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Totally Integrated Enterprises 13.pdf

Totally Integrated Enterprises …

上传者: gushici 2012-02-25 评分 5 0 194 26 881 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Totally Integrated Enterprises 13pdf》,可适用于战略管理领域,主题内容包含AppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementIntroductionInformationresourcesma符等。

AppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementIntroductionInformationresourcesmanagementisapivotalsupportenablerforintegratedandvirtualenterpriseThissectiondiscussesmethodstoensurethatinformationisexploitableforthebestinterestoftheenterpriseTheenterprise’sdatamanagementviewisdiscussedfirst,followedbyadiscussionoftheinformationtechnology(IT)view,whichrealizestheexploitationofenterpriseinformationThissectiondoesnotrecommendanyspecificITsystems,eg,ERP,MRP,PDM,etcAcknowledgingthereisalwaysarequirementfortheseITsystems,thisdiscussionconcentratesonCOTStechnologythatcanprovidetheintegrationofsystemsfromanenterpriseperspectiveWhenimplementingintegrationsoftware,thereisnosuchthingasaonesizefitsallsolutionHowever,thereissomeCOTSsoftware(middleware,describedlaterinthissection)thatfitsmostcasesThistypeofreusableintegrationtechnologyshouldbeimplementedwherepossibleDevelopmentofsoftwareforpointtopointintegrationshouldbeavoidedwherepossiblebyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCTotallyIntegratedEnterprisesDataManagementViewTheimplementationofdatamanagementisdifferentforvariouscompaniesdependingontheirbusinessThevisionandstrategiesforaphysicallydistributedmanufacturingconsortiumthatmustactasasingle,virtualenterprisearedifferentfromthoseforabankorproductdistributioncompanyFigureFillustratesthatdataismanaged,organized,andthenexploitedfortheenterpriseAnunderstandingofthedatatobemanagedisderivedfromtheprocessesutilizedwithintheenterpriselifecycletodevelop,deliver,andsupportproductsandservicesInthesametone,themanagement,organization,andexploitationmethodsdevelopedfromthedatamanagementstrategiesareimplementedwiththeenterpriseprocessesandusers’requirementsinmindThedatamanagementprocessesmustcoexistwithandenabletheotherprocessesutilizedwithintheenterpriseItisnecessarytounderstandandcapturetherelationshipsamongthedifferentdataelementsthataresharedorjoinedifacommonunderstandingoftheresultantinformationisrequiredData(information)managementisthemajorcomponentoftheinformationecosystemAninformationecosystem,asdefinedbyWHInmoninhisbook,CorporateInformationFactory,“isasystemwithdifferentcomponents,eachservingacommunitydirectlywhileworkinginconcertwithothercomponentstoproduceacohesive,balancedinformationenvironmentLikenature’secosystem,aninformationecosystemmustbeadaptable,changingastheinhabitantsandparticipantswithinitsaegischange”DataOrganizationInordertoexploitenterprisedata,thatis,createinformationviewsondemand,itisnecessarytocapturesomeknowledgeofthedatatypes,definitions,andstructures,aswellasthedatacontentitselfThisdataaboutthedataiscalledmetadataFigureFillustratesthatdataiswidelydistributedwithinanenterpriseWhendatacustomersrequireinformationforagiventask,theymayhavetolookinmultipleplacesforvariouselementsofthedataWhenmetadataisavailabletotheclient,theshoppingexperienceismademucheasierSomeoftheitemsdescribedbythemetadataincludesecurityrequirementstoaccessthedata,wherethedataisstored,howthedataisstored,theformatofthedata,andadescriptionofthedata(usuallyfromthedatadictionary)Byusingthepropertools,aquerycanbegeneratedthatusesmetadataabouttheenterprise’svariousdatabasestoobtaindatafrommultiplesourcesandjointhemintoasingleinformationviewAnextendedshoppingtriptomanystoresbecomesonestopshoppingbyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCAppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementFigureFDataManagementViewThisfigureillustratesthatthedatatobemanagedmustberecognizedandorganizedbeforeitcanbeexploitedFigureFDistributedDatawithintheEnterpriseDataDefineDefineDataDataRepositoryOrganizeOrganizeInformationInformationTechnologyExploitExploitEXTENDEDENTERPRISEDATAMETADATATOOLSAPPLICATIONSDATASHOPPINGWITHINTHEENTERPRISEDATAQUALITYIMPROVEMENTSPROCESSREENGINEERINGLOCALENTERPRISEDATAbyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCTotallyIntegratedEnterprisesSeveraldataintegrationtechnologiescanbebroughttobearatthispointTheCOTStechnologiesdiscussedhereallsupportdatamodeling,theorganizationofdata,andmetadataThesetechnologiesarediscussedinthefollowingcategories:pointtopointsolutions,datawarehouses,datamarts,operationaldatastores,andvirtualdataintegrationThesecategorieshaveonethingincommonTheyallusemiddlewaretoaccomplishdataintegrationTheGartnerGroupdefinesmiddlewareas“thatbreedofsoftwareresidingbetweentheuser’sapplicationandoperatingsystems,concealingthecomplexitiesofnetworkprotocols,databasedialects,andoperatingsystemflavorsasdatarequestsareinterpretedandroutedthroughanorganization”Allofthesetechnologiesmethods,withtheexceptionofpointtopointsolutions,utilizeofftheshelfmiddlewaretools,andthevendorshavemetadatacapturetoolsthatcanbeemployedwiththemiddlewarePointtopointsolutionsmaycontainthesetypesoftools,butcautionisadvisedPointtopointsolutionsutilizeapplicationprogramminginterfacesoftware,suchasCandVisualBasic,tocreatedirect,individualinterfacesbetweenrequireddatacontainedwithintwoormoreinformationsystemsTheconcernwiththismethodisthateachinterfaceisusuallycreatedspecificallyforacertainreportorneedandisgenerallynotrationalizedwithinthecontextofreuseStateddifferently,pointtopointsolutionsaredatatranslationstheyarenotalogicalorganizationofdatadesignedformultipleandrepeatedusePointtopointsolutionstypicallyresultinaspiderwebofinterfacesMultipletypesofinterfacesamongthevariousapplications’physicaldatastoresmustallbemanagedThedifficultyandcostofmaintaininganymagnitudeofspecificinterfacesquicklybecomedetrimentaltotheenterpriseAdatawarehouse(DW)isadataorganizationtechniquethatprimarilybuildsagroupofsubjectareasderivedfromtheenterprisedatamodelSomeexamplesofsubjectareasaremarketing,sales,engineering,andmanufacturingTheinformationinthesesubjectareasisusedintheenterprise’sdecisionmakingprocessestoprovideknowledgebasedsolutionstoenterpriseneedsAccessibledatainaDWisnormallyhourstoyearsold(sometimesolder)Dataextraction,cleansing,andtransformationtoolsareusedtomovethedatafromlocaldatabasesintotheDWUntilrecently,batchmodeprocessingwasnormallyusedtostoredata,anditwasaccomplishedduringuseroffhoursLargedatastores(ie,massivedatastoragedevices)arerequiredtohousethedataApplicationprogramminginterfaces(APIs)areutilizedtoallowapplicationdeveloperstotalktothedatastoresAnapplicationdevelopmenttool(whichmaybethesameastheAPI)isthenusedtocreatetheinterfacetotheuserThistypeofintegrationtechnologyiswidelyusedfordataminingatechniquefordefiningtrendsandpotentialcustomerneedsbyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCAppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementRecentlytheDWhasbeenrecognizedasaplacetostoreinformationthatneedstobesharedwiththeextendedenterpriseAccesstotheDWallowsvendorsandsubcontractorstodirectlyviewvitalinformation,whichenhancesaccuracyandagilityinthesupplychainprocessesDatamartsareprimarilythesameasdatawarehousesexcepttheygenerallycontaininformationaboutonesubjectareaandaremorecommonlyusedtointegrateinformationinconcertwithadatamodelthatmaybelaterintegratedwithanenterprisemodelThesametypeofsoftwareisusedtoextractdatafrommultipleapplicationdatastoresandadatadictionaryandmetadatacapturemechanismmustbeinplaceThisallowsforreuseofthedataelementswithintheenterpriseandforexpansionOperationaldatastores(ODS)havemuchincommonwithdatawarehousesanddatamartsTheyutilizesomeofthesametechnology,buttheprimarydifferenceisthatanODScontainsmorevolatiledataAnODSistreatedmorelikeatransactionalsystemAtransactionalsystemisdescribedasasystemusedprimarilyforafunctionaloperationsuchasfinancial,CAD,logistics,andprojectmanagementThedatacontainedwithinanODSisnormallyoneminutetooneyearoldAnODSmayalsobeusedonalimitedbasisasatransactionalsystemAdatawarehouse,mart,oroperationalstoreprovideseachAPIwiththeabilitytodoonestopshoppingbyusingmetadataaboutthesourcedatabasestocreateaphysicallyconsolidateddatabaseThenextevolutionofdataorganizationalsocreatesaconsolidateddatabasefortheAPIs,butthisdatabaseisvirtual,notphysicalThevirtualdataintegrationapproachusesthenotionofdatamodelsanddatamapstocreatealayerofmiddlewarethatisperceivedbytheAPIsasaconsolidateddatabase,butinrealityallowsthedatatophysicallyresideinmultiplenativedatabasestoresWhereneededforperformance,memorycachesmaybeaddedtothemiddlewareforfrequentlyaccesseddatabutforthemostpart,theneedtorehostthedataphysically(asthedatawarehouseapproachdoes)isavoidedVirtualdataintegrationusesanNtier(usuallyaminimumoftiers)approachtotheintegrationanddistributionofdataTheintentistoallowuncouplingateachofthetierstoisolatetheeffectsofmodificationThemultilayeredapproachmakesitmucheasiertoinsertnewerordifferenttoolsFigureFillustratesafivetierapproach:TierDataextractionTierIntegrationandtransformationTierAPIdevelopmentTierUtilizationofapplicationdevelopmenttoolsTierClient’sviewoftheinformationFigureFalsoillustratesthatdatamanagementisintegraltothetransformationoperationbyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCTotallyIntegratedEnterprisesThevirtualdataintegrationapproachcreatesavirtualdatabasebetweenthirdpartyapplicationdevelopmentandAPIsoftwareandthirdpartyqueryanddataextractionsoftwareDatamodelsarecreatedtodescribethedataobjectsanddatarelationships(ie,rules)neededbytheclientviewsApplicationandAPIlayersrequestinformationfortheclientinlogicalform(modelform)TheintegrationandtransformationlayerusesmetadataandamapofthephysicaldatastorestocreatephysicalqueriesofthenativedatabaseAfterthedataisphysicallyextractedfromitssourcedatabase(s),thevirtualdatabaseagainusesthemetadatatojointhevariouspiecesofdataintoinformationinthemodelformTheinformationisthenprovidedtotheclientbackthroughtheAPIandapplicationlayersChangesintheorganizationofthephysicaldatanowrippleonlyasfarasthevirtualdatabaseThemetadataandmapsmayneedtobeadjustedinthemiddleware,butthemodelsareunchangedFromtheothersideofthevirtualdatabase,theAPI,application,andclientlayersofinformationneversensedachangeVirtualdataintegrationisnowbecomingarealityandhasadvantagesovertheothertechnologiesandmethodsHowever,itmustalsoberememberedthattheamountofdatatobeaccessedalsohasanimpactonwhichsolutionisbestFigureFNTieredIntegratedDataManagementTheNtiersapproachallowsthedecouplingatthedatastores,gateways,integratedmanagementandtransformation,API,andapplicationdevelopmenttoolslevelExtractionToolsPipeline(DataStoretoMetaData)MetaDataMappingDataModelsDataPointersAdHocQueryHTMLJavaOtherApplicationDevelopmentToolsUsersViewIntegratedDataManagementTransformationAPIsDatabyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCAppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementDataManagementPlanningDatamanagementisthedefinition,implementation,andmaintenanceofconsistentglobaldatastandardsacrosstheentireenterprise,focusedonenablingtheimplementationofsharedinformationsystemsandprocessesItsbenefitsareimprovedaccuracyincommunication,reducedleadtimes,improveddecisionmaking,managedconfigurationofsystems,andconsistentimplementationacrossITprovidersGlobaldatastandardsareaccomplishedbydevelopingstandardnamesanddefinitions,standardpermittedvalues,andstandardbusinessruledefinitionsFigureFillustratesadatamanagementplanningprocessthatmovesfromastrategicpositiontoanoperationalpositionTheelementsillustratedallowforanoverallplan,adevelopmentcycle,changemanagement,arepositoryfordatamodelsandthedatadictionary,andareleaseprocessformanagingnewandorrequiredchangeSeveraltoolsallowthesetobecapturedinmetadatacatalogsOnestrategymightallowtheusersomeleewayinthedefinitionofnewdatamerges,whilehavingthemajorityofthedataunderadministrativeorchangecontrolDataExploitationDataexploitationisdatathatisdisplayedandthenusedwithintheenterpriseAnetworkarchitecture,ITsystems,andapplicationsarerequiredtoproducetheviewsfortheenterprisebusiness,engineering,FigureFDataManagementPlanningandImplementationDMPlanningDevelopmentImplementationDeployDataManagementControlsChangeControlRepositoryManagementReleaseManagementStrategicOperationalPlanningHorizonbyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCTotallyIntegratedEnterprisesmanufacturing,delivery,andsupportanddismantlingoperationsandprocessesThisistheenterpriselifecycleFigureFillustratesthatoneenterpriseviewinmostcasesincludessomeoneelse’senterpriseviewCreatingtheseviewsrequiresaflexible,agileITarchitecture,utilizingasmuchcommonCOTSsoftwareaspossibleThisallowsmultipleenterprisestobecomepartofthevirtualenterpriseatthelowestcostandgreatestproductivityInformationTechnologyViewTheinformationtechnology(IT)viewoftheenterprisedescribesthetechnologyenablersforoperatingtheenterpriseTheITviewisreferredtoasanenterprisewideinformationtechnologyinfrastructureview,orjustinformationtechnologyinfrastructureview(ITIV)forshortTheITIVistheenablinginfrastructurefortheevolutionoftheenterpriseinformationarchitecturesTheprimaryobjectiveoftheITIVistoachieveFigureFDataExploitationViewsCommonCOTSsoftwaretechnologycanhaveapositiveeffectoncreatingthevirtualenterprisebyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCAppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementinteroperabilitywithintheenterpriseThearchitecturewilldefinealogicalstructureabletogiveanyenterpriseactivityappropriateaccesstorequiredinformationDefinitionofanITIVTheITIVisanenterprisewidecommunicationssystemforvoice,data,andvideothatextendstoallenterprisesites,includingthoseofitssuppliersTheenterprisenetworkservicestheneedsofallpartsoftheenterpriseandwillprovideinterfacestotheenterprisenetworkstotheextendedenterpriseFigureFdepictsanITfunctionalviewoftheenterpriseandarelationshipofthebusiness,information,andtechnologycomponentsITIVPlanningEachenterprisemustestablishanITIVThiswillbebasedonaligningrequirementsderivedfromtheenterpriseprocessesandstrategiesastheyareviewedattheimplementationlevelTheITIVprovidesasetofguidelinesforcentralizedanddecentralizednetworkandsystemsimplementationeffortsthatspecifyatargetfortopologies,technologies,andstandardsTheprincipalfeaturesofthearchitectureincludeidentifiedpointsoftechnicalstabilitythatmaximizeinvestments,preventprematureobsolescence,andminimizedisruptiontousersTheITIValsofeaturesFigureFTopLevelITViewoftheEnterpriseINFORMATIONVIEWBUSINESSVIEWTECHNICALVIEWDATAVIEWINFRASTRUCTURETECHNOLOGYBUSINESSPROCESSESMARKETSbyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCTotallyIntegratedEnterprisesstandardsthatsupportlongtermstabilitybypromotingtechnicalconvergenceThesestandardswillmaximizeinteroperabilitywhileminimizingmanagementcomplexityStandardsalsosimplifyandreduceincompatibilitiesandcomplexitiesTheITIVisnotcompletewithoutconsideringthecurrentandfuturestatesoftheenterpriseUnfortunately,thisisoftenoverlooked,atleastintheearlystagesInformationsystems(IS)teamsaretypicallyeagertojumpintothetechnologyarenawithoutcomprehendingbusinessdriversThisresultsinpoorfocusandlackofmanagementsupportTheseprojectsneverdeveloptotheirfullpotentialMigrationtoOpenSystemsAnimportantaspectofthebestpracticeITIVisthatthearchitecturepromotesthetransitiontoopensystemsinformationtechnologyTheenterprisenetworkmustsupporttheuseofopensystemsprotocolsandadhereitselftotheprinciplesofopensystemsarchitectureThismeansthattheenterprisenetworkmustClearlysupportbusinessobjectivesUseinformationtechnologyproducts,bothhardwareandsoftware,thatareinterchangeableandthatinteroperatewithinandacrossenterprisesSupporttransportandportabilityofbothapplicationsanddataBemodular,extensible,scalable,andeasilyintegratedBebasedonstandardsthatarewelldefinedbypublic,consensusbased,vendorneutralspecificationsBusinessDriversfortheITIVTheadoptionoftheITIVwillbringsignificantbusinessbenefitsineasieraccesstoinformationgreatercrossworkgroupandcrossorganizationcooperationandsynergyfastercycletimeinallbusinessprocessesandasimpler,easiertomanage,andlesscostlyinfrastructureMeetingBusinessGoalsTheITIVislikeahighwaysystemWithoutagoodhighwaysystem,itisalmostimpossibleforaneconomytogrowandbeefficientsincematerialsandfinishedgoodscan’tgetfromoneplacetoanotherefficientlyFortheenterprise,theITIViscrucialtomeetingtimetomarketgoalsandtobyRaytheonProfessionalServicesLLCAppendixF:InformationResourcesManagementimplementingconcurrentengineeringpracticesTimelyaccesstoinformationisaprerequisitetoalleffortstoincreasetheenterprise’soperationaleffectivenessandengineerbusinessprocessesInformationSystems(IS)andTechnologyGoalsAsanexample,amodernnetworkisessentialtoprogressintheuseofinformationtechnologyintheenterpriseAllnewapplicationsystemsmakeheavyuseofthenetworkforrealtimedatainterchangeMostnewapplicationdevelopmentisbeingdoneintheWebbasedclient–servermodelinordertoexploitcosteffectivelowendsystemsThroughouttheenterprise,ISorganizationsshouldbeplanningtoputfewerandfewerapplicationsoncentralizedmainframesandtargetnewapplicationstodistributedapproachesTheenterprisemayneedanupdatedarchitectureifthistransitiontodistributedcomputingisgoingtosucceedApplicationswillmakegreateruseofvisualinformationintheformofimaging,includingDCADandvideoTheseapplicationswillincreasethecapacityrequirementsonthene

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