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首页 亚太地区环境持续性:绿色增长、资源

亚太地区环境持续性:绿色增长、资源.pdf

亚太地区环境持续性:绿色增长、资源

swordyoung
2012-03-25 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《亚太地区环境持续性:绿色增长、资源pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

GreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceThisreportGreenGrowth,Resources,andResiliencedescribesanevolvingpolicylandscapecharacterizedbyachangingeconomicreality,risingdemandforresources,increasinglyapparentimpactsofenvironmentalandclimatechange,andincreasedriskanduncertaintyThereportprovidesnewinsightsintoAsianandPacificresourceusetrendsandoutlineskeyactions,includingreformingeconomicincentivesandpromotingmoreinclusiveandadaptivegovernanceapproaches,thatgovernmentscanpursuetohelpbringeconomicgrowthstrategiesincloseralignmentwiththeobjectiveofsustainabledevelopmentItalsoprovidesexamplesofstrategiesforimprovingresiliencetohelpdealwiththeincreasinglevelsofriskfacedbysocietiesandeconomiesThereportistheproductofacombinedeffortbythreeinstitutions:theUnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePacific(ESCAP),theAsianDevelopmentBank(ADB)andtheUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme(UNEP)ItisthesixthinaseriesofreportspreparedbyESCAPforsuccessiveMinisterialConferencesonEnvironmentandDevelopmentinAsiaandthePacific,andisthethirdinADB’sAsianEnvironmentOutlookseriesItisalsoinlinewiththemandateofUNEPtokeepthestateoftheenvironmentunderreviewThereportprovidestimelysupporttopolicymakersandotherstakeholdersastheypreparefortheUnitedNationsConferenceonSustainableDevelopment(Rio)andastheycontinueworktoaddresspersistentandemergingchallengesontheirwaytomoresustainabledevelopmentUnitedNationsandAsianDevelopmentBankpublicationPrintedinBangkokISBNFebruary–GreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilience:EnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceESCAPpromotesregionalcooperationforinclusiveandsustainableeconomicandsocialdevelopmentinAsiaandthePacific,adynamicregioncharacterizedbygrowingwealth,diversityandchange,butalsochallengedwithpersistentpoverty,environmentaldegradation,inequalityandinsecurityESCAPsupportsmemberStateswithsoundstrategicanalysis,policyoptionsandtechnicalcooperationactivitiestoaddresskeydevelopmentchallengesandtoimplementinnovativesolutionsforregionwideeconomicprosperity,socialprogressandenvironmentalsustainabilityESCAP,throughitsconferencestructure,assistsmemberStatesinforgingastronger,coordinatedregionalvoiceonglobalissuesbybuildingcapacitiestodialogue,negotiateandshapethedevelopmentagendainanageofglobalization,decentralizationandproblemsthattranscendbordersAkeymodalityforthisstrategyisthepromotionofintraregionalconnectivityandregionalintegrationADB’svisionisanAsiaandPacificregionfreeofpovertyItsmissionistohelpitsdevelopingmembercountriesreducepovertyandimprovethequalityoflifeoftheirpeopleADBiscommittedtoreducingpovertythroughinclusiveeconomicgrowth,environmentallysustainablegrowth,andregionalintegrationBasedinManila,ADBisownedbymembers,includingfromtheregionItsmaininstrumentsforhelpingitsdevelopingmembercountriesarepolicydialogue,loans,equityinvestments,guarantees,grants,andtechnicalassistanceMoreinformationcanbefoundathttp:wwwadborgUNEPistheUnitedNationssystem’sdesignatedentityforaddressingenvironmentalissuesattheglobalandregionallevelItsmandateistocoordinatethedevelopmentofenvironmentalpolicyconsensusbykeepingtheglobalenvironmentunderreviewandbringingemergingissuestotheattentionofgovernmentsandtheinternationalcommunityforactionUNEP’smissionistoprovideleadershipandencouragepartnershipincaringfortheenvironmentbyinspiring,informingandenablingnationsandpeoplestoimprovetheirqualityoflifewithoutcompromisingthatoffuturegenerationsUNEP’sheadquartersareinNairobi,Kenya,andithassixregionalofficesaroundtheworldItisoneofonlytwoUNprogrammesheadquarteredinthedevelopingworldInAsiaandthePacific,UNEPworksincountriesthroughitsRegionalOfficeforAsiaandthePacificlocatedinBangkok,ThailandMoreinformationcanbefoundat:http:wwwuneporgGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificiiGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceEnvironmentalSustainabilityinAsiaandthePacificUnitedNationsandAsianDevelopmentBankpublicationSTESCAP,RPTPrintedinBangkokThedesignationsemployedandthepresentationofthematerialinthispublicationdonotimplytheexpressionofanyopinionwhatsoeveronthepartoftheSecretariatoftheUnitedNations,theBoardofDirectorsoftheAsianDevelopmentBank(ADB),theBoardofGovernorsofADBorthegovernmentstheyrepresentconcerningthelegalstatusofanycountry,territory,cityorarea,orofitsauthorities,orconcerningthedelimitationofitsfrontiersorboundariesThecontentandviewsexpressedinthispublicationarethoseoftheauthorsanddonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsorpoliciesorcarrytheendorsementofthecopublishingorganizationsReferencetoacommercialentityorproductinthispublicationdoesnotimplyendorsementThecopublishingorganizationsdonotguaranteetheaccuracyofthedataincludedinthispublicationandacceptnoresponsibilityforanyconsequenceoftheiruseAllqueriescanbeaddressedtoanyofthecopublishingorganizationsasfollows:ThispublicationfollowstheUnitedNationspracticeinreferencestocountriesWheretherearespaceconstraints,somecountrynameshavebeenabbreviatedIntheAsianDevelopmentBank,ChinaisreferredtoasthePeople’sRepublicofChinaandKyrgyzstanisreferredtoastheKrgyzRepublicAlsoavailableonlineat:wwwunescaporgesdenvironmentflagpubsGGRAPwwwadborgEnvironmentwwwuneporgroapISBNeISBNThispublicationwasprintedonchlorineandacidfreepapermadefromagrowaste,recycledandvirginfibres,withawaterbasedcoatingandusingvegetableinksDirectorEnvironmentandDevelopmentDivisionUnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePacificUnitedNationsBuildingRajadamnernNokAvenueBangkok,ThailandescapesddevsunorgDirectorEnvironmentandSafeguardsRegionalandSustainableDevelopmentDepartmentAsianDevelopmentBankADBAvenueMandaluyongCity,MetroManila,PhilippinesenvironmentadborgRegionalDirectorUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgrammeRegionalOfficeforAsiaandthePacificUnitedNationsBuildingRajadamnernNokAvenueBangkok,ThailanduneproapunorgiiiForewordTheAsiaandPacificregionfacesaneweconomicreality,adevelopmentcontextthatisincreasinglyinfluencedbyresourceconstraintsandgrowingrisksInrecentyears,convergenteconomicandenvironmentalchallengeshavehaddramaticimpactsonmillionsofpeople,threateningcontinuedprogresstowardreductionofpovertyandhungerHighfood,energyandcommodityprices,persistentincomeinequality,andclimateandenvironmentalchangesovershadowtheregionaloutlookThesestormcloudscomewithatantalizingsilverliningAsianandPacificcountrieshavemade“green”policycommitmentsandinvestmentsthatjustfiveyearsagowouldhavebeenunimaginableThisnascenttransformationismarkedbyperceptiblechangesinawareness,attitudes,marketsandtechnologies,makinggreengrowthandtransitiontoagreeneconomymoreeconomicallyandpoliticallyfeasiblethaneverbeforeGreengrowthstrategiescanhelpeconomiesandsocietiesbecomemoreresilientastheyworktomeetdemandsforfoodproduction,transport,housing,energyandwaterStrategiescanhelpmitigatetheimpactsofadverseshocksbyreducingtheintensityofresourceconsumptionandenvironmentalimpacts,whilealleviatingpressureoncommoditypricesGreengrowthalsoofferscompetitiveadvantagestothosecountriesthatcommittopolicyinnovationsTheglobalmarketforgreengoodsandservicesisvastandgrowingfast,offeringcountriesthedualbenefitofprosperityandjobcreationTotakeadvantageoftheseopportunities,longtermsolutionsrequirepolicyinitiativestotransformeconomies,buildingonalreadyimportantinitiativesinmanycountriesEconomiesmustberecalibratedsothateconomicgrowthisdirectlyalignedwithsustainabledevelopmentobjectivesTheneedfornewinfrastructureinvestmentintheregionpresentsopportunitiesforplannersandpolicymakerstodesign,build,andoperateinfrastructureonprinciplesofsustainability,includingaccessibilityandsocialinclusivenessGovernmentsmustplaytheirpart,enablingtheprivatesectortoseizeemergingopportunitieswhilealsoengagingthepublicinfindingeffectiveandequitablesolutionsthatareadaptedtothespecialcircumstancesandneedsofeachcountryandcommunityGovernanceapproachesthatemphasizeinclusivenessandadaptability,aswellasregionalcooperation,arecriticalrequirementsforanytransitionReflectingacommonviewthatactionisurgentlyneeded,theUnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePacific,theAsianDevelopmentBankandtheUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgrammehavejoinedforcestoproducethisreportonGreenGrowth,ResourcesandResilienceEachinstitutionhasitsownmandatesandthethreefindcommongroundinworkingtogethertohelpcatalyzeactionforsustainableandinclusiveeconomicgrowthafuturewhereallpeoplehaveanopportunityforabetterlifeDecisionmakersatthesixthMinisterialConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopmentinAsiaandthePacific(MCED),heldininAstana,Kazakhstan,havediscussedthekeyfindingsandrecommendationsofapreviewofthisreportLookingbeyondMCED,thisreportprovidesawealthofinformationtofacilitatetheregionalandglobalpreparationsfortheUnitedNationsConferenceonSustainableDevelopment,tobeheldinRiodeJaneiroinThisreportwillhelpallstakeholderstakeurgentactiontochartourwaytoamoresustainablefutureNoeleenHeyzerExecutiveSecretaryESCAPHaruhikoKurodaPresidentADBAchimSteinerExecutiveDirectorUNEPivAboutthereportBackgroundThisreportGreenGrowth,Resources,andResilienceistheproductofacombinedeffortbythreeinstitutions:theUnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePacific(ESCAP),theAsianDevelopmentBank(ADB)andtheUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme(UNEP)ItisthesixthinaseriesofreportspublishedeveryfiveyearssincebyESCAP(formerlyknownastheStateoftheEnvironmentinAsiaandthePacificseries)ItisalsothethirdinADB’sAsianEnvironmentOutlookseries, fundedbyaTechnicalAssistanceproject–PreparationoftheAsianEnvironmentOutlook–forwhichfinancingwasapprovedinMaythroughtheTechnicalAssistanceSpecialFundItisalsoinlinewithUNEP’smandatetokeepthestateoftheenvironmentunderreviewAPreviewofthisreportwasdistributedduringthesixthMinisterialConferenceonEnvironmentandDevelopmentinAsiaandthePacific(MCED),heldinAstana,Kazakhstan,inSeptemberThisfullreportcomesatakeytimeasgovernmentsandotherstakeholderspreparefortheUnitedNationsConferenceonSustainableDevelopment(UNCSD)tosecurerenewedpoliticalcommitmentforsustainabledevelopment,assessprogresstodateandtheremaininggapsinimplementationoftheoutcomesofthemajorsummitsonsustainabledevelopment,andaddressnewandemergingchallenges,yearsaftertheEarthSummitIn,theneedto”shiftthedevelopmentorientationfroma‘growfirst,cleanuplater’approachtooneofgreengrowth,”wasakeymessageofMCEDThen,theterm“greengrowth”wasrelativelynewtotheinternationalarena,butsincethen,greengrowthandrelatedconceptshaveincreasinglybecomeanimportantpartofthesustainabledevelopmentagendaThisisunderscoredbythefactthatoneofthetwothemesofUNCSDisagreeneconomyinthecontextofsustainabledevelopmentandpovertyeradicationOrganizationThereportisorganizedintosixchapters:Thefirstchapterdescribesanevolvingpolicylandscapeinwhichrisingdemandforresources,alongwithincreasinglyapparentimpactsfromclimatechange,arebringingtogethereconomic,socialandenvironmentalcrises,providingnewopportunitiesandgivingrisetonewgovernancechallengesThesecondchapterprovidesadetailedexaminationofresourceuseandefficiencytrends,showingthecomplexnatureofresourcerisksposedbythescaleandspeedoftheeconomictransitionandresourceintensivepatternsofgrowthThethirdchapteroutlineskeypolicyactionsforbringingeconomicgrowthstrategiesincloseralignmentwiththeobjectiveofsustainabledevelopmentThefourthchapterdescribeshownewgovernancechallengescanbeaddressedatanumberoflevels,frominternationalandregionalgovernancestructuresdowntonationalandlocallevelsThefifthchapterfocusesonillustrativestrategiestopromoteimprovedresilience,aconceptthatcentersonthecapacityofsocietiesandeconomiestoresistandadapttoshocksand,wheneverpossible,turncrisisintoopportunityTheconcludingchapterhighlightssomeoftheimportantfindingsofthereportandcommentsontheimplicationsforthetwothemesoftheUnitedNationsConferenceonSustainableDevelopment(Rio)vAcknowledgementsMembersoftheteamthatcoordinatedthepreparationofthereportandprovidedsignificantinputintoallchapterswere:MasakazuIchimura,Chief,andHitomiRankine,EnvironmentalAffairsOfficeroftheEnvironmentandDevelopmentPolicySection,EnvironmentandDevelopmentDivision,UnitedNationsEconomicandSocialCommissionforAsiaandthePacific(ESCAP)DanielePonzi,LeadEnvironmentSpecialist,andJeffreyBowyer,EnvironmentSpecialist(Consultant)oftheEnvironmentandSafeguardsDivision,AsianDevelopmentBank(ADB)andAnnaStabrawa,RegionalCoordinatorforEarlyWarningandAssessmentoftheRegionalOfficeforAsiaandthePacific,UnitedNationsEnvironmentProgramme(UNEP)DechenTsering,JinhuaZhangandTunnieSrisakulchairaksupportedUNEP’scontribution,whilePeterKingandBenoitLaplanteactedastechnicaladvisorsonallchaptersSeveralpeopleprovidedsignificantcontributionstospecificaspectsofthereport,including:HeinzSchandl,JimWestandKarinHoskingonthethemeofresourceuseandresourceefficiencyLouisLebel,NataljaWehmer,ShaswatSaptkota,AkselSundstromoninclusiveandadaptivegovernanceWanhuaYang,HansvanRijnandPeterKingongovernanceDanMillison,LorenzoSantucciandKellyHaydenonsustainableinfrastructureTiLeHuuandErminaSokouonwaterJayMacleanonsustainableagricultureVincentJugaultandMarcRuffetongreenjobsCharlesRodgersonadaptationtoclimatechangeandBrianCarismaontheuseofdataDavidAnnandalealsoprovidedinputsonanumberoftopicsThereportwaseditedbyJayMacleanandOrestesPlascenciaThecoverpageandlayoutwerepreparedbyRuedeeArunkhajohnsakandMichaelCortes,andadministrativeandsecretarialassistancewasprovidedbyWipaveeKasemsawasdi,RujiraKhrueachotikul,SiriwatTheerawong,SirkulSuvarnnate(ESCAP)andCharinaMunda(ADB)Inadditiontothosedirectlyinvolvedinpreparingthereport,wewouldliketorecognizethecontributionsofESCAP,ADBandUNEPcolleagues,alongwith governmentfocalpoints,who reviewedthechaptersandprovidedinsightfulcomments(Annex)Wewouldalsoliketothank thosewhoattendedaseriesofexpertgroupandreviewmeetingsWewouldespeciallyliketoacknowledgethecontributionsoftheCommonwealthScientificandIndustrialResearchOrganisation(CSIRO)ofAustraliainrelationtothegroundbreakingworkdoneonmaterialconsumptionandresourceefficiency(inpartnershipwithUNEP),andtheInternationalLabourOrganizationRegionalOfficeforAsiaandthePacificonthesubjectofgreenjobsRaeKwonChungDirector,EnvironmentandDevelopmentDivisionESCAPNessimJAhmadDirector,EnvironmentandSafeguardsRegionalandSustainableDevelopmentDepartmentAsianDevelopmentBankYoungwooParkRegionalDirectorandRepresentativeforAsiaandthePacificUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgrammeviFOREWORDiiiABOutthEREPORtivAcknOWlEDGEmEntSvnOtESxABBREviAtiOnSAnDAcROnymSxiExEcutivESummARyxiichAPtER:AchAnGinGlAnDScAPE,EvOlvinGPOlicychAllEnGESAnDOPPORtunitiESAchangingregionaloutlookconvergingchallengesSecurityinachangingeconomicrealityEnergysecurityMinerals,metalsandothermaterialsWatersecurityFoodsecurityEcosystemsandbiodiversityEmergingopportunitiesGr

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  • miuhaha 学习参考 。。。。。。

    2016-09-02 17:57:06

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