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首页 高三语法打印总体.doc

高三语法打印总体.doc

高三语法打印总体.doc

wangyuming1 2012-04-18 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《高三语法打印总体doc》,可适用于高中教育领域,主题内容包含一、情态动词一、情态动词本身含义must与haveto:()must“必须”表说话人主观的看法。如Wemustcarrytheinjuredmant符等。

一、情态动词一、情态动词本身含义must与haveto:()must“必须”表说话人主观的看法。如Wemustcarrytheinjuredmantothesideoftheroad而haveto侧重客观上“不得不”。如Wehavetofight,orwe’llbekilled()must多用于一般现在时偶尔用于一般过去时。haveto有人称与数的变化并可用于许多时态。如ThesituationhaschangedWe’llhavetochangeourplan()must否定有两种形式:mustn’t表禁止“决不能”needn’t表“不必”。haveto否定为don’t(doesn’tdidn’t)haveto相当于needn’t。反意疑问句表“必须”时:Hemustturnintheexercise,mustn’the表“必要”时:Hemustleavebehindtolookafteryou,needn’the()must表语气:WhymustyouinterruptmeIfyoumustknow,Iwilltellyoucan与could与beableto:()can(一般现在时),could(一般过去式)。beableto可用于各种时态。如Shehasn’tbeenabletoworkformonths()could与waswereableto的区别:could表过去用能力却不一定付诸实施。如Icouldswim,butIdidn’tjumpintotheriver而waswereableto表过去特定某次能力尽管实施过程中用许多困难但最终成功常译成“总算”“总能”。如AbigfirebrokeoutAtlast,theywereabletoescape()could可用于现在时表委婉。如Couldyoutellmetheway注:回答不能用could而用can即Yes,Icanmay与might:()表请求允许或许可口语中可用cancould代替。如――MayIgo肯定回答:Yes,youmaygo否定回答:No,youmustn’t()might可用于现在时表委婉回答应用may。(与could类似)shouldoughtto与shall:()should含建议或劝告语气指“依我看应该干某事”。如Ithinkyoushouldstartnow而oughtto语气较强表“有责任有义务干某事”。如ThepatientisyourfatherYououghttolookafterhim()oughtto否定形式是oughtnottodo一般疑问句型是Ought…todo()should的原形shall在第一人称问句中表征求对方意见。如Whereshallwemeetshall也用于第三人称表下级向上级征求意见。注:征求意见第二人称用willwould。()shall可用在陈述句中二三人称表示语气:命令威胁允诺决心协议等。need(需要)与dare(敢):()都可作情态动词。如Sheneeddare(not)goNeedDareshego也都可作行为动词。如SheneedsdarestogoShedoesn’tneeddaretogoDoessheneeddaretogo注意:need作情态动词多用于疑问句与否定句need作行为动词多用于肯定句。注意:反意疑问句要看其是情态动词还是行为动词。如Sheneedgo,needn’tshe与Sheneedstogo,doesn’tshe()注意need问句如――NeedIcome的回答:-–Yes,youmust或――No,youneedn’t()need作行为动词+doing主动表被动:如Theroomneedscleaning=needstobecleaned()usedto(过去常常)是半情态动词也有两种否定形式usednottodo或didn’tusetodo。相应的疑问句:Usedshetobeateacher或Didsheusetobeateacherwill与would:()表请求:Wouldyou…回答用一般will()可表意愿。如Ifyouwillgo,Iwilltakeyouthere()would可表“过去常常”相当于usedto不同点在于would后一般加表动作的词而usedto后可加表动作或状态的词。如:Hewouldusedtositthere,thinkingHeusedtobeateacher(不能用would).hadbetterdo“最好做sth”与wouldratherdo“宁愿做sth”:注意wouldratherthatsbdidsth(“宁愿sb做sth”用过去式表示将来)wouldratherthatsbhaddonesth(“宁愿已做过sth”表示对过去的虚拟)二、情态动词表猜测()用下列情态动词:must:“一定”“肯定”只用于肯定句can’t:“一定不”“肯定不”用于否定句maymight(not):“可能(不)”用于肯定句或否定句(肯定句中也可用could但较少用)can:“可能”用于疑问句should表“按道理应该”经常表对将来情况推测。()这些情态动词后可加A+动词原形(一般为be或表状态的动词)表对现在状态的猜测B+bedoing表对正在进行动作的猜测C+havedone,表对已完成动作或过去动作的猜测。例Hemaybeateacher例Hecan’tbesinging,forIcan’thearhisvoice例Hemusthavecome,forhiscarishere例Whocanhebe()反意疑问句看情态动词后面所接的时态。如Youmusthavebeenthere,haven’tyouShecan’tbesleeping,isshe注:Itmusthaverainedyesterdayforthegroundiswet,didn’tit此句出现具体的过去时间反意问句用过去时。三、情态动词表虚拟If从句主句(借助情态动词)对现在的虚拟didwerewouldcouldmightshoulddo过去的虚拟haddonewouldcouldmightshouldhavedone对将来的虚拟shoulddoweretododidwouldcouldmightshoulddo例:IfeveryoneinChinaknewfirstaid,manylivescouldbesavedIfitweretoraintomorrow,IwouldnotgooutIfIhadhadtimeyesterday,Iwouldhavecome常见表示对过去的虚拟都翻译成“本…”:would(not)havedonecould(not)havedonemight(not)havedoneshould(not)havedoneneedn’thavedone例:Ifyouhadarrivedearly,youwouldhavemethimIcouldhavehelpedyouatthattime,butIwasbusyItwasnotalongwayYouneedn’thavetakenataxilYoushouldhaveworkedhardlastyear二、虚拟语气概念:虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想常与事实相反。一、时态:可以表示过去现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是从句时态退后。a 表示与现在事实相反的假设。句型:If一般过去时were,…wouldcouldmightshoulddoIftheywerehere,theywouldhelpyoub 表示与过去事实相反的假设。句型:Ifhaddone,…wouldcouldmightshouldhavedone IfmylawyerhadbeenherelastSaturday,hewouldhavepreventedmefromgoingc 表示对将来的假想 句型:If一般过去时were不定式should动词原形,…wouldcouldmight动词原形 Ifyousucceededshouldsucceedweretosucceed,everythingwouldbeallright二、混合条件句:主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间这时主从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同:Ifyouhadaskedhimyesterday,youwouldknowwhattodonow Ifithadrainedlastnight(过去),itwouldbeverycoldtoday(现在)三、虚拟条件句的倒装:虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were,should,或had,可将if省略再把were,should或had移到从句句首实行倒装。 Weretheyherenow,theycouldhelpusHadyoucomeearlier,youwouldhavemethim Wereittorain,thecropswouldbesaved=Shoulditrain,thecropswouldbesaved五、特殊的四、虚拟语气词:should)insist,order,command,demand,require,request,suggest,propose,advise,recommendsb(should)do Heinsistedthathe(should)besentthere注意:如suggest,insist不表示"建议"或"坚持要某人做某事时"即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时宾语从句用陈述语气。Theguardatgateinsistedthateverybodyobeytherules Yourpalefacesuggeststhatyouareill)Itisimportant,necessary,natural,strangeapity, ashame, nowonder五、wish的用法:退后一个时态:IwishIwereastallasyou  Hewishedhehadn'tsaidthat Iwishitwouldraintomorrow六、比较ifonly与onlyif:onlyif表示"只有"ifonly则表示"如果……就好了"。  Iwakeuponlyifthealarmclockrings只有闹钟响了我才会醒。  Ifonlythealarmclockhadrung   当时闹钟响了就好了。七、Itis(high)timethat后面从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形不省略should Itistimethatthechildrenwenttobedthatthechildrenshouldgotobed八、need"不必做"和"本不该做" didn'tneedtodo表示:过去不必做某事,事实上也没做。 needn'thavedone表示:过去不必做某事,但事实上做了。 JohnwenttothestationwiththecartomeetMary,soshedidn'tneedtowalkbackhome 三、名词从句:分主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句一、主语从句谓单:()主语为that陈述句时that不省略。如Thatbiologyisveryimportantisknowntostudentsofmedicine注意:可用it形式主语。句型:Itisadjnthat…如:Itisapitythathedidn’tattendthemeeting注意:Itisnecessaryimportantstrangenaturalthatsb(should)dosth句型:Itisknownreportedbelievedthought+that…注:Itissuggestedadvisedrecommendedcommandedorderedrequiredrequesteddemandedthatsb(should)do句型:ItseemsthatItappearsthatIthappenedthatItstruck(hit)methatItoccurredtomethat…()主语为一般疑问句用whether+陈述语序。是特殊疑问句用疑问词+陈述语序。如Whetherwe’llgohasnotbeendecidedHowtheprojectwillbecarriedoutisbeingdiscussednow注意:也可用it形式主语。()主语为what,whatever,whoever,whichever等词引导的句子它们相当于名词+that:what=thethingthatwhatever=anythingthatwhoever=anyonewho,whichever=anynthat。如WhoeverbreaksthelawistobepunishedWhateverbelongstomeisalsoyoursHerearetenbooksYoucanchoosewhichever(book)youlike注意:前三个词一定引导一个不完整的句子在这个不完整的句中作主语、宾语或表语同时整个whatwhateverwhoever从句在整句话中也作主语、宾语或表语。注意:whateverwhoevewhicheve也引导让步状语从句翻译成“不管是什么不管是谁不管哪个”whatever=nomatterwhat,whoever=nomatterwho,whichever=nomatterwhich此时若去掉让步状语从句主句仍然成立。如:whoeveryouare,Iwillnotallowyoutocomein二、表语从句:()表语为that陈述句时that不能省略。如Hertroubleisthathehasnofriendtoturnto()主语为为一般疑问句用whether+陈述语序。为特殊疑问句则疑问词+陈述语序。()表语为what,whatever,whoever,whichever引导的句子。注意:区分why,because,that引导的表语从句。ItwasraininghardThat’swhyIwaslateforschoolIwaslateforschoolThatisbecauseitwasraininghardThereasonwhyhewaslate(定语从句why)isthatitwasraininghard三、宾语从句:()宾语为that陈述句时that可省略。但是两个that从句并列时后面的that一般不省略。如Heanswered(that)hehadneverbeenthereandthathewillnevergothereinthefuture注意当谓语动词是insist,suggest,advise,recommend,order,command,demand,require,request等时that从句中用sb(should)do注意当谓语动词是believe,think,guess,believe,imagine,expect,suppose等且宾语从句为否定时否定前移。Idon’tthinkthatTomwillsticktotheplan。其反意疑问句看主句主语:Idon’tsupposehecaresforher,doeshe(主语是第一人称看主句)Youdon’tthinkhewillgo,doyou(主语不是第一人称看从句)注意wish引导的宾语从句表虚拟退后一个时态。如Iwishyouhadtoldthenewsalready(退后一个时态的虚拟:asif,Ifonly…!,If从句wouldrather,It’stimesbdidsth)注意在hope,believe,imagine,suppose,guess,think,I’mafraid等词后可用so代替上文提到过的一个宾语从句。否定用Idon’t…not或I…not。如――Doyouthinkwecanmanagetosavetheboy――IhopesoIhopenot注意形式宾语格式:动词think,believe,find,feel,consider,suppose,make+it+adjn+that…。如Weconsideritapitythatthemeetingwasputoff()宾语为一般疑问句用whether或if+陈述语序。是特殊疑问句用疑问词+陈述语序。()宾语为what,whatever,whoeve,whichever引导的句子。如Theygivewhoeverattendsthemeetingadictionary四、同位语从句:句子常跟在一个名词后面并解释这个名词的具体内容。(一般为抽象名词belief,fact,news,message,suggestion,advice,hope,idea,opinion,view,problem,trouble,possibility,chance,promise,explanation,word,question,story,reason,proof,confidence,rumor(谣言),theory…()同位语为陈述句that不能省略。如Thenewsthathemadeanimportantdiscoveryencouragedus()同位语为一般疑问句用whether+陈述语序。为特殊疑问句则疑问词+陈述语序。如Hecan’tanswerthequestionwherehegotsomuchmoney注意同位语从句偶尔可与名词分开。如Word(=news)camethattheenemyhadfledthecityThestorygoesthatTellkilledthecruelruler注意同位语从句与定语从句的区别。〔〕同位语从句说明名词的具体内容两者是等同关系定语从句对名词起限定缩小范围作用。如Thenewsthathewasshotdeadsurprisedus(同)Thenews(thatwhich)hetoldmewassurprising(定)〔〕同位语从句可用that,whether,who,where,why,when,howmany,howmuch,howsoon等许多关系代词而定语从句只能用that,which,who,where,whom,when,why其中与介词连用时必须用whichwhom。〔〕同位语从句中that或其他关系代词不能省略而定语从句中如果先行词在定从中作宾语时可省关系代词that,who,whom,which。总体:注意whether可用于主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句而if只用于宾语从句。可用whetherif…ornot,但只用whetherornot而不用ifornot句首只用whether而不用if介词后只用whether而不用if。注意插入语IthinkIgueseIbelieveIsupposeyouknowyousayIneverexpected等的使用一般可用于句中或句末。()插入语用于陈述句中可去掉。如Tom,Ithink,isworthpraisingforhisgooddeed()插入语用于疑问句中:以Ithink为例格式:疑问词+doyouthink+陈述语序。如WhatdoyouthinkheisinterestedinHowmanystudentsdoyouthinkthereareinourclass注意有时可多个连词连用。Idecidedthatifanyoneshouldsetmefree,IwouldkillhimatonceIwanttoknowwhywhatIsaidwasconsideredwrong四、状语从句一、时间状语从句:when,as,while的区别。while后一般只接持续性动作可用whenas替代。while还可表前后对比。如Somelikesingingwhileotherslikedancingwhile还可指“尽管”或者是“只要”as指主从句动作同时进行译成“随着”“一边一边”。如wegetwiseraswegetolderAstimegoeson,wegetolderandolderwhen可表示“在那时突然在那时”特别注意两个句型:waswereabouttodo…when和wasweredoing…when。tilluntil用于主句是持续性动作时当主句是短暂性动作时用not…tilluntil。如Don’tgoawayuntilIreturn注意:在强调句和倒装句中notuntil不能分开:ItwasnotuntilhecamebackdidhefindoutthesecretNotuntilhecamebackdidhefindoutthesecretsince与before:句型:Itishasbeen+一段时间+since…Itwaswillbe+一段时间+before…。注意before在以下句子中的译法:Theyhadtalkedonlyafewminutesbeforetheyfoundtheyhadnothingincommon“没多久就”HefinishedhistalkbeforeIcouldsayaword“还没来得及。。。就”。表示“一。。。就”:onceassoonasthemomenttheminutethesecondimmediatelydirectly+时间状语从句以及hardly(had)…whennosooner(had)…than等。如HardlyhadIgothomewhenitbegantorain(hardly或nosooner位于句首要部分倒装)表时间或次数的名词词组引导状从:everytime,thefirsttime,themoment,theminute等。如CopyitdowneverytimeyoucometoabeautifulsentenceIrecognizedhimthemomentIsawhim二、地点状语从句:通常由where(翻成“在。。。的地方”),wherever等引导。如Wherethereiswater,thereislifeYoucanseesmilingfaceswherevereverywhereyougo注意区分以下两句话:Pleasemakeamarkwhereyoudon’tunderstand(状从不能用inwhich代替)Pleasemakeamarkintheplacewhereyoudon’tunderstand(定从其中where=inwhich)。三、原因状语从句:通常由because,as,for,nowthat=since,notthat…butthat等引导。because语气最强烈指直接原因。如Heislovedbyallbecauseheishonestfor表补充说明原因或推断的理由。如Hemustbehonest,forheislovedbyallas指双方都知明显的原因“由于”。如FewpeoplecantellthedifferencebetweenJackandJohnastheyaretwinssince与nowthat译成“既然”一般用于句首。Nowthatyou’rehere,whynothavesupperwithusnotthat…butthat翻译成“不是因为。。。而是因为”如Hefeltworried,notthatworkerswerelazy,butthattheydidn’tpayenoughattentiontosafety四、目的状语从句:通常由sothat,inorderthatforfearthat等引导。inorderthat=sothat(以便于以至于)inorderthat可位于句首或句中sothat不位于句首。注意:一般从句中用cancouldmaymight等词。PleaseturntomeinorderthatIcanhearyouclearly如无这些情态动词sothat表结果相当于so。如:Hegotupearlysothathegottoschoolontime五、结果状语从句:由so…that,such…that,soadjanthat等引导。如I’msobusywithmyworkthatIhavenotimeforsupperTomwassolazyastudentthathefailed六、条件状语从句:通常由if=onconditionthat=providedthat,unless=if…not,assolongas(只要)incase等引导。YoumayborrowthebookaslongasyoupromisetoreturnitWe’llletyouusetheroomonconditionthatprovidedthatyoukeepittidy注:在虚拟条件句中if可省略wereshouldhad提到句首。如WereIyou,Iwouldgo(现在)Hadyoubeenthereyesterday,youwouldhavebeeninterestedinit(过去)Shoulditraintomorrow,Iwouldnotgothere(将来)七、比较状语从句:as…as,notassoas…等引导。如Themanspokeasloudlyaspossible=asloudlyashecould注:as…as前还可加倍数或分数。如HerunstwiceasfastasfasterthanIsuch…as,thesame…as,thesame(n)as引导。如Ihavethesamebookasyouboughtyesterdaythan引导。如ItsnowsmoreofteninBeijingthan(itdoes)inWuhang比较级前可加倍数或分数。the+比。。。the+比。。。如Theharderyouwork,thebetteryouwillbepaid注意:比较状语从句句型前后所加成分一致。如Myappleisriperthanyours(is)Ihaveriperapplesthanyou(do)八、方式状语从句:由as(按照)引导。如YoumustdoasItoldyoutoasif=asthough(好像)引导后常用虚拟语气。如HeactedasifnothinghadhappenedTheAmericangirlspeaksasthoughshewereaChinese九、让步状语从句:although,though引导不能与but可与yet,still连用。如ThoughAlthoughtheyquarreledoften,theyweresuitedtoeachother注:though还可用于句末前加逗号表“但是”。如Hehadpromisedtohelpme,hedidn’t,thoughas=though可用于倒装语序(即将adj,adv,n,v置于句首)。如Successfulasheis,heisnotproud(形容词前不能加very)Hardasitrained,theykeptonworkingTryashemayhe’llneverpassthedrivingtestChildashewas,herescuedababyfromthefire(单数名词前不能加不定冠词)。eventhough=evenif,“就算即使”。I’llneverregretitevenifthoughImaylosenomatterwh-或wh-ever表“无论”“不管”。如NomatterwhatWhateveryouare,youarenotallowedtocomeinNomatterhowHoweverhardhetries,heneverseemsabletodowell注:whatever,whoever,whichever等还相当于名词+that不能用nomatterwh-代替:whatever=anythingthat,whoever=anyonewho等。如WhateverIhavebelongstoyou,toowhether…ornot意为“不管”(不能用if)。如Whetherhedrivesortakesthetrain,he’llbehereontime总述:注意表时间、条件等的状语从句用于将来时时从句用一般现在时主句用将来时。如Onceyouunderstandtherule,you’llhavenodifficulty特殊:Ifyouwill(愿意)go,youwillhavetotakeabus注意状语从句的省略。当状从主语与主句主语一致(或是it)且状从中含be动词时状从中的be与主语可省略。如While(shewas)wonderingaboutallthis,BettydiscoveredthatherteachergotangryTheassistant,when(shewas)spokento,didn’tmakeananswerShe’llcomewhenif(itis)necessary五、非谓语动词:包括不定式、动名词、分词一、不定式与动名词:两者作主语和表语,一般谓语都为单数:不定式:MyjobtodayistolookafterpatientsMywishistobecomeadoctor(指特定一次动作或将来的动作)Myjobislookingafterpatients(泛指习惯性动作)注常用形式主语:Itisadjforsbtodo。(adj常修饰事情)比较Itisadjofsbtodosth,adj多修饰人如It’scruelofyoutokillanoldman动名词用形式主语常见于以下句型:Itisnousenogood+doing两者作宾语:()只接不定式的动词:wouldlike,wouldlove,hope,wish,attempt,expect,plan,prepare,decide,refuse,pretend,fail,manage,offer(主动提出),promise,agree,disagree,choose,care,happentrydoone’sbest,makeupone’smind,takethetrouble(费心),usedto,makeagreateffort()只接动名词的动词:enjoy,dislike,practise,mind,,keep,finish,imagine,admit,appreciate,escape,understand,miss,resist,risk,avoid,mention,include,report,suggest=advise,consider=thinkof,stand=bear,allow=permitforbid,,delay=putoff,pardon=forgive=excuse,insiston,godoing,giveup,keepon,bebusy,beworth,feellike,spendtimein,wastetimein,havesomedifficultytroublein,bedevotedto,objectto=beopposedto(反对),payattentionto,getdownto,stickto,leadto,seeto(负责),getclosenearto等。()可接不定式或动名词的动词且两者相差不大:continue,like,love,prefer,begin,start,等。注:preferdoingtodoing=prefertodoratherthando。()既可接不定式又可接动名词的动词但两者相差较大:forget,remember,stop,goon,try,mean,regret,can’thelplookforwardtobeusedto,needwantrequire两者作定语:不定式作定语表内容动宾或主谓关系:MywishtobeadoctorhascometrueImustfindaroomtoliveinIboughtapentowritewithShelitacandletogivelight动名词作定语表用途:如aswimmingpool,listeningmaterial,awalkingstick,两者作介词宾语:一般说来介词后面应接动名词。注:but,except等后不定式如Icandonothingbutcry(有动词do时)IhadnochoicebuttocryIthadnoeffectexcepttomakehimangry不定式作宾语补语()动词+sbsth+todo。此类动词有ask,tell,order,cause,want,wouldlike,get,force,wish(不用hope)expect,encourage,invite,prefer,hate,show,teach,persuade,advise,allow,permit,forbid,warn等。()动词(see,notice,lookat,watch,observe,listento,hear,feel,have,make,let等)+sbsth+do。但改成被动语态要加上to。如Hewasseentoclimbthehill()可用形式宾语特别是动词为find,believe,think,consider,feel,make+it+adjn+tododoing。如ImadeitaruletopractiseEnglisheverydayIfinditunnecessarytoattendthelecture注:下列动词作宾语与宾补时所加形式不同:forbidallowpermitadvise+doing,或+sbtodo。又如suggest+doing或suggest+sb(should)doconsiderdoing(考虑)或considersbsthtobeas(认为)不定式作状语:()多表目的to=inorderto=soasto(soasto不用于句首)。如Togetthereintime,Itookataxi()可表结果。〔a〕Iwokeuponlytofindthatthereweremanypeoplearoundme常表意想不到的语气或neverto。〔b〕句型too…to,too+adj+a+n…to,enough…to()固定结构表说话人观点:如TotellyouthetruthTobehonestTobefrank(坦率地说)Tomakealongstoryshort,+句子。注意:不定式的逻辑主语为forsbtodo。如It’simpossibleformetoworkoutthisproblem动名词的逻辑主语是sb(宾格)或sb’s(用于句首一般用sb’s)。如DoyoumindmymesmokinghereHiscomingmademehappy但当逻辑主语是无生命的东西时则用sth而不用sth’s。如Idon’tmindtimepassingsofast注意:不定式有todotobedoing和tohavedone。如Sbsthseemsappearshappenstodotobedoingtohavedone及Sbsthissaidreportedbelievedknownthoughtconsideredtodotobedoingtohavedone注意:不定式和动名词还有被动形式tobedone和beingdone。如Tobenoticed,heletoutacrysuddenlyHedislikesbeingmadefunof注意:不定式主动表被动:()too…to,enough…to句型。()Theboxisheavytocarry即主语+be+adj+todo()Ihavemanyletterstowrite尽管不定式与名词是被动关系不定式与句子主语是主动关系。()Therebe句型。动名词主动表被动:()beworthdoing()Theroomsneedrequirewantcleaning=tobecleaned二、分词:分为现在分词与过去分词。分词作定语:(判断依据:翻译成中文“。。。的”单个分词用在名词的前面多个分词用在名词的后面):看分词与被修饰的名词之间的关系:如是主动关系则用doing。如aworkingman,awalkingdog。如是被动关系则用done,beingdone,tobedone三种形式之一。done表被动且完成如abrokencup或主动完成如fallentrees,boiledwater。beingdone表被动且动作正在进行如theproblembeingdiscussednow。tobedone表被动将来如themeetingtobeheldtomorrow分词作表语或定语:现在分词doing表“令人。。。的”一般指物。过去分词done表“。。。的”一般指人。此类分词有exciting,interesting,surprising,puzzling,frightening,encouraging,discouraging,disappointing,satisfying,confusing,shocking,astonishing等。如ThenewsissurprisingWe’resurprisedatthenews。注:有时doing可指人。如HewearsstrangeclothesandamaskHeisfrightening有时done可指物。如Thereisapuzzledlookonhisface(多用于修饰look,expression,face,voice,shout,scream,cry,smile等名词)。分词作宾语补语(判断依据:。。。sb干sth或。。。sth被做):即动词(多为五看二听一感觉及have,getleave,keepfind,catchdiscover)+sbsth+分词看分词与宾语之间的关系。主动用现在分词doing被动用过去分词done(偶尔用beingdone)。如IhadTomwaitingalldayIhadmyhaircutyesterday比较:动词(五看二听一感觉等)+sbsth+do表动作已经完成。而动词+sbsth+doing多表动作正在进行或一直在进行。如IsawTomreadingwhenIcameinIsawTomcrossthestreetandgointotheroom。分词作状语(判断依据:一般有逗号有时有whenwhileifunlessoncealthough等表原因时间地点条件让步等的连词):看分词与句子主语之间的关系,若主动用doing(表分词动作与主句谓语同时进行或一前一后发生。)或havingdone(强调分词动作发生在主句动作之前)。如Helayonbed,thinkingabouthischildhood(同时)Seeinghismother,thebabylaughed(一前一后)Havingseenthefilmtwice,Idecidednottogotothecinema若分词与句子主语是被动关系则用done(一般用)或havingbeendone(强调分词动作发生在主句动作之前)。如Seenfromspace,theearthseemssmallHavingbeenintroducedtoeachother,theystartedtalking注分词作状语时前面可用一些连词相当于状语从句的省略。如(When)Heated,watercanchangeintovapour(Once)Takengoodcareof,thecabbagecangrowbetter(Though)Defeated,wecandefeatthem注固定结构:GenerallyStrictlyFranklyExactlyPersonallyspeaking,Consideringthat…,Judgingfromby…,Prov

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