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首页 Five Chapters on Rhetoric Character, Action, Th…

Five Chapters on Rhetoric Character, Action, Things, Nothing, and Art.pdf

Five Chapters on Rhetoric Chara…

上传者: acacgogogo 2012-04-02 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Five Chapters on Rhetoric Character, Action, Things, Nothing, and Artpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含CharaCteraCtionthingsnothingandArtMichaelSKochinFiveChAptersonrhetoriCfive符等。

CharaCteraCtionthingsnothingandArtMichaelSKochinFiveChAptersonrhetoriCfivechaptersonrhetoricFrontqxd:PMPageiFrontqxd:PMPageiifivechaptersonrhetoriccharacter,action,things,nothing,andartMichaelSKochinThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPressUniversityPark,PennsylvaniaFrontqxd:PMPageiiilibraryofcongresscataloginginpublicationdataKochin,MichaelShalom,–Fivechaptersonrhetoric:character,action,things,nothing,andartMichaelSKochinpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexSummary:“ExaminesconceptsforpersuasivecommunicationExplorestheartofrhetoricandhowitaidsinclariWcationwhenwespeaktocommunicate,butalsohelpstoprotectusfromclaritywhenwespeaktomaintainourconnectionstoothers”Providedbypublisherisbn(cloth:alkpaper)PoliticaloratoryUnitedStatesRhetoricUnitedStatesPersuasion(Rhetoric)ITitlePNPKdcCopyrightThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaPublishedbyThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPress,UniversityPark,PAThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPressisamemberoftheAssociationofAmericanUniversityPressesItisthepolicyofThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityPresstouseacidfreepaperThisbookisprintedonNaturesNatural,containingpostconsumerwaste,andmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterial,ansiz–Frontqxd:PMPageiv,(,hcrevxsbv)uybryvanirxkaurfzkv”xa,ukxfz“y,hpkskhprhmc,hgmcnvkugpckpbaInmemoryofCaptMosheTaranto(idf),age,killedinactionNovemberCombatengineershaveanunofWcial,verycynicalandveryancientmotto:“Firstwedig’em,thenwediein’em,”tosupplementtheirofWcialmotto:“Cando!”BothmottoesareliteraltruthrobertaheinleinFrontqxd:PMPagevFrontqxd:PMPageviAcknowledgmentsixIntroductionCharacterActionThingsNothingArtPostscript:HowtoBegintoAnalyzeaSpeechSelectedBibliographyIndexcontentsFrontqxd:PMPageviiFrontqxd:PMPageviii“Theeasiestwaytoguaranteefailurewithanyperceptiveaudience,”WayneBoothremindsus,“istobeseeninadvanceasanexpertinrhetoric”WhateverfailingsIhaveasastudentofrhetoricaredespitetheeffortsoftheinstitutions,colleagues,andfriendswhohavedonesomuchtohelpmeIWrstbeganthinkingaboutthethemesofthisbookasaSocialSciencesandHumanitiesResearchCouncilPostdoctoralFellowattheUniversityofTorontoandwassupportedatsubsequentstagesbyanAlonFellowshipfromIsrael’sCouncilforHigherEducation,aDanDavidPrizeResearchScholarshipfromtheDanDavidPrize,andaLauranceSRockefellerVisitingFellowshipatPrincetonUniversity’sCenterforHumanValuesIoweagreatdealtothestudentswhosubjectedtheseideastosometimeshostilebutalwaysseriousandthoughtfulcritiqueinmycoursesonrhetoricatTelAvivandYale,andIalsobeneWtedfromthecommentsandquestionsofseminaraudiencesatTelAviv,Princeton,andYale,andpanelaudiencesattheandmeetingsoftheMidwestPoliticalScienceAssociationGeorgeAnastaplo,NormaThompson,JosephMacfarland,KatherinePhilippakis,AlasdairMcIntyre,CliffordOrwin,AlkisKontos,DanielDoneson,AlbertoSpektorowski,EyalChowers,DavidSchaps,TamarMeisels,ArleneSaxonhouse,JerrySchneewind,RoslynWeiss,DanielMarkovitz,AdamKissel,PaulPerritore,WalterNicgorski,CatherineZuckert,andLevisKochinhelpedwithvariouspartsofthestoryNathalieMoiseservedasmyresearchassistantforabriefbutvitalperiodWadeGungoll,YitzhakHarari,ZeevEmmerich,CharlesBlattberg,GadBarzilai,IvanDonchenko,MeirFenster,andAnnaKochinreaddraftsofFiveChapters,andMJDevaney,thecopyeditorforPennStatePress,didmuchattheeleventhhourtoclarifybothexpressionsandthoughtsIwasencouragedatcrucialmomentsbythethreeSteves:SteveLenzner,SteveElkin,andSteveFullerWereitnotfortheworkofIradKimhiandofJosiahOberthebookcouldnothavebeenconceivedacknowledgmentsFrontqxd:PMPageixSomeofthematerialinchapterwaspreviouslypublishedin“IndividualNarrativeandPoliticalCharacter,”ReviewofMetaphysics,no(June):–CopyrightbyReviewofMetaphysicsReprintedwithpermissionMaterialinchapterwaspreviouslypublishedin“TimeandJudgmentinDemosthenes’DeCorona,”PhilosophyandRhetoric,no():–CopyrightbyPennsylvaniaStateUniversityPressxacknowledgmentsFrontqxd:PMPagexThefundamentalelementsofpublicpersuasionmightappearmostclearlyinapublicspeechthatlaysouttheprinciplesofpublicspeakingToWndsuchaspeechwewoulddowelltolookbacktoanagewhenpublicspeakingandrhetoricaleducationweremorehighlyesteemedthantheyaretodayandsiftthroughthespeechesandwritingsofthosewhowereconsideredbytheeducatedtasteofthosetimestobethemosteloquentandpersuasivespeakersFollowingtheseprinciples,wemightlightonthenotedEnglishadvocateLordBrougham’sessayonDemosthenesortheyouthfulWinstonChurchill’sshortsketch“TheScaffoldingofRhetoric”Butforaconcisestatementofthecentraltruthsofpersuasionwecandonobetterthantheaddress“AdamsandJefferson”byDanielWebsteror,ashewasknowntocontemporariesenthralledbyhisoratory,“Godlike”DanielWebsterWebster,atthatpointaformerNewHampshirecongressmanandleadingmemberoftheBostonbar,waschosentoeulogizeJohnAdamsandThomasJeffersonatamemorialmeetinginFaneuilHallonAugust,lessthanamonthaftertheirdeathsontheWftiethanniversaryoftheDeclarationofIndependence,JulyTopresentthelifeandpubliccharacterofJohnAdams,WebsterinventedaspeechAdamsmighthavegiveninthedebateonthequestionofindependenceintheContinentalCongressWebsterhadtoinventaspeechtoputinAdams’smouth,sinceevenbyWebster’stimethegreatspeechesoftherevolutionaryperiod,mostofwhichhadneverbeenwrittendown,hadlargelybeenlosttomemoryJefferson’sWinstonSChurchill,“TheScaffoldingofRhetoric,”inRandolphSChurchill,companionvolume,pt,toYouth:–,volofWinstonSChurchill(London:Heinemann,),–HenryBrougham,“ACriticalDissertationupontheEloquenceoftheAncients,”inSpeechesofHenry,LordBrougham,vols(Edinburgh:AandCBlack,),:–DanielWebster,“ADiscourseinCommemorationoftheLivesandServicesofJohnAdamsandThomasJefferson,”inWebster’sGreatSpeeches(Boston:Little,Brown,),–BarnetBaskerville,ThePeople’sVoice:TheOratorinAmericanSociety(Lexington:UniversityPressofKentucky,),chapintroductionFrontqxd:PMPagepubliccharacterhadlessneedofWebster’spowersofinvention,sinceJeffersoncouldclaimthecentralpoliticalactoftheRevolution,theDeclarationofIndependenceasWebsterhimselfsaysinthespeech,“themeritofthispaperisMrJefferson’s”ByinventingaspeechthatWebsterclaimstobeexemplaryofAdams,Websteriseffectively,andprincipally,praisinghimselfWebstershowsAdamstobeamasteroftrueeloquenceinaspeechthatdisplays,atitsglitteringsurface,Webster’sowneloquenceButWebster’sprefacetohisWctiveAdamsianspeechprovidesatheoryofrhetoricinitself:TheeloquenceofMrAdamsresembledhisgeneralcharacter,andformed,indeed,apartofitItwasbold,manly,andenergeticandsuchthecrisisrequiredWhenpublicbodiesaretobeaddressedonmomentousoccasions,whengreatinterestsareatstake,andstrongpassionsexcited,nothingisvaluableinspeechfartherthanasitisconnectedwithhighintellectualandmoralendowmentsClearness,force,andearnestnessarethequalitieswhichproduceconvictionTrueeloquence,indeed,doesnotconsistinspeechItcannotbebroughtfromfarLaborandLearningmaytoilforit,buttheywilltoilinvainWordsandphrasesmaybemarshaledineveryway,buttheycannotcompassitItmustexistintheman,inthesubject,andintheoccasionAffectedpassion,intenseexpression,thepompofdeclamation,allmayaspiretoittheycannotreachitItcomes,ifitcomesatall,liketheoutbreakingofafountainfromtheearth,ortheburstingforthofvolcanicWres,withspontaneous,original,nativeforceThegracestaughtintheschools,thecostlyornamentsandstudiedcontrivancesofspeech,shockanddisgustmen,whentheirownlives,andthefateoftheirwives,theirchildren,andtheircountry,hangonthedecisionofthehourThenwordshavelosttheirpower,rhetoricisvain,andallelaborateoratorycontemptibleThenpatriotismiseloquentthenselfdevotioniseloquentTheclearconception,outrunningthedeductionsoflogic,thehighpurpose,theWrmresolve,thedauntlessspirit,speakingonthetongue,beamingfromtheeye,informingeveryfeatureandurgingthewholemanonward,rightonwardtohisobjectthis,thisiseloquenceorrather,itissomethingfivechaptersonrhetoricSeeJamesMFarrell,“TheSpeechWithin:TropeandPerformanceinDanielWebster’sEulogytoAdamsandJefferson,”inRhetoricandPoliticalCultureinNineteenthCenturyAmerica,edThomasWBenson(EastLansing:MichiganStateUniversityPress,),Frontqxd:PMPagegreaterandhigherthanalleloquence,itisaction,noble,sublime,godlikeactionWebstershowshowthistrueeloquenceresultsnotmerelyinwordsorspeechesbutinactionWejudgeaspeech,Websterteaches,bythecharacterofthespeakerasdisplayedinthespeech,whenweperceivethespeaker’s“clearconception,”“highpurpose,”“Wrmresolve,”and“dauntlessspirit”ThereisanartofrhetorictaughtintheschoolsthisAdamshadsurelymasteredinhisyearsofformaleducation,butschoolrhetoricinitselfyieldsonly“vainoratory”Notalloratoryisvain:ineulogizingAdamsandpraisinghimself,WebsteraimstoteachusthedifferencebetweenvainoratorymerehumanwordsandtrueeloquencegodlikeactionTrueeloquenceisrarebecausemosthumanthingsaredeterminedintheircoursesbypreexistingrelationshipsratherthanbycommunicatedinformationasthesociologistofscienceBrunoLatourwrites,itisonlyatcertainmomentsthat“thestrengthofawordmayswayalliancesanddemonstratesomething,wherevery,veryrarelyeverythingelsebeingequal,someonespeaksandpersuades”Yetthroughspeechandwriting,andthroughconsciousreXectionontheavailablemeansofpersuasion,wecanreweavecommunityandthusreconWguretheworldandourrelationswithinitWetalktomaintainarelation,andwetalktocommunicatesomethingtothosewithwhomwesharearelationTosustainoursocialliveswefrequentlyrefusetoassessthestatementsmadetous“That’sinteresting,”wereplytothecrankatthecocktailpartyAlargepartofmyworkinthisstudywillbetodeterminetheextenttowhichspeechandwritingareusedtoprotecthumanrelationshipsfromthethreatofeverchangingfactsandcircumstancesAsGoethewrote,“WepolitelymisunderstandotherssothattheyshallmisunderstandusinintroductionWebster,“JohnAdamsandThomasJefferson,”BrunoLatour,“Irreductions,”,inThePasteurizationofFrance,transAlanSheridanandJohnLaw(Cambridge,Mass:HarvardUniversityPress,),–ThatitisverydifWculttochangeminds,muchlessbehavior,throughwordsiswellknowntobothadvertisingprofessionalsandparents,butthisdifWcultyseemsnottobetakenseriouslybycommunicationscholarsandpsychologistsstudyingpersuasionexperimentallycontrastMichaelSchudson,Advertising:TheUneasyPersuasion(NewYork:BasicBooks,),andHerbertEKrugman,“TheImpactofTelevisionAdvertising:LearningWithoutInvolvement,”PublicOpinionQuarterly,no():–,withRebeccaLCollins,ShelleyETaylor,JoanneVWood,andSuzanneCThompson,“TheVividnessEffect:ElusiveorIllusory”JournalofExperimentalSocialPsychology,no():–SeeSteveFuller,Philosophy,Rhetoric,andtheEndofKnowledge:TheComingofScienceandTechnologyStudies(Madison:UniversityofWisconsinPress,),Frontqxd:PMPagereturn”Humanrelationsarecomplex,mutable,subjecttodecayovertime,andthereforefragileGoethe’spointisthatwepreservethesecomplexrelationsbyrefusingtojudgeoneanotherbythetruthorsigniWcanceofourstatementsThemostextremeexampleofabstainingfromjudgmentinordertomendthefrayingbondsthatconnectuswitheachothercanbefoundinthepsychotherapeuticsettingInHarukiMurakami’snovelNorwegianWood,themaincharactervisitsthepatientsinaliberallyadministeredmentalhospital:“Whatdoyoupeopletalkabout”IaskedReiko,whoseemednotquitetogetmymeaning“WhatdowetalkaboutJustordinarythingsWhathappenedtoday,orbookswe’veread,ortomorrow’sweather,youknowDon’ttellmeyou’rewonderingifpeoplejumptotheirfeetandshoutstufflike‘It’llraintomorrowifapolarbeareatsthestarstonight!’”“No,no,ofcoursenot,”Isaid“Iwasjustwonderingwhatallthesequietconversationswereabout”“It’saquietplace,sopeopletalkquietly,”saidNaokoShemadeaneatpileofWshbonesattheedgeofherplateanddabbedathermouthwithahandkerchief“There’snoneedtoraiseyourvoicehereYoudon’thavetoconvinceanybodyofanything,andyoudon’thavetoattractanyone’sattention”ThisisanexampleofconversationwithoutanycommunicativeinterestwhatsoeverthehumaninterestinsayingsomethingofrelevancetoourquotidianconcernsisdissipatedbytherulesandstructuretheasylumprovidesButthiscompletesuspensionofinterestedmotivesfortalkingisonlypossibleinanasylumcutofffromtheworld,whosepatientsarenotselfgoverningintheirrelationtotheoutsideworldForthoseofusoutsidetheasylum,intermsofourlifelivedinlanguage,thewaythatthepatientsgooninMurakami’snovelisaformofdeath,sometimestemporary,sometimespermanentMaxHorkheimerhassuggestedthatwelooktophilosophy“tokeepthecourseofhumanityfromresemblingthemeaninglessroundoftheasyluminmates’recreationhour”Inthisbook,IlooknottofivechaptersonrhetoricJohannWolfgangvonGoethe,TorquatoTasso–,quotedinNietzsche,“RichardWagnerinBayreuth,”inUntimelyMeditations,edDanielBreazeale,transRJHollingdale(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,),HarukiMurakami,NorwegianWood,transJayRubin(NewYork:Vintage,),MaxHorkheimer,EclipseofReason(repr,NewYork:Continuum,),Frontqxd:PMPagephilosophyassuch,asHorkheimersuggests,buttoourcollectiveprojectoflivingtogetherfreelyintheworldIlooktopoliticsandtothefundamentalstructuresofpersuasionthatenablethisprojecttobegenuinelyshared,thatenabletheprojecttobemorethanthemanipulationofthemanybythefewortheoneTounderstandtheconceptofcommunicativeinterestwemustunderstandhowsomethingparticular,somefactorproposal,emergestoprominenceoutofthemushof“information”How,asWalterLippmannasked,can“newsseparateitselffromtheoceanofpossibletruth”Ourencounterwiththefacts,orderedandcongealedoutoftheoceanofpossibletruth,ismediatedAgenuinelydisinterestedparty,onewhohadnointerestinwhatuseitsaudiencemadeofthefacts,wouldhavetohavenointeresteveninhisorherownreputationasareliableproviderofrelevantfactsandsowouldbeofnousetohisorheraudienceWethereforehavenochoicebuttogetourinformationfrominterestedandthusbiasedsources,andwemustendeavortodiscounttheinterestmotivatingthatmediationAsourcecanrefusetotakealineopenlythisishowthesourceletsthefactsspeakforthemselvesYettheinformationonepresentsshouldalreadybeWlteredbytheinterestsofthosetowhomoneispresentingitOtherwiseonewillnotmerelybediscounted,ashappenstoLippmann’sbiasedspeakerrather,ashappensfrequentlytoallspeakers,onewillbeignoredToexplorethepublicsphereorthecommon,IfocusontwoWeldsofexamplesofthecommon:politicalrhetoricandscientiWccommunicationPoliticalrhetoricisillustrativebecausethepublicspeakerlives“inthegreatestfameandinthemiddleofthelightofpublicthings,”asQuintilianwroteBoththescientiWcandthepoliticalcommunitiesareinstantiationsofthecommonthatis,structuresthroughwhichspeakersandwriterspersuadeandarepersuadedForourpurposesinthisbookwhatintroductionWalterLippmann,PublicOpinion(repr,NewYork:TheFreePress,),Lippmann,PublicOpinion,,–contrastLeoStrauss,TheCityandMan(Chicago:RandMcNally,),–,citedinRobertHowse,“LeoStraussManofWarStraussianism,Iraq,andtheNeocons”(unpublishedMS,UniversityofMichiganLawSchool,availableathttp:facultylawumichedurhowseDraftsandPublicationsstraussiraqpdf,accessedApril)Lippmann,PublicOpinion,Inmaximacelebritateetinmediareipublicaelucevivendumest(Quintilian,Institutiooratoria)AlltranslationsofextractsfromInstitutiooratoriaaremine,exceptwhereotherwisenoted“Whendoneproperly,”SteveFullerhaswritten,“thephilosophyofscienceisnothingotherthantheapplicationofpoliticalphilosophytoasegmentofsociety”(SocialEpistemologyBloomington:IndianaUniversityPress,,)Frontqxd:PMPageisfundamentalaboutpoliticalinstitutionsisthatinthemweholdofWcialsaccountablefortheirofWcialacts,intheparadigmaticcasebyconstitutingdeliberativeassemblieswithlegislativepowersWhatisfundamentalaboutmodernscienceasanexampleofthecommonisthatithasbeenenormouslysuccessfulnotonlyinorganizingcommunitiesofthehumanandthenonhuman,asBrunoLatourhasemphasizedthroughouthiswork,butalsoinorganizingcommunicationaboutthingsamongmenandwomenThecentralinstitutionsofmodernsciencearethelearnedjournalandtheindependentscientiWcassociation,bothrealizedtogetherintheRoyalSociety,foundedinLondoninDavidLandeswritesofChinesesciencethatwhatdistinguishesitshistorymorethananythingelsefromthatofWesternscienceisthatthescientiWcandtechnicalresultsachievedinChinainoneplaceandtimewerenotcommunicatedorhandedoverinanyorganizedfashiontocontemporaneousorsubsequentinquirersThesameresultswererepeatedlyrecreatedthoughsomeChineseinvestigatorsweredoubtlessgiants,inNewton’sphrase,al

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