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首页 帝国游戏:全球资本主义与电子游戏.pdf

帝国游戏:全球资本主义与电子游戏.pdf

帝国游戏:全球资本主义与电子游戏.pdf

上传者: 九月虺 2012-04-02 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《帝国游戏:全球资本主义与电子游戏pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含GamesofEmpireElectronicMediationsKatherineHayles,MarkPoster,andSamuelWeber符等。

GamesofEmpireElectronicMediationsKatherineHayles,MarkPoster,andSamuelWeber,SeriesEditorsGamesofEmpire:GlobalCapitalismandVideoGamesNickDyerWithefordandGreigdePeuterTacticalMediaRitaRaleyReticulations:JeanLucNancyandtheNetworksofthePoliticalPhilipArmstrongDigitalBaroque:NewMediaArtandCinematicFoldsTimothyMurrayExfoliations:ReadingMachinesandtheUpgradePathTerryHarpoldDigitizeThisBook!ThePoliticsofNewMedia,orWhyWeNeedOpenAccessNowGaryHallDigitizingRace:VisualCulturesoftheInternetLisaNakamuraSmallTech:TheCultureofDigitalToolsByronHawk,DavidMRieder,andOllieOviedo,EditorsTheExploit:ATheoryofNetworksAlexanderRGallowayandEugeneThackerDatabaseAesthetics:ArtintheAgeofInformationOverflowVictoriaVesna,EditorCyberspacesofEverydayLifeMarkNunesGaming:EssaysonAlgorithmicCultureAlexanderRGallowayAvatarsofStoryMarieLaureRyanWirelessWritingintheAgeofMarconiTimothyCCampbellElectronicMonumentsGregoryLUlmerLaraCroft:CyberHeroineAstridDeuberMankowskyTheSoulsofCyberfolk:PosthumanismasVernacularTheoryThomasFosterDéjàVu:AberrationsofCulturalMemoryPeterKrappBiomediaEugeneThackerAvatarBodies:ATantraforPosthumanismAnnWeinstoneConnected,orWhatItMeanstoLiveintheNetworkSocietyStevenShaviroCognitiveFictionsJosephTabbiCyberingDemocracy:PublicSpaceandtheInternetDianaSacoWritingsVilémFlusserBodiesinTechnologyDonIhdeCyberculturePierreLévyWhat’stheMatterwiththeInternetMarkPosterHighTechne:ArtandTechnologyfromtheMachineAesthetictothePosthumanRLRutskyDigitalSensations:Space,Identity,andEmbodimentinVirtualRealityKenHillisGamesofEmpireGlobalCapitalismandVideoGamesNickDyerWithefordandGreigdePeuterElectronicMediationsUniversityofMinnesotaPressMinneapolisLondonChapterwaspreviouslypublishedas“ArmedVisionandtheBanalizationofWar:FullSpectrumWarrior,”inFluidScreens,ExpandedCinema,edJanineMarchessaultandSusanLord(Toronto:UniversityofTorontoPress,)CopyrightbytheRegentsoftheUniversityofMinnesotaAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisherPublishedbytheUniversityofMinnesotaPressThirdAvenueSouth,SuiteMinneapolis,MNhttp:wwwupressumneduLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDyerWithefordGamesofempire:globalcapitalismandvideogamesNickDyerWithefordandGreigdePeuterpcm(Electronicmediations)IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hc:alkpaper)ISBN(pbk:alkpaper)VideogamesSocialaspectsVideogamesEconomicaspectsCapitalismSocialaspectsImperialismSocialaspectsIdePeuter,GreigIITitleGVSDdcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaonacidfreepaperTheUniversityofMinnesotaisanequalopportunityeducatorandemployerAcknowledgmentsviiIntroduction:GamesintheAgeofEmpirexiIGameEngine:Labor,Capital,MachineImmaterialLabor:AWorkers’HistoryofVideogamingCognitiveCapitalism:ElectronicArtsMachinicSubjects:TheXboxandItsRivalsIIGameplay:VirtualActualBanalWar:FullSpectrumWarriorBiopowerPlay:WorldofWarcraftImperialCity:GrandTheftAutoIIINewGameGamesofMultitudeExodus:TheMetaverseandtheMinesNotesReferencesIndexContentsThispageintentionallyleftblankviiNickDyerWithefordthankshiscolleaguesintheFacultyofInformationandMediaStudiesattheUniversityofWesternOntarioforthecreationoftheexceptionalacademicprogramthathasincubatedGamesofEmpire,especiallyTomCarmichaelandCatherineRoss,fortheirleadershipaspresentandpastdeansofthefacultyGloriaLeckie,forhermentorshipintheblackartofassociatedeanshipJamesComptonandBerndFrohmannforyearsofacademiccomradeshipandTimBlackmore,JacquelynBurkell,JonathanBurston,GrantCampbell,NormaCoates,EdComor,CaroleFarber,AmandaGrzyb,AlisonHearn,KeirKeightley,SandySmeltzer,DanielRobinson,DanielaSneppova,DavidSpencer,SashaTorres,andSamTrosowforcollegialinquiries,suggestions,andconversationsAnindispensablepartinthecompositionofthisbookhasbeenplayedbygraduatestudents,asresearchassistantsorparticipantsinthe“GamesofEmpire”seminarthatwasalaboratoryformanypartsoftheprojectSarahColemanwasanearlyandextraordinaryguidetoonlinevirtualworldsDerekNoon,anongoingexampleofgamingintegrityandintelligence,whoseinsightsinformthetextatmanypointsJeffPreston,asourceforinvaluablerecommendationsforFerrarilaptopsTheresearchofTrentCruzandJenMartinunderpinsouranalysisofvirtualgaminginChinaStephenSwainsuppliedmindbendingfactsaboutsportsgamesHenrySvecdevelopedanoutstandinganalysisofGuitarHeroasagameofmultitudethathasfoundindependentpublicationMichaelSchmalzenduredtheMarxistanalysisoftheindustryinwhichheisaleadingentrepreneurwithenormousgraceandgoodhumorOwenLivermorepointedoutominousconnectionsbetweenAcknowledgmentsviiiAcknowledgmentsgamesandGermanexpressionismandBrianBrownrapidlymadetheconnectionsbetweenvideogamesandthewiderrangesofWebaestheticsandpoliticsThisbookisapoliticalproject:salutationsarethereforegiventothestudentandfacultymembersoftheCounterStrykercollective,whoseoppositiontotheUniversityofWesternOntario’sinvolvementintheproductionofStrykerlightarmoredfightingvehiclesfortheUSArmyinIraqwas,duringsombertimes,aninspiringinstanceofstruggleinandagainstEmpireBeyondalltheseacknowledgments,Nickthankshiswife,Anne,notjustforabidingtherigorsofthisbook’scompositionbutforalifelivedincommonGreigdePeuterthanksMarkCoté,RichardDay,DavidFirman,andSharlaSava,formanymemorable,andevidentlyinspiring,readinggroupsinVancouverYuezhiZhao,hisdoctoralsupervisorintheSchoolofCommunicationatSimonFraserUniversity,forbeingsoconsistentlysupportivethroughoutthepreparationofthisbookAdrianBlackwell,ChristineShaw,andMarceloVieta,forexcellentconversationsabouttheoryandpoliticsinthecontextoftheTorontoSchoolofCreativityandInquiryprojectEndaBrophy,forongoingdiscussionsaboutautonomistthought,fromwhichhehaslearnedagreatdealRobertaBuiani,TannerMirrlees,ToddParsons,andScottUzelman,forarewardingreadinggroupinwhichsomeofthecurrentsoftheorydrivingthisbookwereexploredandchallengedstudentsinpoliticaleconomyclassesinthecommunicationstudiesdepartmentatWilfridLaurierUniversity,forreadingpartsofthisbookinearlyformandfortheirfeedbackonitAlbertBanerjee,forhissustainedencouragementandhisparents,forbeingsotremendouslysupportiveofhisseeminglyludicpursuitsMostofall,GreigisimmenselythankfultoSheila,foracontributionbeyondmeasureand,thoughhearrivedlateinthisgame,ourson,Kieran,whoseutopianjoyisevincedeachtimeheeffortlesslydivertsfromworktoplayNickandGreigtogetherthankStephenKline,forhiscollaborationonourpreviouscoauthoredbook,DigitalPlaythemanyCanadiangamedeveloperswhotookthetimetospeakwithusabouttheirworkandtheirindustrytheSocialSciencesandHumanitiesResearchCouncilofCanada,forfinancialsupportforportionsoftheresearchthatinformsthisbookTimothyLenoirandZachPogue,forinvitingustopresentourworkintheirgameslabatDukeUniversityandforinvigoratingdiscussionsCatherineMcKercherandVincentMosco,forfacilitatingthepublicationofourresearchinothervenuesSiobhanMcMenemy,fortremendouslyhelpfulcommentsonanearlyAcknowledgmentsixdraftofthismanuscriptSebastianBudgen,MichaelHardt,PeterIves,John KSampson,andStevphenShukaitis,forsupportforthisprojectatvariousphasesinitslifecourseMarkPosterandtheotherElectronicMediationsserieseditorsfortheirenthusiasticreceptionofourinitialproposalAlbertoToscanoandtheanonymousreviewersfortheUniversityofMinnesotaPressfortheirinstructiveremarksonthemanuscriptand,finally,DouglasArmato,oureditor,andeditorialassistantDanielleKasprzak,notonlyforwelcomingthisbookintosuchagoodhomebutalsofortheirgenerositythroughoutthepublicationprocessThispageintentionallyleftblankxiLudocapitalism,Militainment,andDigitalDissentAmillionavatarsinhabitthisarchipelagoAtanygivenmomentthousandsarenavigatingpixilatedislands,flyingoveropenwaters,wanderingamongrococoarchitecture,imbibingathouseparties,bendingtheirgender,chattingwithfriends,attendingrockconcerts,enjoyingeroticencounters,andmuchelsebesidesYouareamongthemCuriosityexcitedbythemassivepublicitysurroundingSecondLife,thevirtualworldcreatedbyLindenLabsofSanFrancisco,yousignedup,hopinginthisnewsocietytoescapethegettingandspendingspincycleofyoureverydayexistenceYetsoonyoudiscoveryourgetawaywashardlyclean“Basicplay”inSecondLifeisfreeButLindenLabschargesamonthlyfeefortheownershipoflandAndsaleandrentofvirtualbuildingsarethemajorsourceofwealthgenerationinthisonlinedomainYoucanalsomakevehiclesfromcarstospaceshipsfurniture,worksofart,andmachinesdesignlandscapes,fauna,andfloraandcrafttheskinandgesturesofyourdigitalcharacterThesecreationsarelegallyyours:inabreakthroughingameworldeconomics,Lindenrecognizedplayers’intellectualpropertyrightstousergeneratedcontentSuchpropertycanbesoldtootherdenizensofSecondLifeforthe“Lindendollars”thatareitsofficialcurrencyButthesetransactionslinktoamoremundanemarketAttimeofwriting,oneUSdollarboughtLindendollarsatSecondLife’sofficialLindeXcurrencyexchangeSpeculatingonthechancesoftransformingvirtualgoodsintoactualprofits,manyentrepreneurshaveflockedtoIntroductionGamesintheAgeofEmpirexiiIntroductionSecondLife,andsomerealfortuneshavebeenmadeYettheincomedistributioninSecondLifeisstrangelyfamiliarwhileabout percentofitsresidentsconstituteaLindendollarwealthyminority,therestlanguishinvirtualpovertyVirtualpovertyis,ofcourse,notthesameasactualpovertyPlayingSecondLiferequiresacomputerandabroadbandconnection,whichinitselflimitsaccesstotheupperpercentilesofglobalwealthThemajorityofSecondLife’spopulationareintheirtwenties,evenlydividedbygender,livinginEurope,theUnitedStates,orJapan(themostactiveplayers,however,areintheCaymanIslands,anotorioushavenforshadyfinancialcapital,suggestingLindendollarshavebecomeameansofmoneylaundering)(Aua,b)Overpercentholdacollegedegree,mostmakeatleast$,peryear,andpercentearn$,annually(Aua)ThisisademographicthatattractscorporatemarketersandfillsthestreetsofSecondLifecitieswithfamiliarlogosApple,Adidas,Nike,Nissan,Volkswagen,Toyota,AmericanApparel,CBS,Dell,SunMicrosystems,andmanyotheractualcompanieshaveaninworldpresence,installingnotjustbillboardsbutingamestoreswhereyoucanpurchasevirtualequivalentsofofflineproducts,supposedlystimulatingactualsales,andcertainlykeepingpropertyfeesflowingintoLindenLabs’coffers,buildingthecompany’scurrent$millioncapitalizationMaybeyouweretoldtojoinSecondLife:employersareembracingitasa“fun”platformfortrainingworkersandconductingmeetingsIBMownsseveral“privateislands”thatitusesforworkgroups(Whyte)Howeveryoucametoenterthisnewdimension,yourpersonalizedavatarispowerednotjustbymouseclicksbutbycomputerserversthat,accordingtooneestimate,annuallyuseabout,kilowattsofelectricityperSecondLiferesident,asmuchasisconsumedbyanaverageactualBrazilian,andgeneratingaboutasmuchCOasdoesa,milejourneyinanSUV(Carr)InhabitantsofSecondLifeare,inotherwords,classdivided,propertyowning,commodityexchanging,currencytrading,networking,energyconsumingsubjectsofacomprehensivelycapitalistorderWelcometoyoursecondlifemuchlikethefirstThisisnotenoughforyouYouwantavirtuallifethatismoreadventurous,morechallengingYouwanttobeallthatyoucanFrustratedbyyourfailedescapeattempt,yousignupforanothernetworkedgame:America’sArmyNowyouareintheAfghanmountainsItisthemiddleofthenightYoursquadhasbeenassignedtoIntroductionxiiiassaultaterroristtrainingcampandsecureacomputerterminalstoringvaluableintelligenceinformationAsariflemanwiththendBattalion,ndInfantryRegiment,itisyourjobtopenetratetheenemycompound,eliminatinganyresistancealongthewayYouturnonyournightvisiongogglesTheallclearsignalcomesthroughontheradioYouchargethecompoundWhenyou’realmostattheentrance,tracersstarttoflyoveryourheadAgrenadeexplodestoyourleft,takingoutoneofyourbuddiesDuckingbehindalargerock,youspotmuzzleflashcomingfromawindowonthesecondfloorYouraiseyourMAassaultrifleandfireathreeroundburstAterroristfallsoutofthewindowlikearagdollInvigoratedbyyourfirstkill,yougetupandrushforwardagainAsyoupassthroughadoor,thereisanothereruptionofgunfireSuddenlyyou’rehitThosetediousroundsof“BasicTraining”youhadtogrindthroughbeforegettingtoactualcombatclearlyweren’tthoroughenoughDownloadedoversevenmilliontimes(VerklinandKanner,)sinceitsreleaseontheFourthofJuly,,America’sArmyisanonlinefirstpersonshooterintendedtoputintoplayableformthemilitaryserviceperformedbysomeofthenearlythreemillionactivesoldiersandreservistsemployedbytheUnitedStatesMoneyisnomatterinAmerica’sArmyitisfreetoplayonline,courtesyofapubliclyfunded,multimilliondollarinvestmentbytheUSDepartmentofDefenseAmorerecentadditiontotheAmerica’sArmyWebsiteis“RealHeroes,”whichincludesalistoftheaccomplishmentsofsoldiersfromIraqandAfghanistanwhohaveearnedawardsforvalor,andgamerscanreadprofilesorwatchvideointerviewsofsoldierstalkingabouttheirchildhoodandmilitaryexperiencesAsyouloginandoutfromyourskirmishviathehomepageofAmerica’sArmy,youhavetheopportunitytolinkdirectlytotheWebsitegoarmycomTwentyeightpercentofallvisitorstoAmerica’sArmy’sWebpageclickthrough(Aua)ItisamajorrecruitmentsitefortheUSArmy,onethatreportedlyhasahighersuccessrateinattractingenlistmentsthananyothermethodThebattleyouexperiencedasacatharticbloodbath,abitoffun,isfortheworld’sundisputedarmedsuperpoweraseriouspublicrelationsdevicetargetedatagenerationofgameplayersandintendedtosolvethecrisisofamilitarystrugglingtomeetitsintaketargetsforthefatalfrontlinesofthewaronterrorSecondLifeandAmerica’sArmyarebothhighlysuccessfulgamesRecently,however,therehavebeensometroublesinthesevirtualxivIntroductiondomainssmalldisturbancestothecommercialeconomyoftheone,totherecruitmentluresoftheotherThecorporateinfluxtoSecondLifeinvitedbyLindenLabsprovokeddissentfromplayerswhosawitasaviolationofthelibertarianethicthattheybelievedinformed“their”virtualworldOnthedaythatIBM’sCEOappearedingame,theElfKing,monarchoftheinfluentialElfClan,abdicatedinprotestActsofanticorporatesatire,spoof,andsabotagehavebeenrife:aCopyBotprogramranamokwithintellectualproperty,cloningcopyrighteditemsinacornucopianfrenzy,andaguerrillaLiberationArmyvaporizedaReebokstorewithnuclearweaponsAndwhileitsometimesseemedthatLindenLabscoulduseabitofhelpfromAmerica’sArmy,thePentagon’sgamewasitselfdisruptedInMarch,onthethirdanniversaryoftheIraqinvasion,theartistandprofessorJosephDelappeoftheUniversityofNevadaloggedinundertheusername“deadinIraq”andbeganusingthechatchanneltotransmitthename,age,servicebranch,anddateofdeathofrealsoldierskilledintheoccupation(Clarren)Meanwhile,backinSecondLife,thoughelfinprotesthadn’twardedoffBigBlue,thingsweregettingvirtuallygrittierOnSeptember,,IBM’s“corporatecampus”inSecondLifewasthesiteofadigitalprotestorganizedbyaninternationallaborunionsupportingstrikingItalianIBMworkerspromptingonejournalistinSecondLifetoask,“Avatarbasedworkersunite”(Auc)ThesewerenotjustfancifulexuberancesbutturbulencesattheedgeofvirtualworldsembeddedinwartimecapitalismWhichbringsustotheargumentofthisbookThe“militainment”ofAmerica’sArmyandthe“ludocapitalism”ofSecondLifedisplaytheinteractionofvirtualgamesandactualpowerinthecontextofEmpire,anapparatuswhosetwopillarsarethemilitaryandthemarket(BurstonDibbell)ConsiderthatthevirtualitiesofSecondLifefeedbackintotheactualitiesofcapitalviathemediumoftheLindendollar,andthatthevirtualitiesofAmerica’sArmycycleintotheactualitiesofcombatviatheWeblinktotheUSArmyhomepageAdd,moreover,thatthetwogamesareconnected:thehighenergyconsumptionandconsumergoodsofSecondLifearewhatAmerica’sArmyrecruitssoldierstofightanddieforThetwogamesreassert,rehearse,andreinforceEmpire’stwinvitalsubjectivitiesofworkerconsumerandsoldiercitizen:SecondLiferecapitulatespatternsofonlineshopping,socialnetworking,anddigitallaborcrucialtoglobalcapitalismAmerica’sArmyisbutoneamonganarsenalIntroductionxvofsimulatorsthatthemilitarizedstatesofcapitalpreeminentlytheUnitedStatesdependontoprotecttheirpowerandusetopromote,prepare,andpreemptivelypracticedeadlyoperationsincomputerizedbattlespace(Blackmore)YettheexamplesofdigitaldissentinSecondLifeandAmerica’sArmyshowthatnotallgamersacceptthedominionofwhatJamesDerDerian()terms“MIMENET”themilitaryindustrialmediaentertainmentnetworkMinorgesturesthattheyare,theseprotestsneverthelesssuggestaroutefromgamevirtualitiestoanothersortofactuality,thatofthemyriadactivismsoftwentyfirstcenturyradicalsseekingtoconstruct

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