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首页 The Syntax and Semantics of discourse markers.P…

The Syntax and Semantics of discourse markers.PDF

The Syntax and Semantics of dis…

上传者: acacgogogo 2012-04-02 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《The Syntax and Semantics of discourse markerspdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含TheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkersContinuumStudiesinTheoreticalLingui符等。

TheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkersContinuumStudiesinTheoreticalLinguisticsEditedbySiobhanChapman,ReaderandChairoftheEnglishLanguageGroup,UniversityofLiverpool,UKContinuumStudiesinTheoreticalLinguisticspublishesworkattheforefrontofpresentdaydevelopmentsinthefieldTheseriesisopentostudiesfromallbranchesoftheoreticallinguisticsandtothefullrangeoftheoreticalframeworksTitlesintheseriespresentoriginalresearchthatmakesanewandsignificantcontributionandareaimedprimarilyatscholarsinthefield,butareclearandaccessible,makingthemusefulalsotostudents,tonewresearchersandtoscholarsinrelateddisciplinesOthertitlesintheseries:AgreementRelationsUnified,HamidOualiGrammarofSpokenEnglishDiscourse,GerardO’GradyNeuralNetworkModelofLexicalOrganisation,MichaelFortescueTheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkersContinuumStudiesinTheoreticalLinguisticsMiriamUrgellesCollContinuumInternationalPublishingGroupTheTowerBuildingMaidenLaneYorkRoadSuiteLondon,SENXNewYork,NYwwwcontinuumbookscomMiriamUrgellesCollAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,oranyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpriorpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersMiriamUrgellesCollhasassertedherrightundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,tobeidentifiedasAuthorofthisworkBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:(hardcover)LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressTypesetbyNewgenImagingSystemsPvtLtd,Chennai,IndiaPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbytheMPGBooksGroupContentsIntroductionBackgroundAdverbsDiscourseMarkersAnywayDiscussionHPSGandSDRTHPSG:ASystemofSignsMinimalRecursionSemanticsDiscourseRepresentationTheorySegmentedDiscourseRepresentationTheoryAlternativeFormalDiscourseModelsConclusionAnyway:AnInformalAnalysisIntroductionDiscourseContinuityvsDiscourseDiscontinuityAmbiguityvsVaguenessTheSyntaxofAnywayTheSemanticsofAnywayCooccurrencewithOtherAdverbsTheMeaningofAnyandWaySynonymsConclusionAnyway:AFormalAnalysisAnyway:FormalLexicalEntryAdverbialExamplesDiscourseMarkerExamplesConclusionNotesBibliographyIndexThispageintentionallyleftblankChapterIntroductionInthisbook,wewillattempttoprovideasyntacticandsemanticformalanalysisofdiscoursemarkersInparticular,wewillfocusonanywayanditsfunctionsDiscoursemarkersgenerallybelongtothewordclassofadverbsInChapter,wewillobservethattheadverbcategoryisvariedinmeaning,andthattherehavebeenvariousattemptstoclassifydifferentadverbsindifferentcategoriesinregardstomeaningAuthorshavethenrelateddifferentmeaningstodifferentsyntacticbehaviorItseemsthatmeaningaffectswhereanadverbappearsinasentence,whichotheradverbsitcancooccurwith,etcInthecaseofanyway,itappearstohaveageneralcommonmeaning,however,itoccupiesdifferentpositionsinthesentence,andduetothisdifferentoccurrenceithasadifferenteffectindiscourseWhenitappearsininitialsentenceposition,itsfunctionistocloseatopicordigressionOntheotherhand,whenitappearsattheendofthesentence,ithasdifferentadverbialmeaningsthatconnecttheutteranceitappearsinwithapreviousutteranceInChapter,wewillalsoreviewtypesofclassificationsofadverbsinordertotestwhichcategoriescancooccurwithanywayTheconclusionsofthesepossiblecooccurrenceswillbedrawninChapterAnywaysharescertainprototypicalcharacteristicsassociatedtodiscoursemarkers(WewillreviewrelevantliteratureondiscoursemarkersinChapter)Syntactically,itisintegratedwiththerestofthesentenceanditcanbeomittedwithoutaffectingthegrammaticalityofthesentenceSemantically,itdoesnotaffectthetruthconditionsofthepropositionitappearsinInregardstoanyway,nearlyallliteraturedistinguishesbetweenadiscoursemarkeruseandanadverbialorpropositionalmeaninguseThenumberoffunctionsandmeaningsanywayhasisproblematicThefirstsetofexampleshereillustratesthedismissiveaspectthatanywaybringstodiscourseTheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkers()AndwewerecominginaroundthebacksideThelittletrailthatgoesuptherewasaroundthebacksideofthetwocampsAnyway,hegotuptherekindofbetweenwhereourcabinswereandallatonceheyelled‘Getback!Getback’(Ferrara,)()Iwasinthefifthgrade,orsixthgrade,orsomethingandIwasaBrownieIwasaBrownieatthetimesoImusthavebeenlikeinthefifthgradeNoIwasagirlscoutIcan’trememberwhatIwasnowAnyway,wewentcampinginFebruaryanditwascold(Ferrara,)()HisdadwalkedinHisdadsaidwescrewedup,andthatwejustlostourmotorcyclesAndGardlandstartscryingIcouldonlythinkwhatIwouldsaytomyparentsIshouldsaythatIlostmymotorcycle,itgotconfiscatedAnyway,we’resittingthereandIthinkthattheotherguyagreeswithGardland’sdadIthinktheywerescrewingusAnyway,theytoldustheywouldconfiscatethebikesifwegotcaughtagainAndtheygaveusourmotorcyclesback(Ferrara,)()SothenextdaywhenIwalkedintheydidn’trealizethatIwasthesamepersonAndsoIstartedspeakingtothemTheyhadspentthewholedaywithmethedaybeforeandIwalkinthenextdayandtheydidn’tknowwhoIwas((laugh))Anyway,theyrazzedmeallweeklongaboutmyTexasclothes(Ferrara,)()TheygotupearlyThat’srareforthemAnyway,theyleftatnoon(Ferrara,)()aJoseph:AndIjumpedoutofbedIwasstarknakedIyelledatthetopofmyvoiceAndhefelloutthewindowAndEdwinawasjumpingandkickingShethoughtI’dgonenutsbDon:((laugh))cJoseph:Anyway,bythattimeitwasalmostdaybreakHe’dchosenanoddhourforhisillegalentrySoIsaid‘I’vekilledaman’(Ferrara,)()aNader:WeweregoingthroughcustomsAndsomeagentsaskedournationality,becausetheysawourpassportsTheyaskedifwewereIranianMymumanddadsaid‘yes’Ididn’tanswercauseIwasalittlekidbJavier:HowoldwereyoucNader:IwaseightAnyway,theytookustotheiroffice(Ferrara,)Fromalltheseexamples,wecanseethatanywaydismissesaparticularissueunderdiscussioninordertointroduceanewtopic,orreturntoaIntroductionprevioustopicAscanbeobserved,thishappensbothinmonologueanddialogueIn(),thespeakerfinishesadigressiononabackgrounddescriptionofthesceneryThisdigressionismarkedbytheuseofanywayThefollowingutteranceisthereforeconsideredthemainstoryTheexamplein()isverysimilarinthesensethattheinabilitytorecollecttheactivityandageofthespeakerisconsideredadigressionbythesamespeakerwhensheusesanywaytocontinueretellingherstoryInexample(),thespeakeristellingastorywhenheexpressesanopinioninregardstothatstory(ie,Ithinktheywerescrewingus),thisisregardedasadigressionwhenthespeakeruttersanywayrightafterit,andhereturnstothemaintopicofthestoryThedismissedcommentin()isthelaughterthatthestorygeneratesThisoccursin()aswellFinally,in(),thedismissedcomment,orasidetothestoryisthequestionaskedbyoneoftheparticipantsinregardstotheageoftellerofthestorywhentheeventsoccurredThefunctionofanywayappearingatthestartofanutteranceisclearHowever,thelargestdiscrepanciesoccurwhenanywayisusedasanadverbial,thatis,whenanywayisusedattheendofasentenceThereseemstobefourdifferentuses:questiondismissive,dismissive,contrastive,andmodificativeAquestiondismissiveanywayisusedinquestions,thatis,whenanywayappearsinawhinterrogative,anditisisolatedfromtherestofthetextThatis,thistypeofanywaydoesnotseemtobeconnectedtoanypreviouspieceofdiscourseTheroleofanywayinthiscaseistobringimportancetothetopicofthequestionExamplesofanywayasaquestiondismissiveare:()HowisKimanyway(Owen,)()How’sDesanyway(Owen,)()Howdidhegetthemanyway(Lenk,)()Whoownsthewateranyway(wwwtexaspolicycomtppnarchivephpcid=Accessed)()Whatisemoanyway(http:roomfullofshadowsblogspotcomAccessed)Thefirstthreeexampleswereutteredinanongoingconversation,andtheaimofthesequestionswastoshiftthetopicThatis,tostoptheissueunderdiscussionuptothatpoint,andchangeittothetopicofthequestioninitselfOntheotherhand,thelasttwoexamplesweretitlesofblogsandorwebpages,thereforestartingatopicafterotherissueshadbeendiscussedpreviouslyTheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkersAdismissiveanywayhasbeenwidelyacceptedanddescribedbypreviousauthorsThisusealwaysconnectstopreviousdiscourse,asthepreviouspieceofdiscourseiswhatisbeingdismissed,orconsideredanunimportantmatterThismeaningisprobablytheclosesttothediscoursemarkeruseWedismissapreviouscommentasnotrelevantforthematterinhand,orattheveryleast,notasimportantasthefollowingutteranceApossibleparaphraseofthisuseisregardless(aswewillseeinChapter,apossiblesynonymoftheanywayasanadverbial)Examplesofdismissiveanywayare:()Icouldn’tgotothepartycauseIwasoncodeineMymumwouldn’thaveletmeanyway(Ferrara,)()TheeffectsonastronautsofyearsinmicrogravityarethebiggestmysterytoresearchersJoeSharp,directorofspaceresearchatNASA’sAmesResearchLaboratoryexplains:‘NobodyhasthefoggiestideaoftheeffectofevenpercentorpercentofgravityforextendedperiodsPeoplewillprobablygoanyway’(SourceBNC:NewScientistIPCMagazinesLtdLondon())Inalltheseexamples,anywaycanbeparaphrasedwithregardlesspreservingthemeaningIn(),thefirstreasonfornotgoingtoapartyisthefactthatthespeakeristakingcodeineByusinganywayinthesecondutterance,thespeakerispointingoutthatevenifshehadnotbeentakingcodeine,themotherofthespeakerwouldnothavelethergotothepartySimilarly,in(),JoeSharpadmitsthatevenifpeopledonotknowabouttheeffectoflowgravityforlongperiodsoftime,peoplewillstillgotospaceAcontrastiveanywaycanbeparaphrasedbyatypicalcontrastivemarkersuchasneverthelessThisusealsoneedstorefertoapreviouspieceofdiscourseorutterancesinceitneedssomethingtocreatethecontrastwithExamplesofcontrastiveanywayare:()Shewasn’tsupposedtowearthenecklace,butshedidanyway(Ferrara,)()Youdon’tlookhurt,butyou’dbettergotothehospitalanyway(Ferrara,)()Hethoughtmaybehe’dmakesomesoupItseemedabsurd,everythingordinarydid,buthemadeitanyway(SourceBNC:TheFiveGatesofHellThomson,RupertBloomsburyPublishingLtdLondon(),–)()‘Oftenmenhavehitme,butthenatleasttheyhaven’thittheirfamiliesAndtheylivetothankme,andpraiseGodIhopethisyoungIntroductionmandoesthesame!’saidAngelwarmly‘Butitdoesn’tseemlikely’‘We’llhopeanyway,’saidMrClare(SourceBNC:Tessofthed’UrbervillesHardy,ThomasOxfordUniversityPressOxford(),–)ThecontrastoftheutterancescanbeobservedinalltheseexamplesInthemajority,anywayappearsinthesameutteranceasthecontrastiveconjunctionbutItseemsthatanywayreinforcesthecontrastexpressedbybutAmodificativeanywaymodifiesapreviousutteranceanditcanbeparaphrasedasatleast(eventhoughthiswouldoccupyadifferentpositioninthesentence)ThistypeofanywayallowsmodificationofthepreviousutterancebyaddingextrainformationtothatutteranceExamplesofmodificativeanywayare:()It’sattractedagrantwhichisthelargestamount,inthiscountryanyway()Here,itiscalledthethreeoneonegoingintoit,accordingtothismapanyway(Altenberg,)()HedoesnotfearpolicepursuitNotforthedrugs,anyway(SourceBNC:DeliriaHall,AlbynLeahSerpent’sTailLondon(),–)Inthesethreeexamples,theutterancewhereanywayoccurscontributestofurtherspecificationofthefirstutteranceThatis,in(),wespecifythatthegrantisthelargestinthatparticularcountryIn(),wespecifythatthatroadiscalledaccordingtothatparticularmapAnd,in(),wespecifythatthecharacterdoesnotfearpolicepursuitforthedrugsWehaveadiscoursemarkeruseofanywayandfourdifferentusesofitasanadverbial:questiondismissive,dismissive,contrastive,andmodificativeFirst,aquestiondismissiveanywaydoesnotseemtobeconnectedtoanypreviouspieceofdiscourseTheroleofanywayinthiscaseistoputimportanceinthequestionorissueathand,anddismisstherestasunimportantSecondly,adismissiveanywayisalwaysconnectedtoapreviouspieceofdiscourse,asthepreviouspieceofdiscourseiswhatisbeingdismissed,orconsideredanunimportantassumptionThismeaningistheclosesttothediscoursemarkeruse,asthediscoursemarkeralsodismissesachunkofdiscourseThirdly,acontrastiveanywaycanbeparaphrasedwithatypicalcontrastivemarkersuchasneverthelessNotethatthisuseneedstorefertoapreviouspieceofdiscourseorutterancesinceitneedsittomakeitacontrastwithFinally,amodificativeanywaymodifiesapreviousutteranceanditcanbeparaphrasedasatleastThistypeofanywayallowstomodifythepreviousutterancebyaddingextrainformationtothatutteranceTheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkersInthisbook,wewillusetheHPSGapproach(seeChapter)tosyntaxinordertogivealexicalentryforanywayThiswillallowustoexpressalllevelsofgrammarinasinglelexicalentryThisalsomeansthatwecanaddthediscourseeffectsofthisparticleinsideitsownlexicalentryFordiscourse,wewilluseSDRT(seeChapter)asadiscoursetheory,andwewillseethatanywayasanadverbialallowsfordiscoursecontinuity,andthereforeadjacentdiscoursecanbelinkedbydifferentrhetoricalrelationsTheserhetoricalrelations,however,arenotmonotonicallyinferredthroughtheuseofanyway,butthroughthecontentofdiscourseWewillalsonotethatthetypicaldiscoursemarkeruseofanywaypromptsforaclosingofapointofattachmentanditallowstouseapreviouspointofattachmentforrhetoricalrelations,oreven,itcanbringanewpointofattachmentindiscourseForthataim,wewillreviewspecificliteratureonanywayinChapterWewillalsoexplorepossiblesynonymsinChapterAndfinallyinChapter,wewillanalyzesyntacticandsemanticcharacteristicsofanywayInChaptersand,wewillmakejudgmentsonpragmaticandgrammaticalanomaliesThesejudgmentshavebeenmadebytakingintoaccountthejudgmentsofferedbyvariousnativespeakersofEnglish,inparticularnativespeakersfromtheSouthEastofEnglandandtheMidlandsaftertheywerepresentedwiththedataWewillconcludethisthesiswithaformalanalysisofthedifferentfunctionsofanywayinChapterChapterBackgroundThischapterreviewssomemajorliteratureonadverbsemanticsandsyntax,aswellasmajorliteratureondiscoursemarkersandinparticularreviewspreviousaccountsofanywayAdverbsIntroductionAdverbsarealexicalclasscharacterizedbyitsheterogeneity,makingtheirclassificationanddescriptionacomplexmatterTherehavebeenattemptstoclassifyadverbsaccordingtotheirtypeofmodification,andtheirsemanticsInthissection,westartwithadiscussionofthesemanticcategorizationofadverbsandwefollowwithadescriptionoftheirsyntax,reviewingvariouspreviousaccountsDespitethediversityofaccounts,thereseemstobesomegeneralitiesamongdifferentclassificationsanddescriptionsDuetothescopeofthisbook,wewillnotattemptourownclassification,oradeepevaluationoftheseapproachesOntheotherhand,wewillexplorehowanywayfitsinthisclassifications,andhowthedifferentsyntacticaccountsexplainthebehaviorofanywayAdverbSemanticClassificationTherehavebeenvariousattemptstoclassifyadverbssemanticallyAccordingtoQuirketal,adverbscanhavefourdifferentgrammaticalfunctions:asadjuncts,subjuncts,disjuncts,andconjunctsFromonehand,adjunctsandsubjunctsareintegratedwithinthestructureoftheclause,ascanbeobservedinthefollowingexamples:()HetalkedslowlyADJUNCT()HehasnoteatenyetSUBJUNCTTheSyntaxandSemanticsofDiscourseMarkersAswecansee,bothadverbshereseemtobemodifyingtheverborthewholeverbphraseIn(),theadjunctreferstothepaceoftheactionoftalking,thereforemodifyingthesemanticsoftheverbOntheotherhand,theadverbin()modifiesthewholeverbphrasebystatingthattheeventofeatinghasnothappenedsofar,butthatthereisastrongchance(oranintention)thatitwillhappeninthefutureThisisdonethroughtheuseoftheadverbyetOntheotherhand,disjunctsexpressanevaluationofwhatisbeingsaidasfarastheformofthecommunicationoritsmeaningisconcernedAnexampleishappilyasin()Ontheotherhand,conjunctsexpressthespeaker’sassessmentoftherelationoftwosegments(see()and()):()Marywillhappilyunderstandeverything()HeadmitsitwasveryrudeofhimHowever,hewon’tapologize()Ididn’tinviteherShewouldn’thavecomeanywayQuirketal,,Example()isatypicalexampleofadisjunctHappilyexpressesanevaluationofwhatisbeingsaidIn(),theadverbaddsaprobabilitytothefactthatMarywillunderstandeverythingItisnotdirectlyrelatedtotheeventperseaccordingtoQuirketal()isaclearexampleofaconjunctIntheexample,thespeakerbelievesthattherearetwoutterancesincontrast,thereforesheuseshowevertolinkthembothAnywayin()isanotherexampleofconjunctaccordingtoQuirketalAspointedoutbytheauthors,anywaycannotbeeitheranadjunctorasubjunctsincethesearebelievedtobesyntacticallyintegratedwithinthestructureofaclause(atleastinitsdiscoursemarkeruse)Itappearsthatanywayisaconjunctsinceitexpressesthespeaker’sass

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