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Life's a party.pdf

Life's a party

xueqi.gao 2012-05-05 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Life's a partypdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含FEATURESLife'saPartyDoPoliticalPartiesHelporHinderWomenKIRASANBONMATSUWhen符等。

FEATURESLife'saPartyDoPoliticalPartiesHelporHinderWomenKIRASANBONMATSUWhenwethinkaboutthescarcityoffemalepoliticians,socialandculturalexplanationsusuallycometomindWethinkabouttheconstraintsoftraditionalgenderroles,inequalitiesinwomen'ssocioeconomicstatus,andthedearthofwomencandidatesInotherwords,wetendtothinkaboutcandidatesupplyIndoingso,weoftenneglectthedemandforwomencandidatesButweneedtoask:arepoliticalpartiesrecruiting,nominating,andsupportingwomencandidatesBecauseoftheirroleincandidateselection,partiesarecrucialtowomen'selectiontoofficePartiesareparticularlyimportantinclosedlistproportionalrepresentationsystemsButpartiesmatterevenincountrieswithcomparativelyweakpoliticalpartiessuchastheUnitedStatesAfocusontheUnitedStatesisinstructiveforthisreasonTheexistenceofprimariesintheUnitedStatescancurtailaparty'sabilitytocontrolthenomination,particularlyifthepartyremainsneutralduringtheprimarycontestYetevenintheUnitedStates,partiesrecruitandendorseKIRASANBONMATSUisSeniorScholarattheCenterforAmericanWomenandPolitics(CAWP)attheEagletonInstituteofPoliticsandAssociateProfessorofPoliticalScienceatRutgersUniversitycandidatesanddiscouragecandidatesfromrunningToooften,politicalpartieshavebeenanobstaclethatwomenmustovercomeButtheUScasesuggeststhatwomen'sorganizationsandmovements,womenleaders,andwomenvotersarethekeystomakingpartiesahelpratherthanahindrancetowomen'srepresentationWomenandPoliticalPartiesintheUnitedStatesThefeministscholarJoFreemanhascharacterizedwomen'sinclusioninUSpartiesasalongstruggleforrecognitionastorynotunlikethatofwomenaroundtheworldHistorically,themajorparrieswereobstaclestowomen'sadvancementinUSpoliticsTheoppositionoíhntlithemajorpartiestheRepublicansandDemocratsHARVARDINTERNATIONALREVIEW•Spring()()FEATURESmwomen'ssuffragehelpsexplainwhythefightforsuffragewassuchalongoneWomen'srightsactivistscalledforthevotein,andoverthenexthalfcentury,womenweregraduallyabletowinvotingrightsinsomestatesButitwouldnotbeuntilthatwomenasaclasswouldnchievethevoteOntheeveofwomen'senfranchisement,lïothpartiesbecameinterestedinwinningwomen'svotesuidworkedtoincorporatewomenintopartycommittees,lîutneitherpartysoughttoelectwomentooffice,andwomendidnotwieldsignificantinfluencewithineitherpart)'Throughmuchofthethcentury,womencandidateswereoftensacrificiallambs:theywonpart}'supportlorracesthepartywaslikelytoloseIbday,theelectoralcompetitivenessofwomencandidatesinlegislativeelectionsarguablymeansthatthepartiesarenolongeraversetofieldingwomencandidates,liarbaraBurrelloftbeUniversityofNorthernIllinoiscontendsthattheparueshavebeenverysupportiveofwomencandidatesandproposesthatstrengtheningthepoliticalpartieswouldimprovewomen'srepresentationNonetheless,women'snumericalrepresentationinUSpolitieslagsbehindcomparabledemocraciesDatafromtheCentertorAmericanWomenandPohdcs(CAWP)attheEagletonInstituteofPoliticsatRutgersUniversityshowsthatwomenconstitutelessthanonequarterofallstatelegislatorsandonlypercentofmembersofCongressInrecentyears,thepresenceofwomeninelectiveofficehasstagnatedMoreover,theabilityofwomentowinofficeappearstodependongeographyCAWT'sdatashowsthatwomenarcnearlypercentofstatelegislatorsinsomestatesInotherstates,though,womenarefewerthanpercentIfwomenarereachingofficeornotreachingofficeweneedtolookattheroleofpartiestohelpusunderstandwhyWTiywerewomenpercentofvotersintheelectionsbutonlypercentofstatelegislatorsNewCAWPReportonUSStateLegislatorsWerecentlyconductedasurveyofstatelegislatorsfromaltstatesinordertounderstandtheflaggingnumbersoffemaleelectedofficialsOurstrategywastoleiirnirtimthewomenwhohavebeensuccessfulinordertounderstandhowwomenreachofficeWefocusedonstalesbecausetherearefarmorewomenservinginstatelegislaturesthaninCongressandbecausestatelegislatorsoftengoontoseekstatewideandfederalofficeIndeed,abouthaltofthewomenmembersofCongresspreviouslyservedinstatelegislaturesTheresultsofourstudy,availableinournewCAWPreporttitledPoisedtoRun:Women'sPathiraystotheStateIegislariires,findthatitiscriticalthatwomenattractthesupportoftheirpoliticalpartiesinordertobesuccessfulWetindthatmostwomenandmenreachthelegislatureswithpartysupportstatelegislatorsdonotusuallyattainofficewithevenpartialpartyleaderoppositiontotheircandidaciesMoreover,partiesappeartobemoreimportantlowomen'selectionthantomen'sWomenlegislatorsaremuchmorelikelythantheirmalecolleaguestohaverunforofficethever'firsttimebecausetheywererecniitedandmuchlesslikelytobeselfstarterswhosaidthatthedecisiontorunwasentirelytheirideaBothwomenandmenidentifiedapart)'leaderasthesinglemostinfluentialsourceofrecruitmentforthisveryfirstcandidacyVV^ealsofindthatwomenlegislatorsweremorelikelythanmentosaythatrecruitmentwastheprimaryreasontheysoughttheircurrentstatelegislativeofficeForexample,percentofwomenstaterepresentatives,butonlypercentoftheirmalecolleagues,saidthesinglemostimportantreasontheysoughttlieirseatwasrecruitmentbyapartyleaderorelectedofficialThus,ontheonehand,itseemsthatpartieshelpwomencandidatesThefactthatalargerproportionoffemalethanmalelegislatorsservebecausetheywererecruitedbythepartysuggeststhatpartiesarethesolutiont(jincreasingwomen'scandidaciesWomenlegislatorsaresimplymuchlesslikelythanmentohaveplannedtorunforoffice,andfarfewerofthesewomenwouldprobablybeinstatelegislaturestodaywereitnotfortheencouragementofpartyleadersThehistoricalunderrepresentadonofwomeninpoliticshelpsexplainwhywomenarelesslikelytodecidetorunontheirownOntheimportanceofrecruitment,onefemalelegislatorexplained,"Ithinkwomendesiretoserve,haveahearttoser'e,butsometimestheymayneedthatlittleextrapush"Ontheotherhand,however,themerefactofwomen'snumericalunderrepresentationsuggeststhatpartiesareinsufficientlysupportiveofwomencantlidatesBothpartiescouldexpandtheireffortstorecruitwomenTheFormerUSVicePresidentialnomineeSarahPalinhugshersonTrigfollowingaspeechAfterhernomination,eachmajorUSpartyhasnominatedonewomanfornationalofficePhotosCourtesyReutersSpring()IOHARVARDINTERNATIONARFViKWFEATURESlownumbersofwomeninpartyleadershippositionsarepartoftheproblemAsonefemalelegislatorexplainedtous,"IthinkittakeswomeninthelegislativeleadershipwhoaredoingtherecruitingtoputaspecialeffortintofindingwomencandidatesAndIthinkwhenwomenaren'tinleadership,thatisalotlesslikelytohappen"Womenweremorelikelythanmentoidentifythepartyasanimportantfactorintheirdecisiontorunforthelegislature,whichmayreflectthelargerrolethatrecniitmentplaysinwomen'scandidaciesButthisdifferenceinperceptionsmayindicatethepotentialproblemsthatpartiesposetorwomenPerhapswomenaremorereluctantthanmentorunwithoutpartysupportWnilepartiescanencouragewomentoseekofficewhomayneverpreviouslyhavethoughtaboutrunning,partiesalsoactivelydiscouragecertaincandidatesfromrunningInourstudy,morewomenthanmenreportthatsomei)netriedtodiscouragethemtheveryfirsttimetheysoughtelectiveoffice(percentofwomenstaterepresentativescomparedwithpercentoftheirmalecolleagues)Amongbothwomenandmenwhoreceivedattemptstodiscouragetheircandidacies,apartyleaderwasthesinglemostcommonsourceofdiscouragementThewomenandmeninourstudywerestrongenoughtopersevereafterall,theyserveinthelegislaturestodayButtheremaybemanypotentialcandidates,includingwomen,whodidnotbecomecandidatesbecausetheyweredissuadedfromrunningDemocratsandRepublicansThroughoutourreport,wecompareDemocraticandRepublicanwomenThevoterbasedgendergapinwhichwomenaremorelikelythanmentovoteDemocraticoftenattractsattentionButthegendergapinAspiritedsupporterofBarackObamacheersforhimatacampaignrallyinColoradoinGreaterrecognitionoftheelectoralimperativeofattractingfemalevotershasincreasedthewomen'sleverageingainingsupportfrompolitcialpartiespartisanshipamonglegislatorsisevengreaterthanthegendergapamongvotersIndeed,CAWP'sdatarevealsagrowinggapbetweenpatternsinDemocraticwomen'sandRepublicanwomen'sofficeholdingDemocraticwomenoutnumberRepublicanstwotooneinstatelegislatures:onlyRepublicanwomencomparedwith,DemocraticwomencurrentlyserveinthestatelegislaturesOvertime,womenhavebecomeagreatershareofDemocraticlegislatorswhereaswomenareadecliningshareofRepublicanlegislatorsToday,womenarepercentofDemocraticlegislatorsbutonlypercentofRepublicanstatelegislatorsInCongress,onlyRepublicanwomencomparedtoDemocraticwomenserve,meaningthatDemocraticwomenoutnumberRepublicansthreetooneIntheCAWPstudy,wefindtliattheroleofpartieswassimilarforwomenstatelegislatorsacrossthetwomajorpartiesRecruitmentplayedalargerroleinthecandidaciesofbothDemocraticandRepublicanwomencomparedwiththeirmalecolleaguesWeargue,though,thatorganizationalconnectionsdifferacrossthetwogroupsofwomenWefindthatwomenstatelegislatorsofbothpartiesvteremorelikelythantheirmalecolleaguestobeamemberofawomen'sorganizationButwefindthatDemocraticwomenweremorelikelytobemembersofawomen'sorganizationthanRepublicanwomenThisdifferencesuggeststhatDemocraticwomenappeartohavemoreorganizationalsourcesofsupportthandoRepublicanwomenItisnotuncommonforfeministmovementstobemoreidentifiedwithpoliticalpartiesontheleftOrganizedfeminismintheUnitedStatesismorecloselyalignedwiththeDemocraticpartytoday,althoughformostofthethcenturyitwastheRepublicanpartythatwasmoresupportiveofwomen'srightsCurrently,theUnitedStatesisservedbyitsveryfirstfemaleSpeakeroftheHouseofRepresentatives,NancyPelosi,whoisaDemocratButwomen'sstatusinpoliticsdoesnotalwaysmapneatlyonpart'linesAfterall,initwasontheRepublicangeneralelectionpresidentialticketthatawomanSarahPalinappeared,ratherthanontheDemocraticticketmeaningthatbothpartieshadnominatedawomanforvicepresidentexactlyonce,withtheDemocratsunsuccessfullynominatingGéraldineFerraroinNeithermajorpartyhasevernominatedawomanforpresidentanditremainsuncommonforwomentoholdleadershiprolesineitlierpartyHAR'ARDINTRRNATIONALREVIEW•SpringFEATURESProspectsforChangeCrossnationalworkbyscholarssuchasMildCaulIvittilson,SheriKunovich,MonaLenaKrook,PamelaPaxton,andLisaYoungshedsfurtherlightonhowwomen'srepresentationmaychangeinthefutureResearchonpoliticalpartiesincomparativestudieshasoftenfocusedonquotasbecauseoftheincreaseintheuseofquotasiiroundtheworld,includingpartyquotasThenatureandeffectivenessofgenderquotasvarysubstantially,buttheuseofquotashasdefinitelyincreasedandwomenhavesoughtquotastocombatdiscriminator'candidateselectionpracticesOnceonepartyadoptsagenderquota,otiierpartiesinthepolitiealsystemmayfollowsuit,orstatutesmaymandatethatpartiesfieldacertainproportionofwomencandidatesRulescanalsodictatewherewomencandidateswillbeplacedonpartylistsIntheUScaseaswellascomparatively,women'sorganizationsandmovements,womenleaders,andwomenvotsupportisEMILVsList,aprochoicewomen'spoliticalactioncommitteeEMILY'sList,whichisassociatedwithdieDemocraticpartybutisnotformallypartofthepartystructure,hasbeencreditedwiththegainsofwomeninCongressAlthoughRepublicanwomenhaveformedacounterparttoEMILY'sList,calledWISHList,itsimplylacksthesameresourcesandsupportbecausetheRepublicanpart}'islargelyprolifeFinally,womenvoterscanleadtopartyinterestinfieldingwomenTheelectoralimperativeofattractingwomenvoterscanincreasetheleverageofwomen'sgroupswhoseektopromotewomen'sdescriptiverepresentationSometimesfemalepoliticiansareaidedbyvoters'stereotyjiesEorexample,thestereotypethatfemalepoliticiansaremorehonestthanmencanproduceopportunitiesforwomenWomen'sfacesmayreassurevotersinthefaceofpoliticalcorruption,helpingpartiesrecoverfromscandalsPart)'competitioncanboostwomencandidates,par"Partyleaders,whotendtobemale,looktowhomtheyknowwhentheyrecruitcandidatesDoubtsaboutwomen'selectabilitycanalsoreducethelikelihoodthatapartywillfieldwomencandidates"ersseemtobethekeyingredientstomakingpartiesahelpratherthanahindrancetowomen'srepresentationFirst,womenleadersoftendrivepartyreceptivitytowomencandidatesandofficeholdersCandidaterecruitmentbyUSpartiestypicallyfocusesoncompetitiveracesTheparties'campaigncommitteesmayfieldcandidatesinprimarycontestsanddirectresourcestopreferredcandidatesSuchprocessesdonotinherentlyputwomenatadisadvantagewomenmayevenbethefavoredcandidateinsomecasesiiutmyresearchonwomen'srepresentationacrosstheUSstatesshowsthatpartystrengthisusuallynegativelyIelatedtowomen'scandidaciesandofficeholdingThus,strongpartiescanbegoodforwomenbecausestrongpartieshavetheresourcestoidentitywomencandidatesButstrongpartiescanplaytheoppositeroleTheproblemisthatcandidaterecruitmentisselectivePartyleaders,whotendtobemale,looktowhomtheyknowwhentheyrecruitcandidatesDoubtsaboutwomen'selcctabihtycaniilsoreducethelikelihoodtliatapartywillfieldwomencandidatesTheslogan"Whenwomennm,womenwin"isipopularoneindieUnitedStates,wherewomen'ssuccessratesaresimilartomen'sButmyresearchhasfoundthatnotallpartyleadersagreethatwomenwinInstead,beliefs!bf)utwomen'selectabilityvaryacrossstatesanddistrictsSecondandcloselyrelatedtothesignificanceofwomenleadersisthelargercontextofwomen'sgenderbasedorganizingwithinpartiesandoutsidepartiesMikiCaulIvittilsonhasfoundthatwomeninthepartygrassrootscancreatebottomuppressureforwomen'sadvancementindieUnitedStates,oneimportantsourceotcandidateticularlyifwomen'svotesaredesiredButcompetitioncanhavetheoppositeeffectImportantcontestsmayreducepartyleaderincentivestofieldnontraditionalcandidatessuchaswomenifleadersfearthatwomencandidateswillappealtofewervotersThecontentofvoterstereotypes,thebeliefsotpartyleaders,andtheelectoralcontextallshapepartyinterestinwomencandidatesStereotypesaboutthepoliticalpartiesalsovaryandinteractwithgenderstereotypesForexample,theresearchIhaveconductedwithKathleenDolanrevealsthatUSvotersholdgenderstereotypesaboutwomeninboththeDemocraticandRepublicanpartiesStereotypesmayposemorehurdlesforRepublicanwomen,however,becausetheperceivedliberalideologyofRepublicanwomenputsthematoddswiththeconservativebaseoftheirpartyConclusionAldioughweoftenoverlookpartiesinourdiscussionsaboutwomenpoliticians,partiesaffectwomen'sstatusinpoliticsinimportantwaysWomenhaveworkedwithandsometimesaroundtheirpartiesinordertoenhancewomen'srepresentationWhiletheyhaveoftenbeenloyalpartyworkers,theyhavealsotransformedtheirpartiesbyadvocatingforwomenvotersandwomenleaders,bycallingfornewpartyrules,andbyseekingofficethemselvesWerewomen'saccessandinfluencewithinpartypoliticstoincrease,andwerepartiestoexpandtheircommitmenttorecruitandnominatewomencandidates,thepresenceofwomeninproliticswouldincreaseworldwideIllSpring:()IIARVARDINTERNATIONALREVIEWCopyrightofHarvardInternationalReviewisthepropertyofHarvardInternationalReviewanditscontentmaynotbecopiedoremailedtomultiplesitesorpostedtoalistservwithoutthecopyrightholder'sexpresswrittenpermissionHowever,usersmayprint,download,oremailarticlesforindividualuse

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