecontributionofthissectortoChina’sGDPwillbe–inAsamajorcomponentoftheservicesector,theretailindustryisofconsiderableimportanceSinceChina’sretailsectorbegantoreopentoforeigninvolvementin,ithaswitnessedaninfluxofmultinationalretailerseagertotakepartinits‘consumerrevolution’By,thelargestforeigninvestedchainstoresinChinaalreadyoperatedoutlets(ErnstandYoung)AccordingtothemanagementconsultingfirmKearney(),foreignretailersarefuellingtherapidgrowthofChina’sretailmarketHowever,China’sretailmarketisbecomingsaturated,limitingexpansionopportunitiesforoverseasretailersCompetitionamongretailershasalsobecomeincreasinglyfierce(Wang)HowtodevelopandretaincompetitiveadvantageisessentialforthesuccessofbothforeignanddomesticretailersInstitutionalconstraintsandemployeeparticipationInformalinstitution:thenormofrespectforhierarchyAccordingtoNorth(),institutionsincludeformalrules(laws,regulations)andinformalconstraints(customs,norms,cultures)Scott()conceptualizedinstitutionsascomposedofthreepillars:regulative,cognitiveandnormativeRegulativeinstitutionsconsistofregulativerulesystemsandenforcementmechanismswhichcentreonrulesetting,monitoringandsanctioningactivities,withnationallaws,inspectionroutines,policeandcourts–alongwithorganizationalcounterpartssuchasworkplacerules,monitoringandincentivesNormativecomponentsintroducelegitimatemeanstopursuevaluedendsAccordingtothisinstitutionalapproach,thebasisofregularbehaviourstemsfrombroadsocialagreement,whichisoftenimplicit,onwhatbindingexpectationsapplytothemembersofthesocietyCognitiveinstitutionscentreonsharedconceptionsofsocialrealityandframesformeaning,whicharetakenforgrantedbeliefsandvaluesthatareimposedon,orinternalizedby,socialactors(DiMaggioandPowell)ThetraditionalChinesevalueofsocialorderandcustomsinthisaspectoverlapswithbothnormativeandcognitiveinstitutionsThisisevidentintheteachingofConfucius,wherethesocialsystemisdefinednotintermsofindividualsororganizations,butintermsofdyadictiesbetweenindividuals,whatConfuciuscalledtheprinciplesofwulun(‘fivecardinalrelations’)Lunisasystemofsocialroleswithdistinctstatusdifferences,whichstressthedifferentiationbetweenindividuals:princeandsubject,fatherandson,husbandandwife,elderbrotherandyoungerbrotherandfriendandfriendForeachdyadicwulunrelationship,roleprescriptionsspecifywhatshouldandshouldnotbedonebytheactors(Baker)Alltheserelationshipsareintrinsicallyhierarchal,involvingsuperiorandsubordinateexceptforfriendtofriendMoreover,eventhelatterrelationshipisstillQHuangandJGambleDownloadedbyDeMontfortUniversityat:Januaryconstructedonahierarchicalbasis,withtheseniormemberhavingawiderangeofprerogativesandauthorityoverthejuniorConfucianvaluesthatemphasizetheimportanceofeducation,obediencetoauthorityandinterpersonalharmonyareconsideredtostillguideindividualactionsandattitudesinmodernChinesesocieties(HofstedeandBond),withvaluesandnorms‘bothinternalizedandimposedbyothers’(Scott,p)ThedefiningcharacteristicsofChinesetraditionalityaresaidtoberespectforauthority,fatalism,ageneralsenseofpowerlessandobedience(Chen,TsuiandZhong)Usingtheconceptoftraditionality,Farhetal()suggestthattraditionalTaiwaneseemployeeswerelesssensitivetoinjusticethanwerethelesstraditionalemployeesTherefore,thenormofrespectforauthorityisstillakeyaspectofaninformalinstitutioninChina,whichis‘apatternofcollectiveaction(socialpractice),justifiedbyacorrespondingnorm’(Czarniawska,p)Suchsocialinstitutions,whichcanactas‘internalizedcognitiveconstraintsonsensemaking(takenforgrantedness)’(WeberandGlynn,p),then,havebeenbuiltintothesocialstructureoforganizations(Farhetal)ThenationalinstitutionalembeddednessoffirmscanplayanimportantroleinshapingHRMpractices(Gooderhametal)Relatively,littleattentionhasbeendevotedtotheextenttowhichsuchinformalinstitutionsmayconstraintheimplementationofHRMpracticesThispaperattemptstofillthegapbyassessinghowthenormofrespectforauthoritymightimpactuponHRMinChinaInparticular,wefocusonemployees’responsestoparticipativemanagementstyleinstateownedenterprises(SOEs)andforeigninvestedenterprises(FIEs)intheretailsector,respectively,andassesswhetherthispracticeaffectsemployeesatisfactionInstitutionalconstraintsandemployeeparticipationEmployeeparticipationhasbeenakeyresearchthemewithinthecontextofstrategicHRMsincethes(Huselid,JacksonandSchulerParnell)andintheliteratureon‘highinvolvementworkpractices’,‘highcommitmentmanagement’,‘highperformancepractices’and‘bestpractice’HRM(egHuselidPfefferBoxallandPurcell)AccordingtoHuselidetal(,p),therearetwoHRMoutcomeswithinafirm,namelystrategicandtechnicalHRMoutcomesTechnicaloutcomesdescribe‘howwelltheHRMfunctionperformedactivitiestraditionallyassociatedwithpersonnelmanagement’,whereasstrategicoutcomesdescribe‘howwelltheHRMfunctiondevelopedafirm’semployeestosupportitsbusinessneeds’Employeeparticipationtakesdifferentforms,forexample,directandindirectparticipation(Poole,LansburyandWailesBryson)Directemployeeparticipationmeansthatindividualemployeesareinvolvedincertaindecisions,whichhavetraditionallybeentakenbymanagementaloneBycontrast,indirectparticipationreferstotheparticipationofemployeescollectivelyindecisionmakingthroughrelianceonunionornonunionrepresentativestodealindirectlywithmanagementontheirbehalf(Pooleetal)InWesternfirms,employeeshavebeenfoundtopreferparticipativemanagementstylestoautocraticstyles(Marchington),andsomeresearcherssuggestthatdirectparticipationcanbemoreeffectiveinelicitingmanagerialresponsivenessthanrepresentative(iecollectiveorunion)approaches(Bryson)Furthermore,directparticipationismorelikelytobeassociatedwithhigherlevelsofsatisfactionorcommitment(Cox,ZagelmeyerandMarchington)Chinesepeopleareoftenreportedtorespectauthorityandtoaccepthierarchicalstructure(Kirkbride,TangandWestwood)Asindicatedabove,theConfucianTheInternationalJournalofHumanResourceManagementDownloadedbyDeMontfortUniversityat:JanuaryvaluesofobediencetoauthorityandinterpersonalharmonyarestillsaidtoguideindividualactionsandattitudesinmodernChinesesocieties(HofstedeandBond)ThecontemporaryrelevanceofConfucianideasinChinaisevidentinthewaythattheChinesepresident,HuJintao,stressedthevalueoforder,balanceanda‘harmonioussociety’(Economist,May)Inastudycomparingworkers’participationinGermanyandTaiwan,HanandSiu()arguethat‘Chineseculture’impedesemployeevoiceinTaiwanbecauseofahighdegreeofdistanceintermsofpowerrelations,subordinationanddocilityofthemanagedStronghierarchicalandauthoritariantraditionswithinChinesesocietymeanthatmanagersarelikelytofeelthreatenedbyparticipatorystylesofmanagement,andemployeesmightnotwanttoinvolvethemselvesindecisionmakingforfearofhavingtheirviewsrejected(Hutchings)TheextentofparticipationbyemployeeshasbeenlowinmostChineseorganizations(HuoandVonGlinow)Inhisanalysisofasurveyofrespondentsfromfactoriesinfourcities,Tang()foundthatamajorityofChineseworkerswouldratherleavedecisionmakingtothefirms’leadershipandgovernmentdepartmentsSimilarly,foreignmanagersinearlyjointventuresoftencomplainedthatChineseworkerswereunlikelytoexerciseinitiativetogetthingsdone(Holton)AccordingtoHuoandVonGlinow(),therehavebeenseveralattempts,championedbyChina’scentralgovernment,toincreaseworkers’participationinperformanceappraisalHowever,theyarguethatsuchattemptshavenotbeensuccessful,because‘thesystemcontradictsChinesecultureandtradition’(HuoandVonGlinow,p)Morerecently,inanefforttoovercomeChineseemployees’reluctancetoquestionauthorityandencouragethemtospeakupwhenconfrontedwithabadidea,KodaktestedteamsbysuggestingacontroversialideaandaskingtheteammembersforanopinionEventhoughtheteammembersknewitwasabadidea,nonewaspreparedtostatethisoutloud(Hulme)Ingeneral,thenormofrespectforauthorityhasbeenfoundtoconstrainmanagementpracticesandemployeeparticipationinparticularHowever,theextenttowhichitcaninfluencestateownedandforeigninvestedfirmsmaybedifferentWeturntothispointinthefollowingsectionOwnershipandemployeeparticipationThereisevidencethat

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