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Integrating ERP, CRM, Supply Chain Mgt., and Smart Materials 8.pdf

Integrating ERP, CRM, Supply Ch…

上传者: gushici 2012-02-25 评分 4.5 0 93 13 421 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Integrating ERP, CRM, Supply Chain Mgt., and Smart Materials 8pdf》,可适用于生产运营领域,主题内容包含ChapterImplementingSuccessiveReleasesofERPSystemsThesoftwareindustryisreno符等。

ChapterImplementingSuccessiveReleasesofERPSystemsThesoftwareindustryisrenownedforusingnonstandardterminologyindescribingitswaresTherefore,itisnecessarytodefinethetermsthatwillbeusedaswellasestablishthedifferencebetweenanewversion,majorupgrade,orminorupgradeofaprogrammingproductQuiteoften,forcommercialreasons,thesetermsareusedinterchangeablyIfanewreleaseofofftheshelfsoftware,suchasERPorCRM,representsonlyaminorupgrade,thiswilltypicallyinvolvecorrectionoferrors,bugfixes,removalofpatches,orweedingoutsomeoftheinefficienciesBycontrast,amajorupgradewilltypicallyinvolvenovelfunctionsItmayalsoaccountforregulatorychangesregardingfinancialreportingandotherrequirementsWhileeachvendortendstouseitsownterminology,thewaytobetisthatamajorreleaseseestoitthatanysuccessiveversionofanERPsystem(oranyothertypeofcommoditysoftware)willtendtobesignificantlydifferentthanitspredecessorThecoreproductitselfisaffectedand,quiteoften,thisimpactsontheuserorganizationallthewayfromsystemskillstocentralmemoryandothertechnicalrequirementsBoththeaimsandproblemsassociatedwithnewreleasescanbebetterappreciatedthroughaquicklookatthehistoryofERPsoftwareWheninthelatesearlys,ERPhitthemarket,itsdifferentvendorsconcentratedtheireffortsoncapturingasmuchofmarketshareaspossiblebysteadilyenlargingthescopeoftheirofferingsandthroughthisstrategy,theircustomerbaseERPwasnotinventedovernightOneofitspredecessorswasMRPII,originallydesignedtomanageaproductionfacility’scustomerorders,schedulingplans,andinventoriesTheneedtointegratethesalesbookwithinprocessgoodsandinventorydatacameasalogicalnextstepThiswasaAUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCIntegratingERP,CRM,SupplyChainManagement,andSmartMaterialsnewreleaseAsseeninChapter,otherreleasestookcareofaccountingroutines,financialinformation,andhumanresourceplanningTheneedforsteadyinnovationcanbeappreciatedbythefactthatwhilemostoftheswitnessedboomingERPsales,bythemarketsloweddownwithrevenuesfromsellingnewsoftwarelicensesdecliningOnereasonwasthatclientcompaniesneededtosolvetheirYear(YK)problemsAnotherreasonwasthattheERPmarketitselfstartedbecomingsaturatedByaddingnewfunctionalitytocommoditysoftware,successivereleasesareofteninstrumentalinbreakingthroughthesaturationbarrierThis,however,mightleadtocomplexitiesontheimplementationsideaswellasthelackofskillsinsolvingthemOneofthesecomplexitiesisthesocalledmultisiteenterpriseresourceplanningapplications,whereateachsitetherearedifferentchoicesduetodifferentcriteriaforevaluatingthealternativesandproceedingwithavalidsolution(seeChapter)NewreleasesarealsonecessarytomatchtherequirementsposedbyadvancingtechnologyAnexampleistheneedtoincorporateintothepackagesupportfortheProductMarkupLanguage(PML),whichisanextensionoftheExtensibleMarkupLanguage(XML)itselfadevelopmentoftheWeb’sHTMLPMLisdiscussedinChapteritsfunctionalityservesinhandlingsmartmaterials,asitisonitswaytobecomingthestandardlanguagefordescribingphysicalobjectsSmartmaterialsisthethemeofSectionIIDistributedProcessingIncreasestheChallengeofImplementingNewReleasesImplementinganewreleasewassomewhatsimplerwhencomputerprocessingwascentralizedinhugehospitallookingbuildings,withlargeinternalglasswindowstopermitvisitorstoseethemarvelsofamachinewithattendantswearinglongwhiterobesWhileithadmanyotherdefects,particularlyindowngradingefficiencyandreliability,thisconcentrationofdataprocessingsomehowsimplifiedthechangeofareleaseButinthesands,newreleaseswerescarceToday,itisdifferentinmanywaysthepaceofreleasesandupgradeshasacceleratedwhileinthesameuserorganizationtheremaybemultiplesites,andsomeoftheseITsitesarelargelyindependentoftheothersTherefore,asignificantamountofcoordinationisnecessarySometimes,releasechangesatonesitelimittheavailablechoicesoraffecttheperformanceofthesystematanothersiteUserorganizationsarethereforewelladvisedtoplanmultisiteERPandCRMimplementationsverythoroughlyTheyshoulddosobeforecommittingthemselvestoagivencommoditysoftwaresolutionanditssuccessivereleasesThemainhandicapsinimplementingsuccessiveERPreleasesconcernbackgroundtechnicalreasons,rangingfromheterogeneoushardwareplatformsandOSDBMSchoicesatuserorganizationpremises,tolimitedskillforkeepingthesystemuptodateateachsiteEvenifinthepastyearsormonths,AUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCImplementingSuccessiveReleasesofERPSystemstheproblemsofheterogeneityofplatformsandbasicsoftwareweretemporarilysolved,theyresurfacewithanewrelease,leavingcompaniestoperceivemigrationasdifficult,timeconsuming,andcostlyNewreleasesofcommodityprogrammingproducts,whetherbasicsoftwareorapplications,areinfactadoubleedgedswordOnereasonwhythemigrationprocesstakessolongtoexecuteistheattentionthatneedstobepaidtoeachexistingheterogeneousplatformAnotherreasoniswantingcoordinationandthetraditionalpolicyofmanyITshopstomoveatslowpaceIndeed,thelatterreason,morethananyother,seestoitthatsomemigrationstoanewreleasereceivebadreviewsWhetheroneistalkingaboutERP,CRM,oranyotherprogrammingproduct,multisitecoordinationisthekeywordKeepinmindthatmanyERPsupportedbusinessfunctionsareincreasinglyexecutedsimultaneously,interactively,andinrealtimeThisrequiresbusinessandsystemsstafftoworkinclosecollaborationwithboththevendorandthedifferentimplementationsites,andtoaddressalltypesofimplementationissuesinarigorousway,includingproblemssurfacinginonesitebutnotinothersPeoplewhohave,onanumberofoccasions,gonethroughtheexperienceofimplementingnewreleasesarecommentingthat,intheirjudgment,someofthecomplexitiesinERPsoftwarereleasesemanatefromthehighlygeneralizednatureoftheofftheshelfapplicationsandfromthefactthatuserorganizationsmovetopersonalizetheseroutinesThisseestoitthatdiversityandthereforecomplexityincreases,themoresoifinsteadofaparametriccustomization,theusercompanyalterssomeofthesoftwareGoodsystemssensesuggeststhatsuchalterationshouldnotbemadeOfftheshelfsoftwareshouldbeusedasis,subjectonlytoparametriccustomization,andthelattershouldtakeplaceonlyifsuchafacilityisavailablebythevendorTohelpinevaluatingthewisdomofadoptinganewrelease,ExhibitsuggestsaselectionprocedureforofftheshelfprogrammingproductsTypically,acompanyhasalistoftoptenfunctionsitwouldliketoseesupportedinamoreefficientwaythantheonecurrentlyavailableThesecomefirstintheevaluationTheyarefollowedbykeyperformancecriteriaTheERPpackage,whosemostrecentupgradeismappedintermsofeffectivenessintheradarchart,wasinstalledatfivemajorsitesoftheEPSILONcompany(aficticiousname,butarealentity)Eachsite,identifiedItoV,testedtheaftermathoftheupgradeandcameupwitharatingreflectedinExhibitAsthereadercanappreciate,theseratingswerediverseAtsitesIVandV,forexample,thecostofinstallingthenewreleasehardlybrokeevenwithexpectedbenefitsThequestionwasthereforeposed:shouldEPSILONinstallthisnewreleaseorforegoitsbenefitsThechangeofareleasehassignificantcostsassociatedwithitTheseshouldbejustifiedbyanincreaseinfunctionalityandperformanceNoticethatthismethodisalsoapplicableintheoriginalselectionofanERPpackageandnotonlyinevaluationofadoptingsuccessivereleasesInAUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCIntegratingERP,CRM,SupplyChainManagement,andSmartMaterialsoriginalselection,thecostbenefitcomparisonwillbeagainstthecurrentmethodManagementshouldappreciatethatmigrationbetweensuccessivereleasesofERPsoftwareisoftenachallengeEvenifoneoftheaimsofnewreleasesisthatofimprovingbusinessprocesses,oneshouldhaveevidencethattheupgradeisindeedbenefitingtheorganizationSuchevidenceisobtainedbypinpointingimportantbusinessprocessesforwhichmeasurableresultscanbeobtainedBybeingcarefulwithregardtocosteffectiveness,userscaninfluenceERPvendorstoaddmorefunctionalityortoimprovetheefficiencyoftheirreleasesAtthesametime,vendorsshouldbekeentotestprojectedupgradeswithuserorganizationsItisappropriatethattheevolutionofERPsolutionsisinfluencedbychangingmarketconditions,butthereisawholelistofcriteriatobeobserved,includingbetterserviceorientedapproachesEvenifmanyorganizationsdonotmigratethemomentanewversionbecomesavailable,inthelongerruntheyaremotivatedtoadoptthenewreleasefortechnicalreasonsandbusinessopportunitiesAtthelevelofuserorganization,notonlydoesthecurrentapplication’scomplexityneedtobeevaluatedthroughbenchmarksaddressingthenewrelease,alongwithexpectedbenefitsateachsite,butfuturerequirementsmustalsobetakenintoaccount,giventheevolutionofdemandforproductsandservicesForcostbenefitreasons,itismypolicytotrackthecostoftheinitialinstallationofanERPsystemandofitssubsequentreleasesThiscanbedonethroughasimplechartsimilartotheonepresentedinExhibitFunctionalityandperformancecriteriaofthenewreleaseshouldbeestablishedbythecompanyalreadyimplementingtheprogrammingproductExhibitARadarChartforEvaluatingFiveDifferentSitesofERPPackagesandTheirUpgrades,BasedonFourFactorsAUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCImplementingSuccessiveReleasesofERPSystemsWhatthevendorsaysmaybeindicative,butitisnotthebibleBothcriteriaandbenchmarksshouldbethecompany’sownItshouldaswellbeappreciatedthatanopenarchitecture(seeChapter)presentsbetteropportunitiesforanevolutionaryprocessthatiseasytoimplementandassistsinestablishingabusinessdifferentiationNotonlydoesanopenarchitectureeasetheoriginalintegrationtaskofcommodityERPsoftware,butitalso,otherthingsbeingequal,simplifiestheinstallationandoperationofnewreleasesNoticeaswellthatwithpracticallyeverynewrelease,ERP,CRM,andotherprogrammingproductscanbeconfiguredthroughconceptualmodelslinkedwiththerepositoryofthesystemcurrentlyinuseThatiswhy,toaverysignificantextent,rigidconceptscustomarywithmainframesolutionsarenolongerwelcomeWhatisneededisflexibletargetingconceptsthatfitwellwithnewreleasesandparametriccustomizingtechniquesTheuseofmodelingtoolscanhelpinmigrationtoanewreleasebecausetheycanassistinfunctionaldefinitionandinsettingperformancecriteriaTheexistenceofadevelopmentdatabasemakesitpossibletohavedetaileddocumentationbothatthebusinessandtechnicallevelsItalsoprovidesagoodlinkagetofurtherupgradesIinsistontheseissuesbecausetheproblemofupgradingisscheduledtobecomeevenmorepronouncedinthecomingyearsbecauseasignificantnumberofERPandCRMapplicationusersaremovingoutoftheircurrentmonolithicreleasestotakeadvantageofnewfunctionalityasitbecomesExhibitCharacteristicFeaturesofCommoditySoftwareShouldbeAnalyzedPriortoItsSelection,andtheSameIsTrueofSubsequentReleasesAUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCIntegratingERP,CRM,SupplyChainManagement,andSmartMaterialsavailableWhileoneisnotobligedtoadoptthem,newreleasesarepartofthenaturalevolutionofERPapplicationsandaimtoincorporateInternetenablingtechniquesthatdrivetherequirementsforcontinuousintegrationofnewroutinesTheyalsohelpinsubstitutingagedinhouselegacyapplications,whichshouldhavebeenweededoutoryearsagoMetadataandMetaknowledge:AnUpgradeNoCompanyShouldForegoNotechnology,nonewproduct,andnoupgradeisworthanythingifitdoesnotdelivervalueValueiscreatedeitherbylinkingtechnologytomarketingthroughinnovative,moreefficientproductsandservices,orbyincreasinginternalperformanceandthereforeswampingcostsAtthejunctionofthesetwoorganizationalbreakthroughsliestheconceptofmetaMetaisalevelaboveanothermorebasiclevel,andthereforeitisstronginsemanticcontentExhibitprovidestwoexamples:theonefrombanking,theotherfrominventorymanagementTheamountofmoneywrittenonacheckisthelowerinformationlevelDateandplaceofissueismetatoitStillhigherupisthecontrollevel,whichdelimitsdateofvalidityandmaximumacceptableamountMetadataisimportantinmanyactivitiesInventorymanagementisanotherexampleMetadatatorawinventorylevelsincludesadirectoryofinventorylocations,minimumandmaximumperitem,andlevelofconfidenceforautomaticreorderingThisisimportantformarketingandforoptimizationSuchmetalevelsarespecifictotheitemhence,somuchcanbegainedif,aswillbeseeninSectionII,eachitemisableto:AutomaticallyidentifyitselfTransmititsIDandpositiontootherentitiesMakingthegrandstatementthattechnologyhasthepotentialtosignificantlyimproveproductivityandbringbenefitsbeyondpresentdaypracticesmeansExhibitTheConceptofMetadataIsNotWellUnderstood,YetItIsFundamentaltoModernComputerApplicationsAUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCImplementingSuccessiveReleasesofERPSystemsthatonecanobtaintangibleresultsfromitsimplementationMetalevelsallowonetofinetuneinventoryplanningandcontrolHowthisconnectstoservicesprovidedbysmartmaterialsisexplainedinChapterstoThesetwoexampleschecksandinventorylevelassistinexplainingthatmetadataisdataaboutdataAssuch,itiscriticalfortheeffectivemanagementofdataresourcesandalsofordefiningthebeststructurestobeadoptedinconnectionwithlogicalandphysicaldatabasesERPandCRMsoftwareshouldbestronginmetadatasupport,butusuallyitisnotTherefore,oneshouldnotmisstheopportunitytoimplementanewreleaseusingmetadataAdifferentwayoflookingatthissubjectisthatthefocalpointofdatabasesistheirorganization,utility,andserviceinamarketplacethatissteadilybecomingmorecompetitiveandmoredemandingThecontributiontoone’sdatabaseshouldbeamajorcriterionintheselectionanduseofERPandCRMprogrammingproductsEmphasismustbeplacedonapplicationsthatexploitknowledgeenricheddatabasesolutionsandthismeanstheablehandlingofmetadataandmetaknowledgeTechnicallyspeaking,metaknowledgecontrastswithobjectknowledgeObjectknowledgeisbasiclevelForexample,typicallogicprogrammingisanexpressionofobjectknowledgeIncontrast,inawaycomparabletowhatwasjustexplainedaboutmetadata,metaknowledgeisofahigherlevel,whichincludesgeneralizationsandconstraintsMetaknowledgethatis,knowledgeaboutknowledgeisessentiallyconstrainttypeknowledgeThenotionofconstraintsisveryimportantbecauseitcontrolstheinferenceprocessingmechanisminhumansandmachinesInpracticalimplementationterms,metaknowledgecanbeinstrumentalinthetransformationofbehavioralviews,proceduralandotherpatterns,andoperationalframeworksKnowledgemanagementsystemsneedbothmetadataandmetaknowledgeThisistruewhetheroneistalkingaboutcomputerbasedartifactsoraboutmanualhandlingCurrently,therearenoefficientsolutionsformanuallyhandledinformationtherefore,acomputerbasedadvancedmetalevelfunctionalityismostwelcomeDatatraditionallystoredindatabasesmayonlyrepresentpercentoftheinformationassetsofacompanyTheremainderisusuallystorednondigitallyasdocuments,faxes,paperfiles,drawings,orphotosThechallengeishowtousemetaknowledgeinconnectionwiththelatterTheansweristoclassifythistypeofinformationinawaythatenduserscanaccessaspartofaglobalresource(seeChaptersandonclassification)Thisbeingdone,furtherdutiescanbeassignedtoaknowledgemanagementsystemKnowledgemappingextendsmetadataconceptstoclassifyingandretrievingnondigitizedinformationExhibitexplainsthisinteractionbetweenhigherandlowerlevelsbyintroducingtheconceptofmacroscopicandmicroscopicviewsThemetalayerisbasedonmacroscopicknowledge,whichisconceptualandmightevenbefuzzyThemicroscopiclevelconsistsofdetail,withelementarydatatypesthatcanberecombinedThetwoarelinkedbyinheritance,whichisdynamic,instantaneous,andperishableAUframechPageSaturday,April,:AMbyCRCPressLLCIntegratingERP,CRM,SupplyChainManagement,andSmartMaterialsReadersfamiliarwithobjectorienteddatabasesandobjectprogrammingwillrecognizethatthisisthereferenceunderpinningthisdiscussionItispreferablethatERPandCRMprogrammingproductsbeobjectorientedIftheprogrammingproductbeingusedisnot,anditsvendorbringsoutanobjectversion,thenoneshoulddowhatittakestoimplementitBothERPandCRMfunctionalitycanbenefitfrommetalevels,abovethelevelofdetailthatconstitutestheobjectofthisexaminationSupportedbythemetalevel,amacroscopicviewwouldallowonetofocusoncomponentparts(throughzooming)andtoexaminetheintegrativeviewofdetailedelementsInprinciple:MicroscopicknowledgeisfocusedononedomaininwhichthereislittleornocontradictionAnexampleisthehandlingofaspecificfinancialproduct,suchaslettersofcreditThespecialist’smicroscopicknowledgeisimportantnotonlytoensuretheproperdebitsandcredits,butalsotocalculatetheriskbeingtakenbythebankandthereforetheproduct’spricingMicroscopicknowledgeisoftenconsidered“obvious”topeoplewithexperienceinagivenlimiteddomainAlthoughmicroscopicknowledgetypicallyaddressesanarrowfield,thereareseveraldifficultiesindataandknowledgeacquisitionAlso,whilethereisonlyoneoratmostveryfewestablishedpatternsinconnectionwithmicroscopicknowledge,thereexistattimeslessthanrealisticapproachesto

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