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首页 从认知图式看商标翻译_英文_

从认知图式看商标翻译_英文_.pdf

从认知图式看商标翻译_英文_

duoduo211
2012-02-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《从认知图式看商标翻译_英文_pdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

作者简介李银美,女,北京航空航天大学外语系研究生,研究方向:认知语言学。BrandNameTranslationfromthePerspectiveofCognitiveSchema○LiYinmei(ForeignLanguagesDepartment,BeihangUniversity,Beijing,China) Abstract TranslatingprocessisdeeplyconcernedwithschematheoryThispaperaimstousetheschematheorytoanalyzebrandnametranslationBecauseofthedifferentculturebackgrounds,schematainthesourcebrandnamesmaybecontradictorytothoseofthetargetlanguage,whichchallengestranslatorsBecauseofthespecialcharacteristicsofbrandnames,somethinktranslatedbrandnamesshouldkeepandpreservethereadersÄschemataButthispaperarguesthatnowadaystherearemoreandmoretranslatedbrandnamesaimingtochangethereadersÄschemataUsingalienationstrategycanalsopromotethesalesoftheproducts Keywords brandnametranslationcognitiveschemadomesticationalienation 中图分类号H  文献标识码A  文章编号()ⅠIntroductionWiththedevelopmentofinternationaltrade,manufacturersaretryingtheirbesttoexpandoverseasmarketInthatcase,brandnamesneedtobetranslatedWengsaid,“Brandnameshaveadvertisingrole”TheyaretherepresentationandthetokenoftheproductsSohowtotranslatethebrandnamesisthefirststeptocapturethepotentialcustomersThisarticleaimstoseetherelationshipbetweenthebrandnamestranslationandtheTL(targetlanguage)readersÄschematahowbrandnamesaretranslatedinordertopreserveandreinforcetheschemataexistinginreadersÄminds,inwhatwaytranslatedbrandnamescanrefreshthereadersÄschemata,andwhentranslatorsshouldusethestrategiesofthedomesticationandalienationⅡTheoreticalBackgroundSchemaisthebasisofcognitionThedevelopmentoftheschematheoryisduetothecontributionofpsychology,artificialintelligenceandcognitivelinguisticsAsearlyas,BartlettsaidinhisbookRemembering,“theobserver⋯⋯fillsupthegapsofhisperceptionbytheaidofwhathehasexperiencedbeforeinsimilarsituations,or⋯⋯bydescribingwhathetakestobefitorsuitableforsuchasituation”TheswitnessedtherevivalofschematheoryWiththedevelopmentofAI(artificialintelligence)schematheoryarousedpeopleÄsinterestTherepresentativesareMinsky,RumelhartandSchankandAbelsonCookusedschematheoryindiscourseanalysisinhisbookDiscourseandLiteratureHethoughtdiscoursecouldnotonly“reinforce”and“preserve”,butalso“refresh”thereadersÄschemataThusheproposedtheschemaasadynamicthingwhichcanbechangedBrownandYulealsousedschematheorytotalkaboutdiscourseanalysisInChina,somepeoplebegantouseschematheorytohelptheteachingoflisteningandreadingSchematheoryhasalsobeenusedintranslationBelltalkedabouttranslationprocessinthefollowingway,“theprocessoftranslatingtakesplaceinbothshorttermandlongtermmemorythroughde语文学刊(高教·外文版)                            年第期vicesfordecodingtextinthesourcelanguage(SL)andencodingtextintothetargetlanguage(TL),viaanonlanguagespecificsemanticsrepresentation”These“nonlanguagesemanticrepresentation”isinfacttheschemataexitinginhumanmindRecentlyChinesetranslatorsbegantousetheschematheorytostudythetranslationprocess,suchasPengButuntilnowinbrandnametranslation,wehavefewarticlestotalksystematicallyabouttheuseoftheschematheoryintranslatingbrandnamesIfany,itjustmentionedthepreservingandreinforcingofschemataratherthanrefreshingofschemataIIICognitiveSchemaandBrandNameTranslationTheRelationshipofSchemaandTextThereisadynamicrelationshipbetweenschemaandtextOnonehand,theexistenceofschematacanhelppeopletounderstandthenewknowledgeOntheotherhand,textcanpreserve,reinforceandrefreshthereadersÄschemataCognitiveschemaisthementalrepresentationofconventionalknowledgewhichisacquiredpreviouslyWhenpeoplemeetsomethingnew,theywillusetheschemataintheirmindstounderstanditSchemahastheroleoforganizingknowledgeaboutspecificstimulusdomainsandguidingboththeprocessingofnewinformationandretrievalofstoredinformationOntheunderstandingofthenewknowledge,schemahastwocontradictoryeffectsOneispositiveTheotherisnegativePeopleÄsschematacanhelpthemtounderstandthenewinformationiftheyhavetheneededschemataButtheexistingschemataarenotalwaysconsistentwiththenewinformationInthatcase,theschematawillbarriertheunderstandingofthenewinformation“Inthestrongview,schemataareconsideredtobedetermining,topredisposetheexperienceinafixedway”TextcanalsohavesomecounteractiontopeopleÄsschemataAccordingtoCook,ithasthreefunctionstothempreserving,reinforcingandrefreshingWhenthetextsÄschemataarethesameasthereadersÄ,theycankeepthereadersÄknowledgeAndthroughreading,readersÄschematacanbereinforcedButwhenthereadersÄschemataaredifferentfromthetextsÄ,theycanbechangedtonewonesThisisrefreshingofschemataTheDifficultiesinBrandNameTranslationGuanmentionedbrandnamesaredifficulttotranslatebecauseoftwodistinctivefeaturesOneofthemisthat“brandnamesaretheepitomeofonecountry’sculture”BrandnamesbeartheweightoftraditionalcultureandsocialdevelopmentfeaturesForexample,inChinawehavethewellknownbrandnames,“永久”,“幸福”,“光明”,and“中华”AllofthosebrandnamesreflectthecustomofChinesefondnessofluckandfortuneInwesterncountries,brandnameslike“Apollo”,“Nike”,“Robust”and“Crown”reflectwesternculturesTranslatorshavetomakeachoice,thatis,whichschematatheyshouldchoose,theoriginaloneortheTLreadersÄoneThuswesaytranslatingbrandnamesisareallydifficultjobTranslatingStrategiesfromPreservingandReinforcingtheReadersÄSchemataOneofbrandnamesÄfunctionsistoattractthecustomersSothetranslatedbrandnamesshouldtrytocatchthereadersÄattention,andhavethefunctionofpersuadingthemtobuytheproductsBasingonthisconsideration,translatorsusuallychoosetopreserveandreinforcethereadersÄschemata,evenwithoutconformingtotheoriginalonesTakeanEnglishbrandnameforexample“Goldlion”enjoysagoodreputationinChinaButwhenitfirstcameintoChinesemarket,itÄsnotsowellacceptedAtthattimeitwastranslatedinto“金狮”,whichsoundslike“尽输”,“今失”,“尽失”,“今尸”inChineseSothistranslationmayproducesomebadassociativemeaningsLateritwaschangedinto“金利来”,whichcorrespondstoChinesepursuitofluckandfortuneThatistosay,itpreservesandreinforcesChineseÄsschemata,soitcanbeeasilyunderstoodThusitoccupiesalargemarketinChinaThisexampleshowsthatwhentranslatingbrandnames,translatorsshouldknowthereadersÄschemataThisseemstobethechoicemadebymosttranslatorsThusmanytranslatedbrandnamesmaychangetheirimageaccordingtothereadersÄschemataAsCookTRANSLATION   LiYinmeiBrandNameTranslationfromthePerspectiveofCognitiveSchemamentionedthatdiscoursefirsthasthefunctionofpreservingandreinforcingthereadersÄschemata,thistranslatingmethodjustfollowsthisruleIttriestokeep,preserveorreinforcethereadersÄschemata,withoutarousingtheirrejectionThistranslationstrategyiscalleddomesticationItarguesthatthetranslatedtextsshouldstandontheTLreadersÄsideandtrytoarousethesameresponseamongtheTLreadersastheSLreadersItwillconcealthedifferencesoftheculturesandsocieties,andpreservethereadersÄschemataThiscanmakethereaderseasytounderstandthebrandandbuytheproductsInfactwiththisstrategyalotofgoodtranslatedbrandnameshavebeenproducedForexample:Safeguard舒肤佳 HeadShoulders海飞丝Canon佳能Nike耐克Robust乐百氏Avon雅芳乐凯lucky昂立一号OnlyOneDynamicSchemaandTranslatingStrategyfromRefreshingReadersÄSchemataSchemaisnotstaticEventhoughwejustmentionedthattranslatorsusuallytranslatethebrandnamestopreserveandreinforcethereadersÄschemata,thisdoesnotmeanthereaderswillhavenoopportunitytochangetheirschemataSchemachangehaslongbeenconsideredbythetwomajorschematheorists,BartlettandSchankBartlettwasawareoftheschemachange:“AnorganismhassomehowtoacquirethecapacitytoturnrounduponitsownschemataandtoconstructthemafreshThisisacrucialstepinorganicdevelopment”〔〕Cooksummarizedthediscourse’seffectsonthereader’sschemainthefollowingdiagram:Wecanconcludethatschemaremains“active”and“developing”“ItisthisactiveÄfeaturewhich,combinedwiththeexperienceofaparticularpieceofdiscourse,leadstotheconstructiveprocessedinmemory”Inreality,peopleneedtorefreshtheirschematabecauseeverythingischanginganddevelopingWeneedtoadoptourselvestothechangingworldBecauseoftheculturalandsocialcommunication,peoplehavemoreopportunitiestotouchtheforeignthingsAsaresult,peopleÄsschemataarebeingchangedThefreshschematacanbegraduallyacceptedbythereadersSothereadersÄschematagetrefreshedBasedonthispoint,thetraditionaltranslationstrategycanbechangedintoalienationMoreandmorebrandnamesaretranslatedinthisstrategyForexample,Kodark柯达  Casio卡西欧Rolex劳力士Motorola摩托罗拉BLENO班尼路MetersBonwe美特斯·邦威Wecanusethisdiagramtoanalyzetherelationshipoftheschemaandthetranslatingstrategies:IVConclusionBrandnamestranslationisgreatlyrelatedtocognitiveschemaTherearetwotranslationstrategiesconcerningtotheTLreadersÄschemataOneisthedomesticationway,inwhichthetranslatorschoosetopreserveandreinforcetheTLreadersÄschemataTheotheristhealienationway,inwhichthetranslatorschoosetorefreshtheTLreadersÄschemataTraditionally语文学刊(高教·外文版)                            年第期brandnamesareusuallytranslatedpreservingtheTLreadersÄschemata,becausethiscaneconomizereaderstocatchtheassociatedandimpliedmeaningsofthebrandnamesButwiththedevelopmentofthesocietyandthecrossculturalcommunication,moreandmorebrandnamesaretranslatedaimingtorefreshtheTLreadersÄschemata,becausethisisnew,novelandinterestingAndtheseproductsareespeciallyfavoredbytheyoungAlienationstrategywillbecomeatrendinthenearfuture【References】翁凤翔实用翻译M杭州:浙江大学出版社,Bartlett,FCRememberingMCambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,:Brown,GillianYule,GeorgeDiscourseAnalysisMBeijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,:,Bell,RogerTTranslationandTranslating:TheoryandPracticeMBeijing:ForeignLanguageTeachingandResearchPress,:彭建武从认知图式看翻译理解J山东科技大学学报:社会科学版,,():李永红广告翻译中的认知图示J北京第二外国语学院学报,,():关熔珍进口商标翻译中的文化剖析J重庆师范大学学报:哲学社会科学版,():Cook,GuyDiscourseandLiteratureMShanghai:ShanghaiForeignLanguageEducation,:文月娥,周小玲功能对等与商标翻译J湘潭师范学院学报:社会科学版,,():从认知图式看商标翻译李银美(北京航空航天大学外语系,北京)摘 要 在商标的翻译过程中,认知图式起着非常重要的作用。由于文化、道德意识、审美观念、社会价值等的不同,原语和目的语读者之间的图式会有所差异,甚至会出现对立。因此,在商标翻译的过程中,译者应该选择原语的图式,还是目的语读者的图式就成为对译者的一个挑战。有学者已撰文指出,商标翻译时应该采取归化翻译策略,以保留、强化译文读者的认知图式。本文却发现事实上有很多商标在翻译时反而试图改变译语读者的图式,采用了异化的翻译策略。本文运用动态的认知图式理论,分析了这一现象,认为随着社会的发展,改变读者认知图式的商标翻译将会越来越多。关键词 商标翻译动态图式归化异化【英文校对】YinHuadong(上接第页)论瓦尔特·本雅明的《译者的任务》武立红(北京林业大学外语学院,北京)摘 要 瓦尔特·本雅明是世纪初最具创造性和最重要的批评家之一。他的《译者的任务》是最有影响的翻译理论之一。文中他对语言、翻译、译者以及原文和译文的关系进行了全新的阐释,使读者耳目一新。然而,他的论文也有不足之处,例如有些观点自相矛盾、文体不清、概念模糊、观点抽象等。尽管如此,他的大胆而新颖的理论对后来的后现代主义者、解构主义者,如德里达(Derrida)影响极大。关键词 评论翻译译者语言解构主义者【英文校对】YinHuadongTRANSLATION   LiYinmeiBrandNameTranslationfromthePerspectiveofCognitiveSchema

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