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首页 Go Tell it on the Mountain

Go Tell it on the Mountain.pdf

Go Tell it on the Mountain

slgfrank 2012-03-03 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Go Tell it on the Mountainpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含GOTELLITONTHEMOUNTAINByJamesBaldwinFirstPublishedinWithanIntroductionbyAnd符等。

GOTELLITONTHEMOUNTAINByJamesBaldwinFirstPublishedinWithanIntroductionbyAndrewO’HaganINTRODUCTION‘Theballoonofexperienceistiedtotheearth,’wroteHenryJamesinTheAmerican,‘andunderthatnecessityweswing,thankstoaropeofremarkablelength,inthemoreorlesscommodiouscarofimagination’InJamesBaldwinwaslivinginParis–ameasureofropehavingbeenunfurled–yethistiestoHarlemgrewstrongerbythedayTherewaslittleof第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网HemingwayorGertrudeSteininBaldwin’ssojournthoughheenjoyedalittlemorefreedomthere,andadventuretoo,hewasn’tthereforfriendshiporfreedomoradventureeither,butforwritingBaldwincametoEuropeinsearchofhisownvoiceHecameforaclearviewofthepastAndthisexilesuitedhim,sentencesatoncebeginningtobleedoutofmemoryandsimagination,oldwoundsopeningintonewlanguageBaldwin’sfatherwasalaypreachertohiseldestsonhewas‘handsome,proud,andingrown’Thesonwasbornintoareligiouscommunity,aworldwheredutyjoinedwithpride,wheresinbattledwithhighhopesofredemption,wheretheSavedsangovertheDamned,whereloveandhatecouldsmellsimilar,andwherefathersandsonscouldbestrangersforever‘Ihaddeclinedtobelieve,’BaldwinwroteinhisfamousNotesofaNativeSon,‘inthatapocalypsewhichhadbeencentraltomyfather’svision’…IhadnotknownmyfatherwellWehadgotonbadly,partlybecauseweshared,indifferentfashions,theviceofstubbornprideWhenhewasdeadIrealizedIhadhardlyeverspokentohim…HewasofthefirstgenerationoffreemenHe,alongwiththousandsofotherNegroes,cameNorthafterandIwaspartofthatgenerationwhichhadneverseenthelandscapeofwhatNegroessometimescalledtheOldCountryBaldwinwasthekindofwriterwhocouldn’tforget,Herememberedeverything,andthepulseofremembering,andtheacheofoldnews,makesforthebeatofhisearlywritingAttheageoffourteenheunderwentwhathecalledlater‘aprolongedreligiouscrisis’,aconfusiontoodeepfortears,butnotforprose‘IthendiscoveredGod,Hissaintsandangels,andHisblazingHell,’hewrote,‘IsupposeHimtoexistonlywithinthewallofachurch–infact,ofourchurch–andIalsosupposedthatGodandsafetyweresynonymous’AtthispointBaldwinbecameapreachertooHeknewthatsomethingimportanthappenedwhenhestoodupandentereddeeplyintothelanguageofasermonPeoplelistened,theyclapped‘Amen,Amen,’theysaidAndallofitremainedwithhim:thesmellofchurchwoodandthecryingout,theshimmeroftambourinestheheatofdamnationthesongsoftheSaved,hisfather’sfaceandtheNewYorkworldoutsidewithitswhitepeopledowntownwho’dsay‘Whydon’tyouniggersstayuptownwhereyoubelong’Butmorethananythingitwashisfather’sface‘Inmymind’seye,’hwwritesinNotes,‘Icouldseehim,sittingatthewindow,lockedupinhisterrorshatingandfearingeverylivingsoulincludinghischildrenwhohadbetrayedhim,too,byreachingtowardtheworldwhichhaddespisedhim’Somenovelists,intheirearlyworkespecially,setouttodefeatthecomfortsofinvention:theyrefusetomakeanythingupGoTellItontheMountainisJamesBaldwin’sfirstnovel,ashadowalbumoflivedexperience,thelinesherebeingnolessrealthanthoseonhismother’sfaceForBaldwin,asforProust,thereissomethinggraveandbeautifulandreligiousabouttheloveoftruthitself,andsomethingofsensualjoyinbringingittothepageBaldwin’scareerasanovelistwasspentwalkingoveroldterritorywithghostsThingsbecamenewtohimthisway‘MountainisthebookIhadtowriteifIwasevergoingtowriteanythingelse,’hesaidyearslater‘IhadtodealwithwhathurtmemostIhadtodealwithmyfather’第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网Thenoveliscentredarounda“tarryservice’attheTempleoftheFireBaptisedinHarleminFourteenyearoldJohnGrimes,dubious,fearful,andalreadybitter,isabouttowalkthepathtosalvationTherearehighexpectationsofJohn,‘tobeagoodexample’,andto‘comethrough’totheLordTheservicewilllastthewholenight,andJohnisthereinthecompanyoftheelder‘saints’ofthechurch,andwithhisfatherandmotherandAuntFlorenceThereisastrongsenseofJohnbeingoneoftheanointed,butweabsorbhisslow,terribledoubtsabouthimselfAltogetherheisnotahappychildonthisspecialnight:Somethinghappenedtotheirfacesandtheirvoices,therhythmoftheirbodies,andtotheairtheybreatheditwasasthoughwherevertheymightbebecametheupperroom,andtheHolyGhostwereridingintheairHisfather’sface,alwaysawful,becamemoreawfulnow,hisfather’sdailyangerwastransformedintopropheticwrathHismother,hereyesraisedtoheaven,handsarkedbeforeher,moving,maderealforJohnthatpatience,thatendurance,thatlongsuffering,whichhehadreadintheBibleandfoundsohardtoimageBetweenthenovel’sopeningandclosing–thebeginningoftheservice,with‘theLordhighonthewindtonight’,andtheclosing,themorning,withJohnwrithingformercyonthethreshingfloorinfrontofthealtar–wereadthestoriesofhisrelatives:Florence,hisauntGabriel,hisfatherandhismotherElizabethInthreelongchapterswecometoknowthebeliefs,theleavetakings,theloves,thehonouranddishonour,thathadmadeupthelivesofthesethreepeople,liveswhichhaveanimatedahostofotherlives,andwhich,byandby,havecometoanimatethelifeofJohnGrimestooTherearesecretsinthenovel,astheyemergeinabeautiful,disturbingpattern,uncoveredwordsspeakingclearly,soulfully,ofthisonefamily’slegacyofpainandsilenceInGoTellItontheMountain,JohnhasacertaindreadofthelifethatawaitshimhefeelsdoomedandhedreamsofescapeHehasmadedecisions‘Hewillnotbelikehisfather,orhisfather’sfatherHewouldhaveanotherlife’Itmightbesaidthatthishasbeenavaindreamofartists–andteenagers–sincethebeginningoftime,butinBaldwinitisneithervainnotmerelyadream,forJohnGrimesrepresents,inalltheeloquenceofhiswishes,anewkindofAmericanHisfather’sfatherswereslavesJohn’sfather,Gabriel,isfree,burheisexpectedtoswearallegiancetotheflagthathasnotswornallegiancetohim,andhelivesinaracistlandOnthisfront,Baldwin’sAmericawastobecomeabattleground,butJohn,giventhedateofeventsinthenovel,canneverbeaCivilRightscipherHefeelsguiltyforfailingtoshareGabriel’sunambivalenthatredofwhitepeople,butJohnhasadditionalfreedomsinmind–freedomfromthelocaloppressionsofGabrielbeingfirstamongthemGoTellItontheMountainisnotaprotestnovel,itisapoliticalnovelofthehumanheartWhitemenmaybeevil,buttheyarenotthebeginningnortheendofevilBaldwinwasinterestedatthispointincorruptionatthefirstleveloflegislativepower–thefamilyBaldwinwroteaboutblackpeopleHedidnotwritenovelswhichunderstoodthelivesofblackpeopleonlyintermsofwhitesubjugationAtthesametimeherecognizedeveryterrorofsegregation,andGoTellItontheMountainisashocking,andshockinglyquiet,dramatizationofwhatsegregationmeantintheyearswhenthenovelissetEarlyonweseeJohncontemplatingthe第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网forbiddenworldinsidetheNewYorkPublicLibrary,aworldofcorridorsandmarblestepsandnoplaceforaboyfromHarlem‘Andtheneveryone,’Baldwinwrites,‘allthewhitepeopleinside,wouldknowthathewasnotusedtogreatbuildings,ortomanybooks,andtheywouldlookathimwithpity’Thisisastrongthingforawritertoremember,ortoimagine,andBaldwinbringsittothepagewithasenseofanger,andregretThenovelismarkedbythedarkpresenceof‘downhome’,theOldSouth,whereallofJohn’sfamilycamefrominsearchofanewlifeThiswasBaldwin’sprimarymilieu:theHarlemofmigrantblackAmericans,bringingwiththemthestoriesoftheirfathersandmothers,onegenerationawayfromslaveryThisNorthernesswasimportanttoBaldwinItwastheworldheknewfromhischildhoodandtheworldhecaredmostaboutHehadafeelingforthehopesthatwereinvestedinthejourneyNorth–‘North,’where,asGabriel’smothersays,‘wickednessdweltandDeathrodemightythroughthestreets’Inoneofhisessays,‘AFlyintheButtermilk’,BaldwinwroteofanotherSoutherner’scontemptfortheNorth,amanhetriedtointerviewforapieceontheprogressofCivilRights:‘Heforcedmetoadmit,atonce,thatIhadneverbeentocollegethatNorthernNegroeslivedherdedtogether,likepigsinapenthatthecampusonwhichwemetwasatributetotheindustryanddeterminationofSouthernNegroes“NegroesintheSouthformacommunity”’Baldwin’ssensibility,histalentformoralambivalence,histastefortheterrifyingpatternsoflife,theelegantforceofhisdisputatiousspirit,asmuchHenryJamesasBessieSmith,wasnotalwaystofindfavourwithhisblackcontemporariesLangstonHughescalledGoTellIttotheMountain‘alowdownstoryinavelvetbag’‘AJoanofArcofthecocktailparty’wasAmiriBaraka’scommentonBaldwinSomeofthiscouldbeconstructedasstandardresentment–reminiscentofthekindexpressedbyGabrieltowardsJohnfornothatingwhitesenough–andsomewasareactionagainstBaldwin’spopularitywiththewhiteliteraryestablishmentButthatwasn’tallBythetimehewaswritingnovels,andwritingtheseessays–worksofmagicalpoweranddirectness–Baldwinhadcometofeelthattheblack‘protest’novelwasbreathlesslyredundantInarecentessayaboutBaldwin’swriting,thenovelistDarrylPinckneycommentsonBaldwin’srejectionofRichardWright,theauthorofNativeSon:InretrospectBaldwinpraisesWright’sworkforitsdry,savagefolklorichumourandforhowdeeplyitconveyswhatlifewaslikeonChicago’sSouthSideTheclimatethathadoncemadeWright’sworkreadlikearacialmanifestohadgoneBaldwinfoundwhenreadingWrightagainthathedidnotthinkofthesorevenofNegroes,becauseWright’scharactersandsituationshaduniversalmeaningsIn‘Alas,PoorRichard’,anessayinthecollectionNobodyKnowsMyName,BaldwinconcludesthatWrightwasnotthepolemicalfirebrandhetookhimselftobeManyofBaldwin’sblackcontemporarieshatedthisviewBaldwin’sfirstnovel,inrespectofallthis,demonstratesaremarkableunitofformandcontentthestyleofthenovelmakescleartheextenttowhichhewasturningawayfromhisliteraryforefathersItmaybesensibletoseethenovelasafarewellnotonlytheHarlemofhisfather,buttotheliteraryinfluenceofRichardWrightandUncleTom’sCabinBaldwinwas第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网unremittingonthispoint,andtheseseveralgoodbyes,offeredfromhisParisexile,becamethecreedofhisearlywriting‘InmostofthenovelswrittenbyNegroesuntiltoday,’hewrote,‘thereisagreatspacewheresexoughttobeandwhatusuallyfillsthisspaceisviolence’GoTellItontheMountainisaverysensualnovel,abooksoakedintheBibleandthebluesSpiritualsongisthereinthesentences,attheheadofchapters,anditanimatesthevoicesoneverysideduringthe‘comingthrough’ofJohnGrimesAshestepsuptothealtarJohnissuddenlyawareofthesoundofhisownprayers–‘tryingnottohearthewordsthatheforcedoutwardsfromhisthroat’Baldwin’slanguagehastheverbalsimplicityoftheOldTestament,aswellasitsmetaphoricalboldnessTherhythmsoftheblues,ashadeofregret,anoteofpainrisingoutofexperience,aredeeplyinscribedinthenovel,andtheytravelfreelyalongthelinesofdialogueThereisakindofmetaphorical,liturgicalenergyinsomenovels–inFaulkner’sTheSoundandtheFury,inJoyce’sPortraitoftheArtistasaYoungMan,inElizabethSmart’sByGrandCentralStationISatDownandWept,inToniMorrison’sBeloved–whichisutterlyessentialtotheartItmayseematfirstoverpowering,towaftintheairlikeperfume,ortohavethetextureofLangstonHughes’svelvetbag,butitis,ineachofthecases,andespeciallyinthecaseofBaldwin’sfirstnovel,amatterofstraightforwardliteraryintegrityEverywordisnecessaryEveryimagerunsclearinthebloodofthenovelTakeJohn’smotherElizabethLookattheshapeofherthoughtsonthepage,asbroughtoutinBaldwin’sthirdpersonnarrative:‘Isuredon’tcarewhatGoddon’tlike,oryou,either,’Elizabethheartreplied‘I’mgoingawayfromhereHe’sgoingtocomeandgetme,andI’mgoingawayfromhere’‘He’washerfather,whonevercameAstheyearspassedsherepliedonly:‘I’mgoingawayfromhere’Andithung,thisdetermination,likeaheavyjewelbetweenherbreastsitwaswritteninfireonthedarkskyofhermindBut,yes–therewassomethingshehadoverlookedPridegoethbeforedestructionandahaughtyspiritbeforeafallShehadnotknownthis:shehadnotimaginedthatshecouldfallWhenreadingthisnovelIamalwaysawareofthechargethatsexgivestoreligion,abondthenovelexploresandconfirmsWethinkofBaldwinasafigureofthes,aliteraryembodimentofoutrageinthefaceofAmericansegregation,butactually,Baldwin,inhisnovels,writesmoreofsexandsinthanhedoesofCivilRightsGabriel,apreacherspeakingfierywordsfromthepulpit,isactuallyasecretsinner,falleninwaysthatareknowntohissisterFlorence,andknowntohiswifeElizabethtooWhenyounger,‘hedrankuntilhammersranginhisdistantskullhecursedhisfriendsandhisenemies,andfoughtuntilbloodrandowninthemorninghefoundhimselfinmud,inclay,instrangebeds,andonceortwiceinjailhismouthsour,hisclothesinrags,fromallofhimrisingthestinkofhiscorruption’ThenoveltellsthestoryofhowJohncomestoknowthisGabrielusesthechurchnottoraisebuttoconcealhistruecharacter:hishypocrisyiseverywherearoundhim,andnowheremorethaninthemindsofthewomenwhohadsufferedhim,andincreasingly,too,inthemindofJohn,his‘bastard’sonFlorence’sloverFrankwassimilarlycorrupt,yethe,atleast,in‘thebrutalityof第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网hispenitence’,triedtomakeituptoFlorenceItisJohn’sterriblefate–andeveryoneelse’s–thatGabrielcanneitherinspireforgivenessnorredeemhimselfHegoesonwithhislyingHeinspiredfearHeishatedNovelsaboutthesinsofmenoftenturnouttobenovelsaboutthecourageofwomenFlorence,Elizabeth,Deborah,andthetragicEsther,whoismadepregnantbyGabrielandsentawaytodie,arethenovel’smoralretainers,keepingfaithwithhumanity,whilstallaroundthemFaithridesonhisdarkhorse,cuttingdownhopeandcharityFlorencesayssomethingforallthewomeninthenovel,andforJamesBaldwin,onesuspects,contemplatingthefateofthewomeninhisearlylife,whenshelooksatthefaceofFrank‘Itsometimescametoher,’Baldwinwrites,‘thatallwomenhadbeencursedfromthecradle’all,inonefashionoranother,beinggiventhesamecrueldestiny,borntosuffertheweightofmen’FlorenceremembersthebeginningofherowncrueldestinyItbeganwiththebirthofGabrielAfterthisherfuturewas‘swallowedup’,andhelifewasover:‘Therewasonlyonefutureinthathouse,anditwasGabriel’s–towhich,sinceGabrielwasamanchild,allelsemustbesacrificed’Baldwinisunusual–andcontroversial,formoretraditionalblackwriters,aswellasthecounterculturalonesaheadofhim–inmakingtheAfricanAmericanbidforfreedomcomplicatedForFlorence,andforhernephewJohnGrimes,‘freeatlast’wouldhavetomeanseveralthings,notonlyfreefromtheOldSouth,orfreefromtheevilsofsegregation,butthefreedomtoentertheworldoutside,andfreedomfromthehatredsofthefamilykitchen‘AndthisbecauseFlorence’sdeepambition:towalkoutonemorningthroughthecabindoor,nevertoreturn’ButthenovelknowsthereisapricetobepaidforthistooElizabeth,alongtimeawayfromtheSouth,enjoyedwalkinginCentralPark,because‘itrecreatedsomethingofthelandscapeshehadknown’BaldwinnevergotoverhisreligiouscrisisattheageoffourteenHedidn’tforget‘Thatsummer’hewritesinTheFireNextTime,‘allthefearswithwhichIhadgrownup,andwhichwerenowapartofmeandcontrolledmyvisionoftheworld,roseuplikeawallbetweentheworldandme,anddrovemeintothechurch’Hesurrenderedtoaspiritualseduction,fallingdownbeforethealtar,andthereafterpreachingforthreeyearsBaldwinrecallshisfatheronedayslappinghisface,‘andinthatmomenteverythingfloodedback–allthehatredandallthefear,andthedepthofamercilessresolvetokillmyfatherratherthanallowmyfathertokillme–andIknewthatallthosesermonsandtearsandallthatrepentanceandrejoicinghadchangednothing’BaldwinputtheessenceofallofthisintoGoTellitontheMountainGabrielhasthepreacher’straditionalloveofhelplessness,andtraditionalangerinthefaceofselfsufficiencyYetthecentralissuesofGabriel’slifearehishypocrisy,andthesexualdesirethataccompaniestherejoicingofreligiouslifeHistreatmentofEsthercombinesthetwo(‘Iguessittakesaholymantomakeagirlarealwhore,’shesay)butonlyFlorenceseemsawareofthetruthafterEsterisdeadAtthecloseofthenovelsheseekstonamethetreebyitsfruitAndJohn,whoisnotstrangefruitofthattree,mightlivetocurseallliesandgofreeintotheworldBaldwin,allhiswriting,insistedhewroteonlyfromexperienceThatwasthekindofwriterhewas:hemeanteverywordTherewouldalwaysbesomethingofthepulpitonBaldwin’swriting,andsomethingtooofthethreshingfloorGoTellItontheMountainisabeautiful,enduring,spiritualsongofanovel,agushoflifefromahauntedAmericanchurchLikemanywriterswithareligiouspast,theyoungmanwhowrotethisnovelwasstrandedinthespace第页共页http:wwwencomcn原版英语阅读网betweenhisownbodyandthebodyofChrist,andstrungbetweenthefatherhehatedandtheFatherwhomightofferhimsalvationJohnGrimesfindsthebeginningofhisredemptionintheveryplacewherehisfatherlivedouthishypocrisy,thechurch,whereGabrielspawnedsomuchofthetroubleintheirlivesHere,atlast,afterallissaidanddone,JohnGrimescangoinsearchoftheEverlasting,‘overhisfather’sheadtoHeaven–totheFatherwholovedhim’AndrewO’HaganAndrewO’HaganwasborninGlasgowinHeistheauthorofTheMissing,abookaboutmi

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