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首页 Wordsworth__A_Life

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Wordsworth__A_Life

君诚五月
2012-02-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Wordsworth__A_Lifepdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

WordsworthALifejulietbarkerFormyparents,RichardandJudithBateson,withgratitudeforalifetime’ssupportandencouragementContentsListofIllustrationsvFamilyTreesviiiMapxiiTheChildisFatheroftheManpre–APoor,DevotedCrew–SquanderedAbroad–AVitalInterest–APatriotoftheWorld–BenightedHeartandMind–ASettofViolentDemocrats–TheGiantWordsworth–TheConcern–HomeatGrasmere–TheSetisBroken–AcquiringtheQuietMind–TheConventionofCintra–TheBlessedestofMen!–SuffertheLittleChildren–TheExcursion–IncreasingInfluence–ivContentsBombastesFurioso–ATouroftheContinent–IdleMount–ShadesofthePrisonhouse–FuriouslyAlarmist–FallingLeaves–ComingHome–RealGreatness–PoetLaureate–FixedandIrremovableGrief–BowedtotheDust–Epilogue–IndexAcknowledgementsAbouttheAuthorCreditsCoverCopyrightAboutthePublisherListofIllustrationsPlateSectionsAnearlyviewofCockermouthTheMarketPlace,PenrithHawksheadGrammarSchoolBelleIsle,Windermere,byPhilipdeLoutherbourg,WilliamWordsworth,byWilliamShuter,AnonymoussilhouetteofDorothyWordsworthTheHighSheriffofLancashireCrossingMorecambeSands,byThomasSunderlandBeggar,byJohnHardenPeasantwomen,byJohnHardenAnonymoussilhouetteofMaryWordsworthSamuelTaylorColeridge,byRobertHancock,ThewreckoftheEarlofAbergavennyinWeymouthbay,SirGeorgeBeaumont,byGeorgeDance,AnonymoussilhouetteofSaraHutchinsonGrasmere,byFennelRobson,Wordsworth’splanforthewintergardenatColeorton,Leicestershire,NoGreatRussellStreet,CoventGarden,byHerbertRailtonBreakfastpartyatSamuelRogers’s,,byCharlesMottramRydalWater,byThomasChubbard,Architect’sdrawingsforthenorthelevationoftheWordsworths’newhouseatRydalMount,ThedrawingroomatRydalMount,byWilliamWestall,RydalMount,byWilliamWestall,GardenentrancetoRydalMount,byKJBennett,TheLowerFallsatRydal,byCWBampflyde,AnearlyphotographofRydalMountWilliamWordsworth,byBenjaminRobertHaydon,MaryWordsworth,byMargaretGillies,ChristopherWordsworth,byGeorgeRobson,HenryCrabbRobinson,byJJMasquerierWilliamWordsworthwalkingwithHartleyColeridge,copybyMaryElizabethMonkhouseaftertheoriginalbyJohnPeterMulcaster,MaryElizabethMonkhouseTheReverendOwenLloyd,JessyHardenandHAlmackatBrathayHall,byJohnHarden,cDorothyWordsworth,bySamuelCrosthwaite,viListofIllustrationsIsabellaFenwick,byMargaretGillies,JohnWordsworth’svicarageatWhitwick,Leicestershire,byDoraWordsworth,SamuelTaylorColeridge,byCharlesRobertLeslie,cRobertSouthey,bySirFrancisLegattChantrey,WilliamWordsworthandSirWalterScottattheYarrow,byGeorgeCattermoleDoraWordsworth,byMargaretGillies,AnonymoussilhouetteofJohnWordsworthWillyWordsworthwithhisdaughterMaryLouisaChapterHeadIllustrationsTheWordsworthHouse,CockermouthPossiblesketchofWilliamWordsworthinsideaHawksheadGrammarSchooltextbook,attributedtoJohnSpedding,StJohn’sCollege,Cambridge,byRBHarraden,fromHarraden’sPicturesqueViewsofCambridge(Cambridge,)Miniature,saidtobeofAnnetteVallon,artistanddateunknownSilhouetteofDorothyWordsworth,artistunknown,cRacedown,bySLMay,dateunknownAlfoxtonHouseandPark,byMissSweeting,engravedbyRPocockTheMarketPlace,Goslar,GermanyWilliamWordsworth,byRobertHancock,TheWordsworths’cottageatTownEnd,byDoraWordsworth,undatedTherescueofsurvivorsfromthewreckoftheEarlofAbergavenny,publishedbyThomasTegg,December,asthefrontispiecetotheanonymouspamphletCorrectStatementoftheLossoftheEarlofAbergavennyBrathayHall,Ambleside,withLangdalePikesbeyond,seenacrossWindermere,byJohnHarden,WilliamWordsworth,byHenryEdridge,ViewofGrasmereValeandHelmCragfromWhiteMossCommon,byWilliamWordsworth’snieceSarahHutchinson,Undatedminiatures,saidtobeofThomasandCatherineWordsworthBleaTarn,homeoftheSolitaryinTheExcursion,undatedCharlesLamb,byRobertHancock,LowtherCastleandPark,Westmorland,engravedbyThomasAllom,afterJThomasCascadedelaFolie,Chamonix,France,byJohnRuskin,RydalMount,byDoraWordsworth,undatedSilhouetteofWilliamWordsworth,byMariaJaneJewsburyfromherKentsBankMercury,JulyChalkdrawingofWilliamWordsworth,byHenryPickersgillapreparatorystudyfortheportraitcommissionedbyStJohn’sCollege,viiListofIllustrationsSilhouetteofSaraHutchinson,artistunknown,cInformalsketchofWilliamWordsworth,probablydrawnfrommemory,byDanielMaclise(as‘AlfredCroquis’)andpublishedinFraser’sMagazine,OctoberDorothyWordsworthinherwheelchair,byJohnHardenafteravisittoherinWilliamWordsdworth,byJanePasley,etchedbyJohnBull,DoraWordsworth,asbridesmaidtoSaraColeridge,byMissRainbeck,PortraitofWilliamWordsworth,byHenryInman,PhotographbyProfessorHenryReed’sgrandsonTheWordsworthgravesinGrasmerechurchyardPhotographbyAbraham’sofKeswick,cIllustrationAcknowledgementsTheauthorandpublishersaregratefultothefollowingforpermissiontoreproduceillustrations:PlateSections,,JohnGarbuttfromJohnMarshJohnGarbutt,Wordsworth’sLakeland:BritaininOldPhotographs(Stroud,SuttonPublishing,),,JohnMarsh,,,,,AbbotHallArtGallery,Kendal,Cumbria,UKBridgemanArtLibrary,London,London,CornellUniversityLibrary,USA,,,,,,,,,,,,,,TheWordsworthTrust,Grasmere,,,,,NationalPortraitGallery,DorsetCountyCouncil,PierpontMorganLibraryArtResource,NYfromMartin,IntheFootprintsofCharlesLamb,,etarchive,,fromFrancesBlanshard,PortraitsofWordsworth(London,GeorgeAllenUnwin,),UniversityofBristol,MasterandFellowsofTrinityCollege,CambridgefromTheMasquerierAlbum(HCRVIII)TrusteesofDrWilliams’sLibrary,London,TrusteesofRydalMountfromTheLettersofWilliamandDorothyWordsworth:TheLaterYears:PartIV,–,editedbyErnestdeSelincourt,revisedbyAlanGHill(Oxford,ClarendonPress,)ChapterHeads,JohnGarbutt,TrusteesofHawksheadGrammarSchool,,StJohn’sCollege,Cambridge,,,,,,,,,,,,,,TheWordsworthTrust,,MaryEvansPictureLibrary,,NationalPortraitGallery,,AbbotHallArtGallery,Kendal,Cumbria,UKBridgemanArtLibrary,BirminghamMuseumandArtGallery,PaulBetz,TrusteesofRydalMount,CornellUniversity,USA,JohnMarshRichardWordsworth=MaryRobinson––Richard=ElizabethFavellAnn=RevThomasMyersMary(ofWhitehaven)–––––ThomasMary=AdmlHughRobinsonJohn=RachelBridge––––dCaptCharlesofAmblesideLieuThomas–daussonsJulia––RichardCaptJohnRobinsonElizabeth=FrancisBarkerMary=JohnSmithsons(ofBranthwaite)–––ofRampside–ofBroughtondaus–Mary=CaptPeakeJosephRichardJohnDora=BensonHarrisonofGreenBank,AmblesideRichard=JaneWestmorlandAnnetteVallonWilliam=MaryHutchinsonDorothy–––––‘Keswick’JohnJeanBaptisteBaudouin=Caroline––John=()IsabellaCurwenDora=EdwardQuillinanThomas–()HelenRoss–––()MaryAnnDolan()MaryGambleDora–JaneStanleyHenryCurwenWilliamJohn––––WordsworthFamilyTree*Afterhismother’sdeathin,ChristopherCooksonadoptedherfamilynameofCrackanthorpe,whichdescendedtohischildrenWilliamCookson=DorothyCrackanthorpe––John=AnnChristopherCrackanthorpe=CharlotteCustRevWilliam=DorothyCowper––Crackanthorpe*–––bWilliamSarah––Mary=RevJFisherChristopherWilliamGeorgeAnnaElizabeth=RevWm–––––bFisherbEmmeline(Emmie)–JohnRevChristopher=PriscillaLloyd–––JohnCharlesChris–––CatherineWilly=FannyGraham–––MaryLouisaWilliamReginaldGordon–––CharlesEdward––JohnHutchinson=MaryWilliam=AnnCowperJohn––––John(Jack)=()JaneWilkinsonMary=WilliamWordsworthThomas=MaryMonkhouse*–()ElizabethSleigh––seeWordsworthHenryFamilyTreeMargaret––ElizabethJaneddGeorgeSutton†AnnCharlesHenryLucyWilliambdb–dThomasMaryMonkhouseGeorge–––HutchinsonMonkhouseFamilyTree*MaryMonkhousemarriedherfirstcousinThomasHutchinson†Oninheritingmaternalfamilyestates,GeorgeHutchinsontookthesurnameofSuttonJohnMonkhouse=MargaretRichardson––‘Aunt’ElizabethThomasHenryGeorge=MaryHall–––––IsabellaAddison=JohnTom=JaneHorrocksJoeMary*–––d––MaryElizabethGeorge–JoannaWilliamBetsy–––SaraGeorge=MargaretRoberts–––sonsdausElizabeth(Ebba)Sarah––MapTheChildisFatheroftheManOnadark,stormydayinDecember,athirteenyearoldboyscrambledtothetopofarockyoutcropneartheLakelandvillageofHawksheadFromthisvantagepoint,halfshelteredbyadrystonewall,andwithonlyasheepandahawthorntreeforcompany,hesatonthedampgrass,strainingtoseethroughthemistthatintermittentlyshiftedtorevealthewoodsandplainbelowItwastheeveoftheChristmasholidaysandWilliamWordsworthwaswaitingforthefirstsightofthehorsesthatwerecomingtobringhimhomefromschoolNotknowingwhichofthetworoadstheymighttakeandafraidtomissthem,hestubbornlymaintainedhispostthroughthestorm,watchingsointentlythathiseyesswamwithtearsattheeffortItwasanexperiencehewouldneverforget:thewindandsleetyrainAndallthebusinessoftheelements,Thesinglesheep,andtheoneblastedtree,Andthebleakmusicofthatoldstonewall,Thenoiseofwoodandwater,andthemistWhichonthelineofeachofthosetworoadsAdvancedinsuchindisputableshapes–Prelude(),i,–Theturmoilofthescene,soperfectlymirroringthatofhisownmind,thesymbolismofthetworoadsand,mostofall,theintensityofhislongingtobehome,wouldcomebacktohaunthimForthechildwaitingsoanxiouslywasunawarethatthiswouldbethelasttimehewouldreturntothehomehewasabouttoloseforeverThewholecourseofhislifewasabouttobechangedand,withit,thehistoryofEnglishliteratureTheChildisFatheroftheManTheWordsworthfamilyhomelayinthesmallCumberlandmarkettownofCockermouth,somethirtymilesawayfromHawksheadWilliamWilberforce,visitingthetownin,haddismisseditas‘consistingchieflyofoneverylargewidestreet’Amorefavourablydisposedvisitor,WilliamHutchinson,declared‘thesituationbeautiful,inacountrywellcultivated,onthebanksoftwofinerivers’Headmiredthepicturesqueruinsofthemedievalcastleonaneminenceabovethetownandthe‘pleasantlydiversified’natureofthecountrysideHewonderedatthepreferenceofthepeopleoffortuneforbuildingtheireleganthousesontheshortsteepstreetleadinguptothecastle,buthehadnohesitationinstatingthat‘thewholeplacebearsthecountenanceofopulence’StandingnotonlyattheconfluenceoftheDerwentandCockerrivers,butalsoonthemaineastwestroutefromPenrithtotheprosperousportsofWorkingtonandWhitehavenontheAtlanticcoast,CockermouthwasideallyplacedforthemanufactureanddistributionofgoodsTherewereweeklymarketsandafortnightlycattlefair,heldinthestreetwhichhadattractedWilberforce’sattentionItwashere,inthelargestandmostimposinghouseinthetown,thattheWordsworthfamilylivedSetslightlybackfromthestreet,withalargegardenrunningdowntotheDerwentattherear,itwasanelegantGeorgianbuilding,toallappearancestheresidenceofawealthyandinfluentialgentlemanUnfortunatelyfortheWordsworths,appearancesweredeceptiveThehouse,likeCockermouthitself,belongedtoSirJamesLowtherIndeed,itmightbesaidthattheWordsworthsalsobelongedtohim,forWilliam’sfather,John,likehisfatherandcousinbeforehim,waslawagenttoLowtherTheirfamilyfortuneshadbeen,andweretobe,dependentonthegraceandfavouroftheLowthersthroughoutWilliam’slifetimeandbeyondItwas,therefore,doublyunfortunatefortheWordsworthsthatthisparticularLowtherwasnotoriousforhisruthlessnessinthepursuitofpowerandriches‘WickedJimmy’,ashewasknowntohisbeleagueredtenants,hadacquiredastrangleholdonpublicappointmentsandlocalgovernmentinWestmorlandandCumberlandandhisofficials,includingtheMembersofParliament,wereexpectedtoputtheirmaster’sinterestbeforeallothersAnyshowofindependencemetwithdismissalandpersecutionOnFebruary,JohnWordsworthmarriedseventeenyearoldAnnCookson,theonlydaughterofawealthyPenrithmercer,andthenewlywedssetofftobegintheirmarriedlifeatCockermouthLikeadutifulwife,AnnappliedherselftochildbearingandrearingHerfirstson,Richard,arrivedonAugustHewasfollowedbyWilliam,bornonAprilandDorothyonChristmasDay,,John,onDecemberand,finally,Christopher,onJuneWilliam’smemoriesofCockermouthwereuniformlyhappyonesHisfamilyweretogether,thehousehold,takingitstonefromJohnWordsworth,acheerfulone,andthechildrencloseenoughinagetobenaturalplaymatesTheirfavouriteplaygroundwasthehighterraceattheendofthegarden,overlookingthefastflowingwatersoftheDerwentOnlyalowwallseparatedthetwocoveredwithcloselyclippedprivetandroses,itmadetheperfecthidingplaceforbirds,who–builttheirnestsinitsmostinaccessibledepthsTheriveritselfwasaconstantcompanionwhoseceaselessmusiccomposedmythoughtsTomorethaninfantsoftness,givingmeAmongthefretfuldwellingsofmankindAknowledge,adimearnest,ofthecalmWhichnaturebreathesamongthefieldsandgrovesPrelude(),i,–Atfouryearsold,Williamwouldmake‘onelongbathingofasummer’sday’,alternatelybaskinginthesunandplungingintothesilentpoolsbeneaththecastleor,whencragandhill,Thewoods,anddistantSkiddaw’sloftyheight,Werebronzedwithadeepradiance,stoodaloneBeneaththeskyasifIhadbeenbornOnIndianplainsandfrommymother’shutHadrunabroadinwantonnesstosport,AnakedsavageinthethundershowerPrelude(),i,–Thebanksofthis‘fairestofallrivers’wereanendlesssourceofdelightand,sixtyyearslater,WilliamcouldstillvividlyrecallhisboyishpleasureincollectingpebblesandgatheringthewildflowersthatgrewthereTherewerealso,ofcourse,themorerobustpleasuresofboyhood:runningraceswithhisbrothers,fishing,birds’nesting,exploringthehills,valleysandlengthoftheriverThiswasinmarkedcontrasttoPenrith,whereAnnWordsworthandherchildrenspentmuchofthisperiodTheCooksonhouseholdwasnothinglikethehappyhomeatCockermouthTheCooksongrandparentswereelderlyandtheirsons,ChristopherandWilliam,werealreadytwentyeightandnineteenBothsonswereunmarriedAccordingtotheyoungWordsworths,theatmospherewasoneofrelentlessdisapprovalTherewascertainlynocondoningofthesortofcarefreeroamingaboutthecountrysidethatcharacterizedtheWordsworthhomeatCockermouth:punishmentformisdemeanourswasswiftandhardandthereappearstohavebeenmuchpreachingabouttheperilsofsinOneofWilliam’searliestmemories,asachildoffour,wasoflyingawakeatnight,quakingunderthebedclothes,‘insharpconflictofspirit’attheideathatagoodGodpermittedevilinHisworldNot,onewouldhavethought,asubjectwhichwouldhavenaturallyoccurredtoafouryearoldAspirited,adventurousboy,William’sinstinctiveresponsewastorebel,thusincurringpunishmentwhichonlymadehimmoredefiantThisledtoafrighteningescapadeNotyetsixyearsold,Williamwaslearningtorideand,incompanywithTheChildisFatheroftheManhisgrandfather’sservantJames,madehiswayuptheBeacon,themassivehillbehindPenrithBeaconHillwasthenableakandtreelesscommon,pockmarkedwithdozensofsmall,unfencedstonequarriesTheyoungWordsworthshadallsufferedatthehandsoftheCooksonservants,whotreatedthemwithaninsolenceborderingoncontemptJameswastheworstoffenderandloathedbyhisyoungchargesWilliamtookthefirstopportunitytoescapefromhistormentorbutbravadosoongavewaytopanicasherealizedthathewaslostAfraidtorideonalone,hedismountedand,leadinghishorse,wanderedintooneofthequarries,onlytorealizethathehadstumbledacrossthesiteofanotoriousmurderThespot,markedbyastonecarvedwiththemurderedman’sinitials,wasmadeevenmoreghastlybytheknowledgethatitwasalsothesiteofthegallowsonwhichthemurdererhimselfhadbeenhungTotheterrifiedchild,thelonggreenridgeofturfappearedlikeagraveHeturnedandranRegainingthesummit,thefirstthinghesawwasthestrangejuxtapositionofthebeacon,apoolofwaterandagirlwithapitcherofwateronherheadstrugglingtowalkagainstthewindItwasintruthAnordinarysight,butIshouldneedColoursandwordsthatareunknowntomanTo

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