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CDMA Principles Of Spread Spectrum Communication.pdf

CDMA Principles Of Spread Spect…

上传者: xl46512 2012-05-08 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《CDMA Principles Of Spread Spectrum Communicationpdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域,主题内容包含CDMAPrinciplesofSpreadSpectrumComdationSpreadspectrummultipleaccesscommuni符等。

CDMAPrinciplesofSpreadSpectrumComdationSpreadspectrummultipleaccesscommunication,knowncommerciallyasCDMA(CodeDivisionMultipleAccess),isadrivingtechnologybehiidtherapidlyadvancingpersonalcommunicationsindustryItsgreaterbandwidthefficiencyandmultipleaccesscapabilitiesmakeittheleadingtechnologyforrelievingspectrumcongestioncausedbytheexplosioninpopularityofcellularmobileandfixedwirelesstelephonesandwirelessdataterminalsCDMAhasbeenadoptedbytheTelecommunicationsIndustryAssociationCIA)asawirelessstandardAsanelectricalorcommunicationsengineer,youmustacquireathoroughgraspofCDMAfundamentalsinordertodevelopsystems,products,andservicesforthisdemandingbutrewardingmarketWrittenbyaleaderinthecreationofCDMAandaninternationallyrecognizedauthorityonwirelessdigitalcommunication,thisbookgivesyouthetechnicalinformationyouneedItpresentsthefundamentalsofdigitalcornn~uriicationsandcoversallaspectsofcommercialdirectsequencespreadspectrumtechnology,incorporatingbothphysicallevelprinciplesandnetworkconceptsYouwillfinddetailedinformationonsignalgeneration,synchronization,modulation,andcodingofdirectsequencespreadspectrumsignalsInaddition,thebookshowshowthesephysicallayerfunctionsrelatetolinkandnetworkpropertiesinvolvingcellularcoverage,Erlangcapacity,andnetworkcontrolWiththisbook,youwillattainadeeperunderstandingofpersonalcommunicationssystemconceptsandwillbebetterequippedtodevelopsystemsandproductsattheforefrontofthepersonalwirelesscommunicationsmarketAndrewJViterbiisapioneerofwirelessdigitalcommunicationstechnologyHeisbestknownasthecreatorofthedigitaldecodingtechniqueusedindirectbroadcastsatellitetelevisionreceiversandinwirelesscellulartelephones,aswellasnumerousotherapplicationsHeiscofounder,ChiefTechnicalOfficer,andViceChairmanofQUALCOMMIncorporated,developerofmobilesatelliteandwirelesslandcommunicationsystemsemployingCDMAtechnologyDrViterbihasreceivednumerousawards,includingtheChristopherColumbusMedal,theIEEEAlexanderGrahamBellAward,theMarconiInternationalFellowshipAward,theIEEEInformationSocietyShannonLecturerAward,andawardsfromtheNECCCFoundationandtheEduardRheinFoundation~k~~~i~WirelessComrlluiricniionrSeriesTheAddisonWesleyWirelessCommunicationsSeriesprovidesengineeringandcomputersciencepractitionerswithcomprehensivereferencebooksonnewandemergingmobilecommunicationtechnologiesProfessionalsinvolvedinthedesign,implementation,maintenance,andmanagementofwirelesscommunicationsnetworkswillfindnecessaryinforimationonthesecuttingedgeadvancementsDrAndrewJViterbi,apioneerinthisfield,willbetheConsultingEditorfortheseriesAndrewJViterbiAvvADDISONWESLEYPUBLISHINGCOMPANYReading,MassachusettsMenloPark,CalifomiaNewYvrkDonMills,Ontario~okin~ham,EnglandAmsterdamBonnSydneySingaporeTokyoMadridSanJuanParisSeoulMilanMexicoCityTaipeiManyofthedesignationsusedbymanufacturersandsellerstodistinguishtheirproductsareclaimedastrademarksWherethosedesignationsappearinthisbookandAddisonWesleywasawareofatrademarkclaim,thedesignationshavebeenprintedininitialcapsorailcapsThepublisheroffersdiscountsonthisbookwhenorderedinquantityforspecialsalesFormoreinformationpleasecontact:CorporateProfessionalPublishingGroupAddisonWesleyPublishingCompanyOneJacobWayReading,MassachusettsLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataViterbi,AndrewJCDMA:principlesofspreadspectrumcommunicationAndrewJViterbipcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBNCodedivisionmultipleaccessITitleTKVdcCIPCopyrightObyAddisonWesleyPublishingCompanyAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyform,orbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorconsentofthepublisherPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaPublishedsimultaneouslyinCanadaTextdesignbyWilsonGraphicsDesign(KennethJWilson)IISBNA,TextprintedonrecycledandacidfreepaperMAFirstPrinting,AprilTotheLadiesinmyLife,MariaandLenka,ofBlessedMemories,andErna,Audrey,Caryn,Alexandra,andSamalzthaListofFiguresandTablesxiiiPrefacexviiINTRODUCTIONDefinitionandPurposeBasicLimitationsoftheConventionalApproachSpreadSpectrumPrinciplesOrganizationoftheTextRANDOMANDPSEUDORANDOMSIGNALGENERATIONPurposePseudorandomSequencesMaximalLengthLinearShiftRegisterSequencesRandomnessPropertiesofMLSRSequencesConclusionGeneratingPseudorandomSignals(Pseudonoise)fromPseudorandomSequencesFirstandSecondOrderStatisticsofDemodulatorOutputinMultipleAccessInterferenceStatisticsforQPSKModulationbyPseudorandomSequencesExamplesBoundforBandlirnitedSpectrumErrorProbabilityforBPSKorQPSKwithConstantSignalsinAdditiveGaussianNoiseandInterferenceAppendixA:OptimumReceiverFilterforBandlimitedSpectrumSYNCHRONIZATIONOFPSEUDORANDOMSIGNALSPurposeAcquisitionofPseudorandomSignalTimingHypothesisTestingforBPSKSpreadingHypothesisTestingforQPSKSpreadingEffectofFrequencyErrorAdditionalDegradationWhenNIsMuchLessThanOnePeriodDetectionandFalseAlarmProbabilitiesFixedSignalsinGaussianNoise(L=)FixedSignalsinGaussianNoisewithPostdetectionIntegration(L>)RayleighFadingSignals(Lr)TheSearchProcedureandAcquisitionTimeSinglePassSerialSearch(Simplified)SinglePassSerialSearch(Complete)MultipleDwellSerialSearchTimeTrackingofPseudorando~nSignalsEarlyLateGateMeasurementStatisticsTimeTrackingLoopCarrierSynchronizationAppendixA:LikelihoodFunctionsandProbabilityExpressionsABayesandNeymanPearsonHypothesisTestingACoherentReceptioninAdditiveWhiteGaussianNoiseANoncoherentReceptioninAWGNforUnfadedSignalsANoncoherentReceptionofMultipleIndependentObservationsofUnfadedSignalsinAWGNANoncoherentReceptionofRayleighFadedSignalsinAWGN>MODULATIONANDDEMODULATIONOFSPREADSPECTRUMSIGNALSINMULTIPATHANDMULTIPLEACCESSINTERFERENCEPurposeChernoffandBhattacharyyaBoundsBoundsforGaussianNoiseCharnelChernoffBoundforTimeSynchronousMultipleAccessInterferencewithBPSKSpreadingChernoffBoundforTimeSynchronousMultipleAccessInterferencewithQPSKSpreadingImprovingtheChemoffBoundbyaFactorofMultipathPropagation:SignalStructureandExploitationPilotAidedCoherentMultipathDemodulationChernoffBoundsonErrorProbabilityforCoherentDemodulationwithKnownPathParametersRayleighandRicianFadingMultipathComponentsNoncoherentReceptionQuasioptimumNoncoherentMultipathReceptionforMaryOrthogonalModulationPerformanceBoundsSearchPerformanceforNoncoherentOrthogonalMaryDemodulatorsPowerMeasurementandControlforNoncoherentOrthogonalMaryDemodulatorsPowerControlLoopPerformancePowerControlImplicationsAppendixA:ChemoffBoundwithImperfectParameterEstimatesCODINGANDINTERLEAVINGPurpose~nterleavingtoAchieveDiversityForwardErrorControlCodingAnotherMeanstoExploitRedundancyConvolutionalCodeStructureMaximumLikelihoodDecoderViterbiAlgorithmGeneralizationofthePrecedingExampleConvolutionalCodePerformanceEvaluationErrorprobabilityforTailedoffBlockBitErrorProbabilityGeneralizationsofErrorProbabilityComputationCatastrophicCodesGeneralizationtoArbitraryMemorylessChannelsCoherentandNoncoherentErrorBoundsforBinaryInput,OutputSymmetricChannelswithIntegerMetricsANearOptimalClassofCodesforCoherentSpreadSpectrumMultipleAccessImplementationXContentsDecoderImplementationGeneratingFunctionandPerformancePerformanceComparisonandApplicabilityOrthogonalConvolutionalCodesforNoncoherentDemodulationofRayleighFadingSignalsImplementationPerformanceforLPathRayleighFadingConclusionsandCaveatsAppendixA:ImprovedBoundsforSymmetricMemorylessChannelsandtheAWGNChannelAppendixB:UpperBoundonFreeDistanceofRatelnConvolutionalCodesCAPACITY,COVERAGE,ANDCONTROLOFSPREADSPECTRUMMULTIPLEACCESSNETWORICSGeneralReverseLinkPowerControlMultipleCellPilotTrackingandSoftHandoffOtherCellInterferencePropagationModelSingleCellReceptionHardHandoffSoftHandoffReceptionbytheBetteroftheTwoNearestCellsSoftHandoffReceptionbytheBestofMultipleCellsCellCoverageIssueswithHardandSoftHandoffHardHandoffSoftHandoffErlangCapacityofReverseLinksErlangCapacityforConventionalAssignedSlotMultipleAccessSpreadSpectrumMultipleAccessOutageSingleCellandPerfectPowerControlOutagewithMultipleCellInrerferenceOutagewithImperfectPowerControlAnApproximateExplicitFormulaforCapacitywithImperfectPowerControlDesigningforMinimumTransmittedPowerCapacityRequirementsforInitialAccessesErlangCapacityofForwardLinksForwardLinkPowerAllocationSoftHandoffImpactonForwardLinkOrthogonalSignalsforSameCellUsersInterferenceReductionwithMultisectoredandDistributedAntennasInterferenceCancellationEpilogueReferencesandBibliographyIndexANDTABLESIFIGURETITLEChapterOneTwoContiguousFrequencyReuseClustersSpreadSpectrumModemChapterTwoLinearShiftRegisterSequenceGeneratorBPSKSpreadSpectrumModulatorDemodulatorCorrelationFunctionComputationforRandomlyModulatedPulseandImpulseSequencesQPSKSpreadSpectrumModulatorDemodulatorChapterThreelaTimeHypothesisTestingforBPSKSpreadinglbTimeHypothesisTestingforQPSKSpreadingaDetectionandFalseAlarmProbabilitiesforUnfadedChannel,L=andbDetectionandFalseAlarmProbabilitiesforRayleighFading,L=andSimplifiedSearchStateDiagramsCompleteStateDiagramTwoDwellSerialSearchEarlyLateGateTrackingErrorFunctionforAT,=aTimeTrackingLoopModelbLinearModelofTimeTrackingLoopChapterFourMultipathPropagationModelMultiuser(BaseStation)ModulatorandMultipathChannelPilotAidedCoherentRakeDemodulatorforMultipathPropagationRequiredExcessEnergy(dB)forLEqualStrengthMultipathFadingRelativetoUnfadedCoherentAWGNHadamardWalshOrthogonalSequencesforM=,J=HadamardWalshOrthogonalSequenceGeneratorNoncoherentRakeDemodulatorforMaryOrthogonalWaveformsinLComponentMultipathRequiredExcessEJI,(dB)forNoncoherentDemodulationofOrthogonalSignals(M=)RayleighFadingSignalLogLikelihoodFunction(M=)UnfadedEnergySignalLogLikelihoodFunction(M=)FalseAlarmandDetectionProbabilitiesforSearchofUnfadedComponentsFalseAlarmandDetectionProbabilitiesforSearchofRayleighFadingComponentsSteadyStateEnergyProbabilitiesfromSimulationChapterFiveBlockInterleaverDeinterleaverConvolutionalInterleaverDeinterleaverConvolutionalEncoderwithK=,r=fStateDiagramforEncoderofFigureTrellisCodeRepresentationforEncoderofFigureStateDiagramLabeledwithDistance,Length,an'dNumberofInputOnesExamplesofDecodingforEncoderofFigure(DecoderStateMetricsAreEncircled)ConvolutionalCodeforK=,r=fConvolutionalCodeforK=,r=fFourStateConvolutionalCodes,r=BitErrorandBitBlockErrorProbabilityBoundsforK=,r=ConvolutionalCodeBitBlockErrorProbabilityBoundsforVariousConvolutionalCodes(K=and)ListofNguresandTablesXVTableBitErrorProbabilityBoundsforVariousConvolutionalCodes(K=and)ExampleofaCatastrophicCodeRequiredExcessEbIoforQuantizedAWGNChannels,RequiredExcessEJI,(dB)forNoncoherentDemodulationofOrthogonalSignals(M=)withandwithoutQuantizationSuperorthogonalConvolutionalEncoderOrthogonalConvolutionalEncoderExampleofDecoderMetricImplementationforK=SuperorthogonalDecoderImplementationReducedStateDiagramsforSuperorthogonalandOrthogonalConvolutionalCodesBitBlockErrorProbabilityBoundsforSuperorthogonalCodes(K=to)BitErrorProbabilityBoundsforSuperorthogonalCodes(K=to)ExampleofTwoUnmergedPathsofOrthogonalConvolutionalCodeRequiredExcessEbl,forNoncoherentRayleighFadingwithOrthogonalConvolutionalCodesMinimumFreeDistanceConvolutionalCodesforK=,r=tandJChapterSixSoRegionandRelativeDistancesS,,RegionsforN,=,,andMarkovStateDiagramsforErlangTrafficModelsReverseLinkOutageProbabilities=,=,I,No=dB,PowerControlU<=dBVariableFactorinBasaFunctionofOutageProbabilityErlangCapacityReductionFactorsSignaltoNoiseperUserasaFunctionofRelativeSectorCapacityForwardLinkAllocationGeometryHistogramofOtherCellForwardRelativeInterference(Mean=)ForwardLinkOutageProbabilityUpperBoundspMultiuser(BaseStation)ModulatorEmployingOrthogonalHadamardWalshMultiplexingMaximumCapacityImprovementbySameCellInterferenceCancellationTableRelativeOtherCellInterferenceFactor,$form=,,andanda'=!jwithHardHandoffTableRelativeOtherCellInterferenceFactor,f,form=,,andandaZ=fwithTwoCellSoftHandoffTableRelativeOtherCellInterferenceFactor,f,forN,=,,,and(m=a=f)TableRelativeMarginandCoverage(m=a=f)<Lf'Spreadspectrumcommunicationtechnologyhasbeenusedinmilitarycommunicationsforoverhalfacentury,primarilyfortwopurposes:toovercometheeffectsofstrongintentionalinterference(jamming),andtohidethesignalfromtheeavesdropper(covertness)Bothgoalscanbeachievedbyspreadingthesignal'sspectrumtomakeitvirtuallyindistinguishablefrombackgroundnoiseSeveraltexts,orportionsoftexts,onthissubjecthavebeenpublishedoverthepasttwentyyearsThisbookisthefirsttopresentspectrumtechnologyspecificallyforcommercialwirelessapplicationsInresponsetoaneveracceleratingworldwidedemandformobileandpersonalportablecommunications,spreadspectrumdigitaltechnologyhasachievedmuchhigherbandwidthefficiencyforagivenwirelessspectrumallocation,andhenceservesafarlargerpopulationofmultipleaccessusers,thananalogorotherdigitaltechnologiesWhileitissimilarinimplementationtoitsmilitarypredecessors,thespreadspectrumwirelessnetworkachievesefficiencyimprovementsbyincorporatinganumberofuniquefeaturesmadepossiblebythebenignnoiselikecharacteristicsofthesignalwaveformChiefamongtheseisuniversalfrequencyreuse(thefactthatallusers,whethercommunicatingwithinaneighborhood,ametropolitanarea,orevenanation,occupyacommonfrequencyspectrumallocation)Besidesincreasingtheefficiencyofspectrumusage,thisalsoeliminatesthechoreofplanningfordifferentfrequencyallocationforneighboringusersorcellsManyotherimportantmultipleaccesssystemfeaturesaremadepossiblethroughthisuniversalfrequencyreusebyterminalsemployingwideband(spread)noiselikesignalwaveformsMostimportantisfastandaccuratepowercontrol,whichensuresahighleveloftransmissionqualitywhileovercomingthe"nearfar"problembymantainingalowtransmittedpowerlevelforeachterminal,andhencealowlevelofinterferencetootheruserterminalsAnotherismitigationoffadedtransmissionthroughtheuseofaRakereceiver,whichconstructivelycombinesmultipathcomponentsratherthanallowingthemtodestructivelycombineasinnarrowbandtransmissionAthirdmajorbenefitissofthandoffamongmultiplecellbasestations,whichprovidesimprovedcellboundaryperformanceandpreventsdroppedcallsInChaptersto,thisbookcoversallaspectsofspreadspectrumtransmissionoveraphysicalmultipleaccesschannel:signalgeneration,synchronization,modulation,anderrorcorrectingcodingofdirectsequencespreadspectrumsignalsChapterrelatesthesephysicallayerfunctionstolinkandnetworklayerpropertiesinvolvingcellularcoverage,Erlangcapacity,andnetworkcontrolThisoutlineisunusualinbringingtogetherseveralwiderangingtechnicaldisciplines,rarelyco,,cperedinthissequenceandinonetextHowever,thepresentationiswellintegratedbyanumberofunifyingthreadsFirst,theentiretextisdevotedtotheconceptofuniversalfrequencyreusebymultipleusersofmultiplecellsAlso,twofundamentaltechniquesareusedinavarietyofdifferentformsthroughoutthetextThefirstisthefinitestatemachinerepresentationofbothdeterministicandrandomsequencesthesecondis,theuseofsimple,elegantupperboundsontheprobabilitiesofawiderangeofeventsrelatedtosystemperformanceHowever,giventhefocusonsimultaneouswidebandtransmissionforallusersoveracommonfrequencyspectrum,thetextpurposelyomit}:twoimportantapplicationareas:narrowbandmodulationandcodingmethods,includingmultipointsignalconstellationsandtrelliscodesandfrequencyhoppedmultipleaccess,wheremodulationwaveformsareinstantaneouslynarrowbandoverthedurationofeachhopItalsogenerallyavoidsdigressionsintoprinciplesofinformationtheoryInshort,althoughthematerialcoveredthroughChaptermostlyalsoappliestonarrowbanddigitaltransmissionsystems,thebookmainlycoverstopicsthatapplytowidebandspreadspectrummultipleaccessThreemotivatingforcesdrovemetowritethisbookItbeganwithmythreedecadesofteachingwit

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