关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 2011英语专八.doc

2011英语专八.doc

2011英语专八.doc

上传者: 开心果与松子 2012-03-26 评分 3 0 3 0 15 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《2011英语专八doc》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含TEMAccordingtoDrHarley,whatmakeslanguagelearningmoredifficultafteracertain符等。

TEMAccordingtoDrHarley,whatmakeslanguagelearningmoredifficultafteracertainageADifferencesbetweentwolanguagesBDecliningcapacitytolearnsyntaxCLackoftimeavailableDAbsenceofmotivationWhatdoestheexampleofCzechspeakersshowAIt'snaturalforlanguagelearnerstomakeerrorsBDifferencesbetweenlanguagescausedifficultyCThereexistdifferencesbetweenEnglishandCzechDDifficultystemsfromeitherdifferenceorsimilarityWhichofthefollowingmethodsdoesNOTadvocatespeakingAThetraditionalmethodBTheaudiolingualmethodCTheimmersionmethodDThedirectmethodWhichhypothesisdealswiththeroleoflanguageknowledgeinthelearningprocessATheacquisitionandlearningdistinctionhypothesisBThecomprehensibleinputhypothesisCThemonitorhypothesisDTheactivefilterhypothesisWhichofthefollowingtopicsisNOTdiscussedduringtheinterviewACausesoflanguagelearningdifficultiesBDifferencesbetweenmothertongueandasecondlanguageCTheoreticalconceptualizationofsecondlanguagelearningDPedagogicalimplementationofsecondlanguageteachingTIP:答案选B。Harley博士提到有研究表明语言特别是句法方面的学习在岁以后更难。TIP:答案选D。Harley博士提到有研究发现学习英语的捷克人会在相同的捷克语和英语句法上犯错因此证明了语言学习者的困难也可能来自相似性。TIP:答案选A。因为其他三种方法都要求或强调口语而传统方法强调语法教学。TIP:答案选C。当Harley博士在解释monitorhypothesis时他提到monitor会使用语法规则电台主持人向他确认是否这意味着学习者运用语言知识确保所说和所写的正确无误Harley博士的回答是肯定的。TIP:答案选B。其他三项在对话中均有提及D项没有提及。Woman:Goodmorning,DrHarley!ThankyouverymuchforcomingonourradiotalkWeknowthatyou'reanappliedlinguistspecializinginsecondlanguageacquisitionDrHarley:Right!Woman:So,today,um,we'lllookatthisissueNow,first,DrHarley,couldyoupleasetelluswhatissecondlanguageacquisitionDrHarley:Well,secondlanguageacquisitionishappenswhenachildoradulthasalreadybecomecompetentatalanguageAndthen,um,theyattempttolearnanotherWoman:OK,mostpeoplethink,includingme,itisdifficulttolearnanotherlanguageWhatarethereasonsWhyisitsoDrHarley:Well,thereareanumberofreasonsforthisHuh,first,therehavebeenresearchstudiesTheyhaveshownthatsomeaspectsoflanguagelearningespeciallysyntaxaremoredifficultbeyondacertainage,say,afteraroundyearsofageWoman:So,ageplaysanimportantroleinlanguagelearningDrHarley:YesButthat'snottheonlyreasonWoman:Oh,isthatsoDrHarley:Yes,forexample,huh,timeandinterestAllchildrenandadultsoftenhavelesstimeandmotivationtolearnasecondlanguageWoman:Mm…DrHarley:Anotherisrelatedtothesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenone'smothertongueandasecondlanguageWefindthelearnerswillexperiencedifficultywhentheirmothertongueandthesecondlanguagethey'relearningdifferIngeneral,themoreidiosyncraticafeatureisinaparticularlanguagerelativetootherlanguages,themoredifficultitwillbetoacquireWoman:PerhapsthisisthekeyissueDifferencesbetweenlanguagescauselanguagelearningproblemsDrHarley:Well,thismaybeoneoftheissueshereButthiscannotbethewholestory,asnotalldifferencesbetweenlanguagescausedifficultyLetmegiveyouanexampleWoman:OKDrHarley:ResearchhasfoundthatmanyerrorsbyCzechspeakerslearningEnglishweremadeonsyntacticconstructionsinwhichthetwolanguagesdonotdifferWoman:Oh,reallyThepictureismorecomplicatedthanwe'veimaginedDrHarley:DefinitelyyesEachlanguagelearningsituationisdifferentSoreasonsvaryalotfromcasetocaseWoman:Now,DrHarley,sincelearningasecondlanguageisadifficultprocess,youknow,inonewayoranother,arethereanymethodssofar,effectivemethodstoteachasecondlanguageDrHarley:Thereagain,nomethodisabsolutelyeffectiveinallsituationsSomemayproveeffective,othersmaynotImeanalldependingonspecificconditionsButgenerallyspeaking,thereareanumberofmethodsthathavebeenusedtoteachasecondlanguageWoman:CouldyoumentionafewDrHarley:Forinstance,there'sthetraditionalmethodThismethodisbasedontranslationfromonelanguagetoanotherAnditemphasizesgrammarteachingAndthenyouhavedirectmethodswhichfocusesonconversationalskillsandallteachingmustbecarriedoutinthesecondlanguageWoman:Oh,IseeAnyothermethodsDrHarley:Yes,forexample,theaudiolingualmethodThismethodemphasizesspeakingandlisteningbeforereadingandwritingWoman:Howinteresting!DrHarley:ThenyouhavetheimmersionmethodThismethodteacheslearnersexclusivelythroughthemediumofthesecondlanguageWoman:HowDrHarley:Well,itsimplymeansthatyoucannotspeakmothertongueEverythingmustbedoneinthelanguageyou'relearningTome,themostnaturalmethodoflearninganewlanguageiswhatIcallsubmersionThatis,togotothatcountryandbesurroundedexclusivelybyspeakersofthatlanguageWoman:ThankyouverymuchDrHarleyforintroducingsomeofthelanguageteachingmethodsNowlet'smoveontosomethingabittheoreticalSincesecondlanguageacquisitionandteachingareafascinatingareaforresearchers,arethereanytheoriestoexplainsecondlanguageacquisitionDrHarley:Yes,manytheoriesandmodelshavebeenputforwardbyresearcherssofarToday,I'dliketomentionthefivehypothesesproposedbyStevenKrashenWoman:OKDrHarley:ThefivehypothesesformwhathecallstheMonitorModelofsecondlanguagelearningWoman:WhatdoesitmeanDrHarley:OK,thefirsthypothesisistheAcquisitionandLearningDistinctionHypothesisAccordingtoKrashen,childrenacquiretheirfirstlanguagelargelyunconsciouslyandautomaticallyButadultscouldonlylearnasecondlanguageconsciouslyandeffortfullyAndadultscouldindeedacquirethesecondlanguage,atleastinpartWoman:RightThenwhat'shissecondhypothesisDrHarley:HissecondhypothesisistheNaturalOrderinAcquisitionHypothesisBasically,hemeansthattheorderingwhichlearnersacquiresyntacticrulesisthesameinbothlanguagesWoman:Oh,that'ssomethingreallynewtomeDrHarley:ThethirdhypothesisistheMonitorHypothesis,whichiscentraltohistheoryHereagain,wecomeacrossthedistinctionbetweenacquisitionandlearningAccordingtothishypothesis,theacquisitionprocessescreatesentencesinthesecondlanguage,rightButlearningenablesthedevelopmentofamonitoringprocesstocheckandeditthisoutputThemonitorusesknowledgeoftherulesThat'swhy,asIsaidjustnow,learningisaconsciousprocessWoman:ThismeansinlearningyouuseknowledgeofthelanguagetomakesurewhatyousayorwriteiscorrectIsthatsoDrHarley:YesHisfourthhypothesisistheComprehensibleInputHypothesisInordertomoveformonestagetothenext,thelearnermustunderstandthemeaningandtheformoftheinputThisemphasizestheroleofcomprehensionAndfinally,theActiveFilterHypothesisThissuggestsattitudeandemotionalfactorsarealsoimportantinsecondlanguageacquisitionWoman:IguessKrashen'smodelhasprovidedausefulframeworkforsecondlanguagelearningDrHarley:Yes,itindeedhasAndithasalsoprovedtobeoneofthemostinfluentialtheoreticalapproachestoteachingasecondlanguageWoman:OK,DrHarley,thankyouonceagainfortalkingtousaboutsecondlanguageacquisitionDrHarley:PleasureWhichofthefollowingstatementsisINCORRECTAGreyhoundisBritain'slargestbusandtrainoperatorBCurrentlyGreyhoundroutesinBritainarelimitedCThecoachstartsfromLondoneveryhourDPassengersareofferedavarietyofservicesTIP:选A。新闻中提到FirstGroups是英国最大的汽车和火车运营商而Greyhound是其下的美国品牌。script:TheyearoldiconicAmericanbrandGreyhoundistakingtotheBritishroadsFirstGroup,Britain'slargestbusandtrainoperator,andowneroftheGreyhoundcoachbrandintheUS,saidthebuseswouldstartrunningfromLondonVictoriatoPortsmouthandSouthamptononSeptTicketswillcostaslittleaswiththeaveragejourneycostingItplanstorolloutmoreroutesnextyearThehourlybusservicewilltakejustundertwohoursnonstopandwillofferfreeWiFi,powersocketsforeachpassenger,airconditioning,complimentarynewspapersandleatherseatsWhatdoesthenewsitemsayaboutthefiresinGreeceAFiresonlyoccurredneartheGreekcapitalBFiresnearthecapitalcausedcasualtiesCFiresnearthecapitalwerethebiggestDFiresnearthecapitalweresoonundercontrolTIP:答案选D。由“Authoritiesreportedfiresacrossthecountry”可排除A。由“Noinjurieswerereported”可排除B项。C项未提及。Accordingtothenews,whatmeasuredidauthoritiestaketofightthefiresAResidentswereaskedtovacatetheirhomesBTroopswerebroughtintohelpthefirefightersCAiroperationsandwaterdropscontinuedovernightDAnothersixfireenginesjoinedthefirefightingoperationTIP:选B。新闻提到政府当局调动空军、海军协助灭火故B项正确。script:Greekfirefightersplannedtocontinuetoworkthroughthenighttocontaindozensofwildfires,includingamassiveblazeoutsideAthens,authoritysaidGreekPrimeMinister,KostasKaramanlis,calledforcalmonSaturdayandsaidgroundforceswillcontinuetheirsuperhumaneffortsuntildawn,whenairoperationsandwaterdropswillresumeAuthoritiesreportedfiresacrossthecountryThefiresbeganlateFridayinGrammatikokilometers(miles)northeastofthecapitalWindwhippedasingleblazeintothreefires,whichjoinedagainSaturdayNoinjurieswerereportedAuthoritiesmobilizedunitsfromthenavy,airforceandmarinestoassistthefirefightersinGrammatiko,theStateFireDepartmentsaid"Thefireisparticularlycomplex,giventheweather,thelargequantityoffuel,theterrainandtheproximityofresidentialareas,"astatementfromtheFireDepartmentsaidThecauseoftheoriginalfirewhichbelchedcloudsofheavydarksmokewasunknown,andofficialswereinvestigatingForestandbushfiresarecommonduringGreece'shot,drysummersSixfirefightingaircraftwerehelpingfirefighters,accordingtotheAthens'snewsagencyWhichofthefollowingisNOTmentionedasacauseofthecurrentdeclineintheMexicaneconomyAFewerjobopportunitiesinMexicoBStrongtieswiththeUSeconomyCDeclineintourismDDeclineintaxrevenuesTIP:选A。新闻提到墨西哥经济衰退的主要原因是其与美国经济联系甚密。另外导致墨西哥经济衰退的原因还包括旅游业下滑和石油、税收的减少只有A项不是原因。DropinremittancesfromabroadismainlyduetoAdecliningoilproductionBtheoutbreakoftheHNfluCthedecliningGDPinMexicoDtheeconomicdownturnintheUSTIP:选D。新闻提到“RemittancesfromMexicansworkingabroad,mostofthemintheUnitedStates,alsohavefallenvictimtotheeconomicdownturn”故D项正确。script:TheMexicaneconomywentoffacliffinthesecondthreemonthsof,withthegrossdomesticproductdroppingfromthesameperiodlastyear,accordingtogovernmentfiguresAnalystssaythemaincauseofMexico'snosediveisthatthenation'seconomyistiedstronglytothatoftheUnitedStates,whichismiredinthedeepesteconomicdownturnsincethesOtherfactorsdraggingtheMexicaneconomydownincludeatourismdeclinecausedbytheHNfluoutbreak,decliningoilandtaxrevenuesandfewerMexicansabroadsendingmoneybackhomeOilrevenues,longMexico'smainsourceofmoney,havebeenhurtbylowerglobalpricesanddecliningproductionRemittancesfromMexicansworkingabroad,mostofthemintheUnitedStates,alsohavefallenvictimtotheeconomicdownturnFewerjobsintheUnitedStatesmeansfeweropportunitiesforMexicanstofindworkandsendmoneyhomeRemittancesrankafteroilintermsofrevenueforthecountryThatrevenuefellfrom$billioninto$billionin,Mexico'sCentralBanksaid,andisexpecttodecreaseevenmorethisyearTourism,Mexican'sthirdlargestsourceofrevenue,hasdeclinedsteadilysinceanoutbreakoftheHNfluewasfirstdiscoveredinMexicoinAprilThenorthernmostpartofGreatBritainisANorthernIrelandBWalesCEnglandDScotlandTIP:选D。英国最北端是苏格兰。ItisgenerallyagreedthatwerethefirstEuropeanstoreachAustralia'sshoresAtheFrenchBtheGermansCtheBritishDtheDutchTIP:选D。年荷兰航海家WillemJanszoon在约克角西岸登陆澳洲。年英国人库克船长登上澳洲大陆并宣布它为英国领土。referstoalongnarrativepoemthatrecordstheadventuresofaheroinanation'shistoryABalladBRomanceCEpicDElegyTIP:选C。epic是“史诗、叙事诗”的意思。WhichofthefollowingbestexploresAmericanmythinthethcenturyATheGreatGatsbyBTheSunAlsoRisesCTheSoundandtheFuryDBeyondtheHorizonTIP:选A。《天边外》是尤金•奥尼尔的著名戏剧作品《太阳照常升起》是海明威的代表作《喧哗与骚动》则是福克纳的代表作。《了不起的盖茨比》的作者是菲茨杰拉德的作品反映了美国世纪年代到年代的社会现实对美国神话进行了另类诠释和解读。isdefinedasthestudyoftherelationshipbetweenlanguageandmindASemanticsBPragmaticsCCognitivelinguisticsDSociolinguisticsTIP:选C。认知语言学认为语言的创建、学习及运用基本上都必须能够通过人类的认知而加以解释因为认知能力是人类知识的根本。AvowelisdifferentfromaconsonantinEnglishbecauseofAabsenceofobstructionBpresenceofobstructionCmannerofarticulationDplaceofarticulationTIP:选A。辅音主要是从肺部呼出的气流在通过口腔或鼻腔时遇到阻碍而发出的音元音的发音与之最大的区别就是不受阻碍不产生摩擦。Thedefinition"theactofusingorpromotingtheuseofseverallanguages,eitherbyanindividualspeakerorbyacommunityofspeakers"referstoAPidginBCreoleCMultilingualismDBilingualismTIP:选C。Multilingualism的意思是“多语现象、多语制”。现代社会无论价值观的持有还是生活方式的选择都充满了矛盾。而最让现代人感到尴尬的是面对重重矛盾许多时候你却别无选择。匆忙与休闲是截然不同的两种生活方式。但在现实生活中人们却在这两种生活方式间频繁穿梭有时也说不清自己到底是“休闲着”还是“匆忙着”。譬如说当我们正在旅游胜地享受假期却忽然接到老板的电话告诉我们客户或工作方面出了麻烦现代便捷先进工具在此刻显示出了它狰狞、阴郁的面容搞得人一下子兴趣全无接下来的休闲只是徒有其表因为心里已是火烧火燎了。BeinginhasteandatleisurearetwodistinctlifestylesButinreallife,peoplehavetoshuttlebetweenthesetwolifestylesfrequently,withoutknowingwhethertheyare"atleisure"or"inhaste"Forinstance,whenweareenjoyingourholidaysinatouristattraction,aphonecallfromthebosstellsuscontingencieshavehappenedwithourclientsorworkThehideousandgloomysideoftheconvenientmodernhightechdevicedrivesawayalltheinterestThefollowingleisuretimecanonlybereducedtothepureform,becausewearealreadyinarestlessandanxiousstateofmindWhenflyingoverNepal,it'seasytosoarinyourimaginationandpretendyou'retinyabutterflyanddriftingaboveoneofthosethreedimensionaltopographicalmapsarchitectsuse,thecirclingcontourlinesreplacedbytheterracedricepaddiesthatsurroundeachhighridgeNepalisasmallcountry,andfromthewindowsofourplanefloatingeastwardat,feet,onecanseeclearlythebrilliantwhitemirageofthehighHimalayasthirtymilesofftheleftwindowOuttherightwindow,theviewisofthreeorfourhighterracedridgesgivingsuddenwaytotheplainsofIndiabeyondTherewerefewroadsvisiblebelow,mosttransportationinNepalbeingbyfootalongancienttrailsthatconnectandbindthecountrytogetherThereisalsoanetworkofdirtairstrips,whichwasfortunateforme,asIhadnotimeforthetwoandahalfweektrektomydestinationIwasonaflighttothelocalairport在尼泊尔上空飞行你的想象力很容易开始翱翔仿佛你很渺小就像一只小蝴蝶飞在一幅三维的建筑地形图上那些环绕着每个高脊的梯田就像图中环形的等高线。尼泊尔是一个小国。我们的飞机在一万两千英尺的高空向东平稳飞行透过左侧的窗户可以清楚看见下方三十英里处雄伟的喜马拉雅山呈现出的白色蜃景。转向右侧的窗口看到的是三、四座高高的布有梯田的山脊很快它们就被印度境内的广阔平原所代替了。飞机下方只能看见极少的几条路。在尼泊尔最主要的出行方式是沿着古老的小路步行这些小路联系着全国各地。除此以外这个国家还有一个空中网络虽然机场尘土飞扬但对我来说也算是幸运因为我没时间进行两个半星期的徒步旅行到达目的地。我当时是在去当地机场的航班上。Accordingtoarecentnewspaperreport,manyfamoussitesofhistoricalinterestinChinahavebegunorareconsideringchargingtouristshigherentryfeesduringpeaktravelseasonsThishasarousedalotofpublicattentionandalsopublicdebateWhatisyouropinionShouldfamousChinesesitesofhistoricalinterestchargehigherfeesduringpeaktravelseasonsWriteanessayofaboutwords参考答案:HigherEntryFeesDuringPeakTravelSeasonInrecentyears,peopleinChinahavemoretimeandmoneytovisitfamoussitesofhistoricalinterest,owingtolongerholidaysandhigherincomesThesevisits,ontheonehand,canenrichtheirownlifeandbringthesitessubstantialincomesOntheotherhand,toomanyvisits,especiallyduringtravelpeakswhentherearemorevisitors,havecausedhugeproblemsinseveralaspectsInmyopinion,oneeffectivesolutiontothisproblemistochargehigherfeesduringpeaktravelseasonsForonereason,thosewhoopposehigherfeeshaveignoredtheuniquefeaturesoffamoussitesofhistoricalinterestDifferentfromthecommonparks,thehistoricalspotsnormallyimplyamplehistoricalandculturalvaluesTherelicsinthesespotsaresopreciousandfragilethattheyusuallyneedspecialandprofessionalpreservationandadministration,whichobviouslycostslargeamountsofmoneyDuringpeaktravelseasons,evenmoretouristspayvisitstothehistoricalspotsSuchhugeamountofpeoplearrivingatonehistoricalspotmayprobablyleadtosomeunexpecteddamagesFacingthissituation,thereisnobettermeasurethanraisingtheentryfeestoreducethenumberoftouristsinpeakseasonsTheonlypurposeofcharginghigherentryfeesistostopsomepeople'svisitsduringspecialseasonssoastoachieveabetterprotectionofthevaluablerelicsWithhigherentryfees,somepeoplemaychangetheirplansandgiveuptheirvisitsHereeconomicmeansareappliedtoconservepreciousthingsatthesitesofhistoricalinterestinanappropriateandsustainablewayForanotherreason,higherfeeschargedmayeffectivelyreducethenumberoftouristsvisitinghistoricalspotsinpeakseasons,whichisalsogoodtothesafetyofthetouristsReportsontheaccidentshappeningtotouristsarenotnewtousEspeciallyduringpeakseasons,heavytrafficofpassengersposespotentialthreatstothelifeoftouristsFurthermore,relaxationisalwaysanultimategoalfortouristsItisalmostimpossibleforanyonetoappreciateanythinginanovercrowdedspotwithaseaofpeoplearoundAnidealholidaymayevenberuinedbythehustleandbustleandendlesswaitingInshort,weneedtocontrolthenumberofvisitorsespeciallyduringthepeaktravelseasons,toguaranteeasoundprotectionofhistoricalspotsaswellasthesafetyoftouristsAmongothers,higherentryfeesmaybeasimpleandeffectiveeconomicmeansofregulation,whichshouldbetakenintoaccountbytheauthoritiesAsforthetourists,thismaynotbesobadasitsounds

类似资料

编辑推荐

我爱北京假大空.doc

政治心理学导论.pdf

哲学史.pdf

死亡之犬.pdf

首相绑架桉.pdf

职业精品

精彩专题

上传我的资料

精选资料

热门资料排行换一换

  • 难病奇方系列丛书:桃红四物汤.p…

  • 岩土地震工程学 陈国兴.pdf

  • 动荡和灾难不是没有根源——评昂耐…

  • 地理基础知识竞赛.doc

  • 艾滋病防治条例释义.pdf

  • An Introduction …

  • 烧结球团0.ppt

  • RHINO犀牛基础教程.doc

  • 地球科学通论.pdf

  • 资料评价:

    / 8
    所需积分:1 立即下载

    意见
    反馈

    返回
    顶部