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首页 LES of Turbulence

LES of Turbulence.pdf

LES of Turbulence

nashiong
2012-03-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《LES of Turbulencepdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

P:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:LARGEEDDYSIMULATIONSOFTURBULENCELargeEddySimulationsofTurbulenceisanidealintroductionforpeoplenewtolargeeddysimulation(LES),directnumericalsimulation,andReynoldsaveragedNavier–StokessimulationandmakesanexcellentreferenceforresearchersOfparticularinterestinthetextisthedetaileddiscussioninChapterofvorticity,pressure,andthevelocitygradienttensor,whicharequantitiesusefulforprobingtheresultsofasimulation–particularlywhenlookingforcoherentvorticesandcoherentstructuresChaptersandfeatureanindepthdiscussionofspectralsubgridscalemodelingAlthoughphysicalspacemodelsaregenerallymorereadilyapplied,spectralmodelsgiveinsightintotherequirementsandlimitationsinsubgridscalemodelingandbackscatteringAthirdspecialfeatureisthedetaileddiscussioninChapterofLESofcompressibleflows–atopicpreviouslyaccessibleonlyinarticlesscatteredthroughouttheliteratureThiswillbeofinteresttothosedealingwithsupersonicflows,combustion,astrophysics,andotherrelatedtopicsChapterfocusesongeophysicalfluiddynamicswithemphasisonrotatingstratifiedshearflowsInterestingapplicationsofLEStostormformationaregiveninparticularMarcelLesieur,OlivierMe´tais,andPierreComteformthenucleusoftheGrenobleEquipeMode´lisationetSimulationdelaTurbulence(theGrenobleteamformodelingandsimulatingturbulence)andplayanimportantroleinthedevelopmentofsubgridscalemodelingofturbulentflowsrequiredforlargeeddysimulationandintheimplementationoflargeeddysimulationmethodologyinresearchandapplicationsTheywereresponsibleforearlyresearchonspectralsubgridscaleclosureandtheuseoftheclosureapproachindevelopingthephysicalspacestructurefunctionmodelMorerecentlytheyhavemadesignificantcontributionstothedevelopmentofmodelingforcompressibleturbulentflowsiP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:iiP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:LargeEddySimulationsofTurbulenceMARCELLESIEURProfessor,NationalPolytechnicInstitute,GrenobleOLIVIERMETAISProfessor,NationalPolytechnicInstitute,GrenoblePIERRECOMTEProfessor,LouisPasteurUniversity,StrasbourgiiicambridgeuniversitypressCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridgecbru,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatisbnisbn©CambridgeUniversityPressInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressisbnisbnCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackeBook(NetLibrary)eBook(NetLibrary)hardbackP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:ContentsPrefacepageixIntroductiontoLESBook’sscopeBasicprinciplesoffluiddynamicsContinuityequationBalanceofforcesThermodynamicequationVorticityIsotropicturbulenceFormalismKolmogorovk−energyspectrumKolmogorovdissipativescaleandwavenumberIntegralscaleandTaylormicroscaleDirectnumericalsimulationsofturbulenceAbriefhistoryofLESLESanddeterminismTheplaceofLESinturbulencemodelingVortexdynamicsVorticitydynamicsHelmholtz–Kelvin’stheoremCoherentvorticesDefinitionPressureTheQcriterionTheλcriterionSimpletwodimensionalvortexinteractionsVortexidentificationIsotropicturbulenceBackwardfacingstepvP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:viCONTENTSCoherentstructuresAnimationsLESformalisminphysicalspaceLESequationsforaflowofconstantdensityLESBoussinesqequationsinarotatingframeEddyviscosityanddiffusivityassumptionSmagorinsky’smodelDynamicSmagorinskymodelSpectralLESforisotropicturbulenceSpectraleddyviscosityanddiffusivityEDQNMtheoryEDQNMplateaupeakmodelSpectraldynamicmodelSpectralrandombackscatterReturntothebumpOthertypesofspectraleddyviscositiesHeisenberg’seddyviscosityRNGanalysisAnteriorspectralLESofisotropicturbulenceDoublefilteringinFourierspaceEDQNMinfraredbackscatterandselfsimilarityFiniteboxsizeeffectsRecentLESstudiesofdecayingisotropicturbulenceUltravioletpressureSpectralLESforinhomogeneousturbulenceTemporalmixinglayerPlateaupeakmodelSpectraldynamicmodelIncompressibleplanechannelWallunitsStreaksandhairpinsSpectralDNSandLESChannelpdfsCurrentchallengesforLESStructurefunctionmodelFormalismNonuniformgridsStructurefunctionversusSmagorinskymodelsIsotropicturbulenceandfreeshearflowsSFmodel,transition,andwallflowsSelectivestructurefunctionmodelP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:CONTENTSviiFormalismTheproblemofconstantadjustmentFilteredstructurefunctionmodelTemporalmixinglayerSpatialmixinglayerRoundjetThenaturaljetTheforcedjetBackstepStrouhalnumbersNewmodelsDynamicstructurefunctionmodelGeneralizedhyperviscositiesHyperviscosityScalesimilarityandmixedmodelsOtherapproachesAnimationsLESofcompressibleturbulenceSimplifiedcompressibleLESformalismCompressibleNavier–StokesequationsCompressiblefilteredequationsCompressibleLESequationsCompressiblemixinglayerConvectiveMachnumberTemporalmixinglayerSpatialmixinglayerCompressibleroundjetsWeaklycompressiblewallflowsLESofspatiallydevelopingboundarylayersBoundarylayeronspanwisecavitiesObstaclewithawalleffectPipeflowDragreductionbyribletsTransonicflowpastarectangularcavityEuropeanspaceshuttleHerme`sHeatexchangesinductsStraightductsofsquaresectionDuctswithribletsSpatiallygrowingturbulencethroughastraightductCurvedductsofsquaresectionAnimationsGeophysicalfluiddynamicsIntroductiontogeophysicalfluiddynamicsP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:viiiCONTENTSRossbynumberEarthatmosphereOceaniccirculationInternalgeophysicsEffectsofspanwiserotationonshearflowsofconstantdensityRotatingchannelRotatingfreeshearlayersStormformationEadymodelBaroclinicjetAnimationsBibliographyP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:PrefaceIn,inanunpublishedreporttotheUSOfficeofNavalResearch,JohnvonNeumannremarkedofturbulencethatthegreatimportanceofturbulencerequiresnofurtheremphasisTurbulenceundoubtedlyrepresentsacentralprincipleformanypartsofphysics,andathoroughunderstandingofitspropertiesmustbeexpectedtoleadtoadvancesinmanyfieldsTurbulencerepresentsperseanimportantprincipleinphysicaltheoryandinpuremathematicsTheseconsiderationsjustifytheviewthataconsiderableefforttowardsadetailedunderstandingofthemechanismsofturbulenceiscalledforFewpeopletodaywoulddisagreewiththesecommentsontheimportanceofunderstandingturbulenceand,asimplied,ofitspredictionAnd,althoughtheturbulenceproblemhasstillyettobe“solved,”ourunderstandingofturbulencehassignificantlyadvancedsincethattimethisprogresshascomethroughacombinationoftheoreticalstudies,ofteningeniousexperiments,andjudiciousnumericalsimulationsInaddition,fromthisunderstanding,ourabilitytopredict,oratleasttomodel,turbulencehasgreatlyimprovedmethodstopredictturbulentflowsusinglargeeddysimulation(LES)arethemainfocusofthepresentbookTheimpactofvonNeumannisstillfelttodayinthepredictionofturbulentflows,bothinhisworkonnumericalmethodsandinthepeopleandtheresearchhehasinfluencedThegenesisofthemethodoflargeeddysimulation(orpossiblymoreappropriately,“simulationdesgrandese´chelles”)wasintheearlyswiththeresearchofJoeSmagorinskyAtthetime,SmagorinskywasworkinginvonNeumann’sgroupatPrinceton,developingmodelingfordissipationanddiffusioninnumericalweatherpredictionDougLilly,wholaterworkedwithSmagorinsky,realizedthepotentialforsimulatingturbulentflowsofSmagorinky’smodelingworkWhenLillyjoinedtheNationalCenterQuoteprovidedbyRussellJDonnellyixP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:xPREFACEforAtmosphericResearch(NCAR),heencouragedNCAR’sJimDeardorfftopursuethislineofresearchDeardorfflatercompletedthefirstseriesofLES,publishinghisresultsinseveralimportantpapersintheearlysAtthattimeatNCAR,DougLilly,ChuckLeith,JimDeardorff,andlaterJackHerringestablishedamoststimulatingenvironmentforturbulenceresearchInadditiontothesefirstlargeeddysimulationsandotherresearch,suchasontheparameterizationofboundarylayerturbulenceandstudiesofclearairturbulence,thefirstdirectnumericalsimulationswerecarriedoutatNCARinthattimeperiodbySteveOrszagandStuPattersonResearchonlargeeddysimulationisincreasingrapidlyasthismethodologytakesitsplaceasavaluablenumericalsimulationtoolalongwithdirectnumericalsimulationandReynoldsaveragedNavier–StokessimulationAsanexampleofthis,averyinformalsurveyusingtheScienceCitationIndexindicatesthatthenumberofarchivalpaperswith“largeeddysimulation”intheirtitleshasincreasedalmostgeometricallyinthepastdecadeorsofromin,toin,toin,andtoinInaddition,withcontinuingimprovementsinnumericalmethodsandalsoinsubgridmodelingofturbulence,largeeddysimulationisbeingutilizedmoreandmoreinapplicationsThiscanbeseen,forexample,initsimplementationinmostofthecommerciallyavailablefluiddynamicscodesUndoubtedlyitwillbecomeaprincipaltoolinapplicationsinthefutureThistremendousincreaseintheinterestin,andofuseof,LESdemandstheavailabilityofbooksthatdescribethetheoryandmodelingaspectsofLESandthatalsogivedetailedexamplesofhowithasbeenandcanbeappliedSuchwasthetaskoftheauthorsofthisbookThethreeauthorsofthisbook,MarcelLesieur,OlivierMe´tais,andPierreComte,whohaveformedthenucleusoftheGrenobleEquipeMode´lisationetSimulationdelaTurbulence(theGrenobleteamformodelingandsimulatingturbulence),areeminentlyqualifiedtowritesuchabookTheyhavebeenveryactiveinmanydevelopmentsinsubgridmodelingofturbulentflowsrequiredforlargeeddysimulationandalsointheimplementationofLESmethodologyinresearchandapplicationsAmongotherthingstheyhavebeenresponsibleforsomeofthefirstresearchonspectralsubgridscaleclosureusingsomeoftheideasfromthisclosureapproachtheydevelopedthephysicalspacestructurefunctionmodel,whichhasreceivedconsiderableattentionanduseandmorerecentlytheyhaveledindevelopingmodelingforcompressibleturbulentflowsOfcoursethereaderswillfindoutmuchmoreabouttheircontributionsinthisbookThisbookcontainsthebasicinformationrequiredforbothapersonnewtothesubjectoflargeeddysimulationandforuseasareferenceforthemoreexperiencedresearcherInaddition,itcontainsseveraladditionalitemsthereadermayfindofspecialimportanceThefirstoftheseitemsiscontainedinP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:PREFACExiChapter,whereadetaileddiscussionisgivenofvorticity,pressure,andthevelocitygradienttensor,whicharequantitiesusefulforprobingtheresultsofasimulation–inparticularlookingforcoherentvorticesandcoherentstructuresSincetheapproachoflargeeddysimulationfocusesonthelargescalemotions,whichareoftencoherent,itisimportanttohavetheappropriatetoolsavailabletoexaminethesimulationsforsuchfeaturesAnotheritemofspecialimportanceistheindepthdiscussionofspectralsubgridscalemodelinginChaptersandAlthoughphysicalspacemodelsaregenerallymorereadilyapplied,thespectralmodelsgivemoreinsightintotherequirementsandlimitationsinsubgridscalemodelingandrelatedissues,suchasbackscatteringAthirdspecialiteminthebookisitsdetaileddiscussionofthelargeeddysimulationofcompressibleflowsinChapter–asubjecttowhichtheauthorshavemadeimportantrecentcontributions,andinformationaboutwhichhas,uptillnow,onlybeenavailableinarticlesscatteredthroughouttheliteratureThistopicwillbeofinterestnotonlytothosedealingwithsupersonicflowsbutalsotothoseinterestedincombustion,astrophysics,andotherrelatedtopicsInthefinalchaptertheauthorsgobacktotheoriginsoflargeeddysimulationsanddiscussapplicationstoproblemsingeophysicalfluidmechanicsThereaderwillbecomeacquaintedwithexamplesofhowlargeeddysimulationcanenableissuesthatareatsuchhighReynoldsnumbersthattheyareavailableonlytolargeeddysimulationtobeaddressedAmongthetopicsdiscussedaretheeffectsofsystemrotationonturbulenceandthegenerationofstormsthroughbaroclinicinstabilitiesTolearnanewtopic,itisoftenbesttohaveavailableexamplesworkedoutinsomedetailOneofthegreatmeritsofthisbookisthatitisfilledwithmanyexamplesoftentakenfromtheresearchoftheauthorsTheseexamplesaresupplementedbynumerousanimations,whicharereferencedattheendoftheappropriatechaptersandareavailableontheaccompanyingCDROMTheauthorshavesucceededexceptionallywellinprovidingabookthatwillbevaluableforboththenoviceandtheexperienceduserThebookwillbeusefulasatextorreferenceingraduatecoursesonlargeeddysimulation,anditshouldfindaplaceonthereferenceshelfofbothscientistsandengineerswhohaveinterestinlargeeddysimulationThebookshouldbecomeasignificantelementinthisrapidlydevelopingfieldofturbulencesimulationJamesJRileyJuneP:JPJP:GDZCBFMCBLesieurMay,:xiiCBCBLesieurApril,:IntroductiontoLESBook’sscopeLargeeddysimulations(LESs)ofturbulentflowsareextremelypowerfultechniquesconsistingintheeliminationofscalessmallerthansomescale�xbyaproperlowpassfilteringtoenablesuitableevolutionequationsforthelargescalestobewrittenThelattermaintainanintensespatiotemporalvariabilityLargeeddysimulation(LES)posesaverydifficulttheoreticalproblemofsubgridscalemodeling,thatis,howtoaccountforsmallscaledynamicsinthelargescalemotionequationsLESisaninvaluabletoolfordecipheringthevorticalstructureofturbulence,sinceitallowsustocapturedeterministicallytheformationandulteriorevolutionofcoherentvorticesandstructuresItalsopermitsthepredictionofnumerousstatisticsassociatedwithturbulenceandinducedmixingLESappliestoextremelygeneralturbulentflows(isotropic,freeshear,wallbounded,separated,rotating,stratified,compressible,chemicallyreacting,multiphase,magnetohydrodynamic,etc)LEShascontributedtoabloomingindustrialdevelopmentintheaerodynamicsofcars,trains,andplanespropulsion,turbomachinerythermalhydraulicsacousticsandcombustionAnimportantapplicationliesinthepossibilityofsimulatingsystemsthatallowturbulencecontrol,whichwillbeamajorsourceofenergysavingsinthefutureLESalsohasmanyapplicationsinmeteorologyatvariousscales(smallscalesintheturbulentboundarylayer,mesoscales,andsynopticplanetaryscales)UseofLESwillsoonenableustopredictthetransportandmixingofpollutionLESisusedintheoceanforunderstandingmixingduetoverticalconvectionandstratificationandalsoforunderstandinghorizontalmesoscaleeddiesLESshouldbeveryusefulforunderstandingthegenerationofEarth’smagneticfieldintheturbulentoutermantleandasatoolforstudyingplanetaryandstellardynamicsItisclearthatthestudyoflargeeddysimulationsofturbulencehasbecomeadisciplinebyitselfThisbookwilltrytopresentaglobalandcompleteCBCBLesieurApril,:LARGEEDDYSIMULATIONSOFTURBULENCEaccountofthisdisciplineanditsvigorousdevelopmentssincetheearlysandthepioneeringworkofSmagorinskyWewillalsoprovidevariousindustrialandenvironmentalapplicationsAlthoughwedonotexpectthereadertobeanexpertinfluiddynamicsandturbulence,itisnottheaimofthepresentbooktogiveacompleteaccountoftheseaspectsWewilltry,however,torecallinsimpletermssomeofthemwhilereferringtothecompaniontextbookofLesieurforthemoreadvancedaspectsordetailedderivationsonthesetopicsTheobjectiveofthebookistwofoldThefirstistopresentthedetailsofmanymodelsdevelopedinlargeeddysimulationsofturbulenceThesecondis,throughexamplesofapplication,togivethereaderathoroughunderstandingofturbulencedynamicsinisotropy,mixinglayers,boundarylayers,andseparatedflowsandhowsuchadynamicsmaybedeeplymodifiedbyrotation,stratification,heating,andcompressibilityThebookcontainsnumerouscomputergeneratedgraphicsaswellasaCDROMwithmoviesofsomeflowscomputedwithLES(isotropicturbulence,mixinglayersandjets,backwardfacingsteps,boundarylayersandchannelflows,cavitiesatvariousMachnumbers,heatedchannelflows,frontalcyclogenesisintheatmosphere,etc)Thisinterdisciplinarytextbookaddressesaverywidepopulationofgraduatestudents,researchers,andindustrialengineersinthedomainsofmechanical,aerospace,civil,chemical,andnuclearengineeringg

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